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Патент USA US3078983

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Feb. 26, 1963
L. E.- KILNESS
3,078,973
RATCHET MECHANISM
Filed June 30, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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49
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VINVENTOR.
LUTHER E. K/L/VE-S'S
BY
' ATTORNEYS ;
Feb. 26, 1963
1.. E. KILNESS
3,073,973
RATCHET MECHANISM
Filed June 30, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
LUTHER .E. K/LA/E53
BY
W
94217,“.ya
A TTORNEYS
rte
Patented Feb. 26, li§53
1
2
and which pushes outwardly against a ball 27. The ball
3,678,973
engages an inner surface of the concave recess 24.
A control plate 28 has an extension 29 on one side
RATCHET MECHANISM
Luther E. Kiiness, 211 E. Philadelphia Sh,
Rapid City, S. Dak.
Filed June 30, 1961, Ser. No. 12%,981
11 Claims. (Cl. 192-432;}
which engages pins 3t) and 31 on the pawl 25 for directing
the pawl toward either end of the concave recess.
The
extension 29 is narrower than the spacing between the
pins 3% and 31 to permit freedom of movement for the
This invention relates to ratchet mechanisms and more
end of the pawl not engaged by the extension. The con
particularly to reversible ratchet wrenches.
trol plate 28 is positioned in a concentric recess on top of
The primary object of the invention is the improvement 10 the work-turning member. The inner wall of the concen
of the controls for the pawl shown in my United States
tric recess forms a hub 32 for rotata-bly mounting the con
Patent No. 2,5 54,990.
trol plate. The top of the hub 32 is peened over against
Another object is to provide eiiicient coupling between
a beveled surface on the control plate 28 to hold the con
pawls which utilize all teeth for driving in both directions
and a manual reverse control.
Still another object is to provide simpli?ed coupling be
tween one-piece reversible pawls carried by the work
turning member and pawl shifting elements which may
trol plate in assembly.
15
The control plate 23 and two control springs 33 and 34
provide resiliently~acting means for biasing the pawl to
ward a selected end of the recess 24. The resiliently
acting means is employed as a connection or coupling
between the pawl and manually adjustable controls, as
be operatedby a directional manual reverse on the handle.
A further object is to provide reliable and inexpensive 20 hereinafter described. The control plate 28 is urged in
pawl controls adapted for use with pawl systems carried
opposing direct-ions by the control springs 33 and 34. An
by the work-turning member.
arm 35 of the control spring 33 engages a bent-up projec
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be
tion 35 of the control plate to urge the control plate in a
apparent from the description and accompanying draw
counterclockwise direction. An arm 37 of the control
ings.
In the drawings, FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a
25 spring 34 is entered in a small hole 33 in the control plate
28 to urge the control plate in a clockwise direction. For
the control spring positions shown in FEGURE 2, the con
ratchet wrench illustrating the invention and shown in
more detail in FTGURES 2 through 5.
FTGURE 2 is a sectional view of the head of the wrench
taken on the line 2-2 of FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of
FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 4 is a detail perspective view of a control
trol spring 33 exerts a greater turning force on the control
plate 23 than the lesser control spring 34 does and urges
the control plate in a counterclockwise direction. With
the arm 35 of the control spring 33 shifted to the position
shown by the dotted lines in FIGURE 2, the lesser control
spring 34 takes over and urges the control plate 28 in a
spring and shift pin.
FIGURE 5 is a vertical section taken substantially 35
through the center of the wrench head.
FIGURES 6 and 7 are transverse and vertical sections
clockwise direction.
The control spring 33 has a U-shaped section 39 which
is contained in a hole 49 near the periphery of the work
turning member ‘15. The U-shaped section 3% may be
respectively of a modi?cation of the invention. FTGURE
made with one or more loops and provides torsional spring
6 is taken along the line 6-6 of FIGURE 7.
action. An end 4-1 of the control spring 33 is secured in
The embodiment of the invention shown in FIGURES 40 a small hole 42 in the work-turning member 15 to serve
1 through 5 has a driving member 1i? having a head 11
as a reference for the spring action.
at ‘one end. The other end of the driving member has a
The control spring 34% is contained in a hole 43 in the
handle grip 12. The head 11 has a cylindrical opening 13
work-turning member 15. The hole $3 is of su?icient size
formed with internal ratchet teeth 14. A work-turning
to allow unrestricted movement of the arm 37 which en~
member 15 is journalled in the cylindrical opening by 45 gages the control plate
The other end 44 of the con
small ?ats on the teeth ‘14-. A ?ange 16 on the work
trol spring 334 is secured in a small hole 45 in the work
turning member bears against a shoulder in the cylindrical
turning member 15 for maintaining the correct operative
opening 13 for positioning the work-turning member in
the opening. The work-turning member 15' is retained in
assembly by a split retaining ring 17 which is entered in
position of the control spring 34.
A shift pin 46 is mounted for vertical adjustment in the
A pawl 23 is carried in a concave recess or chamber 24
35 of the control spring 33 when the shift pin is moved
down. The arm 35 is preferably displaced far enough to
break contact with the bent-up projection of the control
plate 28 and permit the other control spring 3% to take
over without restricting its range of action. The upward
return movement of the shift pin is provided, at least in
part, by the vertical component of force exerted on the
head of the shift pin 46 by the arm 35 of the control
work-turning member 15 in a hole 47 which parallels and
a groove in the head 11. The work-turning member has
is located at the axis of rotation of the work-turning
a square v18 at one end for holding detachable sockets. A
member. The shift pin d6 may be selectively moved to
cap or cover plate it? closes the top of the head 11 and is
either of two operable positions at different elevations
retained by a split ring 2%? which fits inside grooves in the
with respect to the work-turning member. The shift pin
head 11 and the cover plate 19. The ends of the split ring 55 46 has a conically expanded head which is received by a
countersunk portion of the axial hole 437 when the shift
21') are formed with indentations extending into recesses
pin is is in its extreme downward position. The diverging
21 and 22, in the cover plate 19 to permit assembly and
surface of the head of the shift pin 46 displaces the arm
disassembly of the cover plate.
on the side of the work-turning member 15. The pawl 23
has an arcuate side with a series of teeth 25 adapted to
concurrent and reversible engagement with the teeth 14- in
the head 11. The pawl is of smaller size than the recess
24 to permit circumferential displacement of the pawl and
withdrawal of the pawl teeth from the teeth 14. The pawl
23 has two oppositely positioned surfaces for transmitting
thrust in two directions through or relative to the pawl
body to opposing ends of the recess 24. The ends of the
. spring 33. A spring 48 may be placed in the axial hole
' to ensure the upward movement of the shift pin 46.
Manual control of the direction of driving is given by
recess converge toward each other in a direction away 70 a reverse control member which determines the vertical
from the teeth 14. The pawl 23 is resiliently held against
the teeth 14 ‘by a spring 26 contained in a bore in the pawl
adjustment of the shift pin 46. In this embodiment, the
reverse control member consists of a shift ‘bar 49 whichv
4
has two positions relative to the head Ill for indexing the
direction of driving. The shift bar 49‘ has an inclined
surface 56 adapted to engage the slightly rounded top of
the shift pin 46 and to depress the shift pin when the
shift bar is moved forward. The cover plate 19 has an
elongated recess 51 to receive the shift bar 49 and permit
limited forward movement. The wrench head ll is made
with a channel 52 adjacent the cylindrical opening 13 to
accommodate the shank of the shift bar 49. The back
small rim ‘or ledge 67 for positioning the control springs
I 63 and 64-. The rim 67 may be undercut inside for holding
the control springs 63 and 64 close to the top of the work
t-urning member 56.
When the shift pin 46 is in its highest vertical position,
the control spring 63, which provides the greatest force,
will override the action of the control spring 64 and urge
the pawl 53 to the position shown in FIGURE 6. The
pawl 53 will be releasably held against the teeth 55 in the
portion of the shift bar is provided with suitable gripping 10 head 54 for driving the work in a counterclockwise direc
tion. Depressing the shift pin 46 with shift bar 4-9 will
means to give easy manipulation for both forward and
force the control spring 63 from engagement with the
backward movement.
crank 62 and permit the lesser control spring 64 to take
In operation, with the shift bar Ii‘) in retracted position
over and swing the crank in a clockwise direction to bring
as shown in FIGURES 3 and 5, the shift pin 46 would be
in the position shown in FIGURE 5. The control spring 15 the other end 59 of the pawl 53 into engagement with the
teeth in the head 54, for driving in a clockwise direction.
33 would then predominate over the control spring 34 to
While the invention has been shown and described in
urge the control plate 28 counterclockwise. The pawl 23
preferred forms, modi?cations may be made in various
would be driven by the control plate to the counterclock
features of the invention by those skilled in the art. The
wise end of the concave recess 24 as shown in FIGURE
2. Turning the handle counterclockwise would wedge 20 dual control spring arrangement shown here may be ap
plied to a reversible pawl of the type shown‘in FIGURE 2
the pawl 23 between the teeth 14 in the head 11 and the
but carried by the wrench head instead of the work-turn
walls of the concave recess 24 for driving the work in a
ing member. Changes may be made in the spring con
counterclockwise direction. Turning the handle clockwise
nections for the combination of one-piece reversible pawls
would release the pawl 23 from locking engagement and
cause the pawl to engage successive series of teeth 14 in 25 and vertically adjustable control elements while retaining
the advantages of resilient coupling for this particular ap
the head 11 until the handle was again turned counter
clockwise for the driving stroke.
plication. Other changes may be made without departing
from the ‘invention as de?ned in the following claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a ratchet mechanism, the combination of a driv
forward position, the horizontal bottom surface of the 30
ing member having a head, a work-turning member
shift bar extends past the center of the shift pin. The
mounted for rotation in said head, reversible pawl means
vertical pressure from the shift pin 46 on the horizontal
carried by said work-turning member for driving engage
bottom surface of the shift ‘bar 49 maintains the shift bar
ment with the head, and control means for directing the
in the forward position. With the shift pin in its lowest
For driving in a clockwise direction, the shift bar 49 is
moved forward to depress the shift pin 46. In its extreme
position, the control spring 33 would be disengaged from
‘the control plate 28. The control spring 34 would then
take over and urge the control plate in a clockwise direc
pawl means in reversible engagement with the head, said
control means including two yieldable members mounted
on said work-turning member and acting on the pawl
means with unequal force, one of said yieldable mem
tion. Thepawl 23 would be directed by the control plate
bers urging the pawl means in a direction to drive one
‘28 to the clock-wise end of the concave recess 24 for driv
ing the work in a clockwise direction and for releasable 40 way and the other yieldable member urging the pawl
means in a direction to drive the opposite way, said con
ratcheting action in a counterclockwise direction.
trol means including displacement means for moving the
FIGURES 6 and 7 show the invention in application to
greater of the two yieldable members in such a direction
a conventional pawl 53. The wrench head 54 should be ,
as to relieve its pressure on the pawl means and permit
larger than the wrench head of the previously described
the lesser of the two yieldable members to determine
embodiment because the conventional pawl 53 engages the
wrench head 54 with only a few teeth and increases the 45 the direction of ratchet driving, the greater of the yielda
ble members predominating to determine the direction
stress concentration on the wrench head. In addition, the
‘of ratchet driving in an undisplaced state.
internal teeth 55 in the wrench head 54 should not be
2. A ratchet mechanism according to claim I, wherein
broached through in order to leave a continuous bearing
said displacement means comprises an adjustable mem
surface for the upper portion of the work-turning mem
50 ber carried by said work-turning member and having two
ber 56.
operable positions in a direction paralleling the axis of
The pawl 53 shown in FIGURES 6 and 7 is a one-piece
pawl contained in a slot or chamber 60 formed on the
rotation of said work-turning member, said adjustable
member being so formed as to displace the greater of
the yieldable members in one operable position.
teeth 57 on opposite ends 58 and 59. The pawl teeth on
the end 58 engage the teeth 55 for driving in a counter
3. Ina ratchet mechanism, the combination of a mem
her having a head, a work-turning member rotatably
clockwise direction, and the pawl teeth on the end 59
mounted in said head, one of said members having a
engage the teeth 55 for driving in a clockwise direction.
The ends of the pawl transmit thrust from the teeth 55
circular toothed surface, a pawl carried by the other of
in two different directions or paths through the pawl to
said members in position to engage the circular toothed
a shaft 61. The shaft 61 passes through the slot and has 60 surface, said pawl having an arcuate side provided with
bearing support on both sides of the slot. The shaft 61
teeth, said pawl being adapted for reversible engagement
is pressed into a central hole in the pawl 53 or otherwise
with the circular toothed surface with all of the pawl
secured to the pawl so that the pawl and shaft rotate as a
teeth being used for driving in both directions, and con
unit. The limited rotational motion of the pawl 53 within
trol means for bringing the pawl into reversible engage
the slot 66 is su?icient to bring either toothed end of the 65 ment with said circular toothed surface, said control
pawl into engagement with the teeth ‘55 in the head 54
means including two yieldable members acting on the
side of the work-turning member 56. The pawl 53 has
while the other toothed end is free from engagement.
The top of the shaft 61 is formed with a crank 62 for
turning the shaft and associated pawl in either direction.
pawl in opposing directions and of unequal magnitude,
one of said yieldable members urging the pawl into posi
tion to drive in one direction and the other of said yielda
Control springs 63 and 64- engage the crank 62 for urging 70 ble members urging the pawl into position to drive in
the pawl 53 in either a clockwise or counterclockwise
the opposite direction, the greater of said yieldable mem
direction. The control springs 63 and 64 are horizontally
bers predominating ‘to-direct the pawl for engagement
placed on top of the work-turning member 56 and have
with
said‘ circular toothed surface for one direction of
booked ends entered in small holes 65 and 66 in the work
driving, said control means further including means for
turning member. The work-turning member 56 has a
5
3,078,973
6
relieving the force acting on .the pawl from the greater of
the yieldable members, whereby the lesser of the yielda
ble members may direct the pawl for engagement with
said circular toothed surface for driving in the opposite
direction.
driving engagement with said head, and control means
engaging the pawl means for directing the pawl means
in reversible engagement with the head, said control
means including an adjustable member carried by one
of said work-turning and driving members and having
two operable positions in a direction substantially paral
leling the axis of rotation of said work-turning member,
4. In a ratchet mechanism, the combination of a mem
ber having a head and another member rotatably mounted
in said head, one of said members having a circular
toothed surface and the other of said members having
a recess open to said circular toothed surface, a pawl car
said control means including resiliently-acting means
adapted to bias'the pawl means to drive in a selected di-,
10 rection and operatively connecting said adjustable mem
ried in said recess, said pawl being of smaller size than
the recess to permit circumferential displacement of the
pawl and withdrawal from the circular toothed surface,
said recess having two ends adapted to engage the pawl
for receiving the thrust of the pawl, the ends of said 15
recess converging toward each other in a direction away
from the circular toothed surface, one end of the recess
ber to said pawl means, said adjustable member being
arranged to displace said resiliently-acting means so that
the resiliently-acting means biases the pawl means to
drive in one direction when the adjustable member is in
one operable position and biases the pawl means to drive
in the other direction when the adjustable member is in
the other of said operable positions.
7. A ratchet mechanism according to claim 6, where
in the control means further includes a manually shift
receiving the thrust of the pawl for one direction of
driving and the other end of the recess receiving the
thrust of the pawl for the ‘other direction of driving, 20 able member carried by said driving member and hav
said pawl having an arcuate side having teeth adapted
ing two positions relative to said driving member where
to concurrent driving engagement with said circular
by the direction of ratchet motion may be indexed, said
toothed surface, all of said pawl teeth being used for
manually shiftable member being arranged to act on
driving in both directions, and control means for bring~
said adjustable member so that said adjustable member
ing the pawl into reversible engagement with the circular
is directed to one of its operable positions when the
toothed surface, said control means including resiliently
manually shit'table member is in one of its positions and
acting means for selectively directing the pawl toward
directed to the other of its operable positions when the
either one of said ends of the recess, said resiliently-act
manually shiftable member is in the other of its positions.
ing means comprising two spring means acting on the
‘8. In a ratchet mechanism, the combination of 1a
pawl in opposite directions, one of said spring means 30 member having a head with inwardly extending teeth, a
urging the pawl toward one end of said recess while the
work~turning member rotatably mounted in said head,
other of said spring means urges the pawl toward the
a reversible pawl carried by said work-turning member
ther end of said recess, said control means further in
in position to engage the teeth in said head, said pawl
cluding manually operable means for displacing at least
having a plurality of teeth (for engagement with the
one of said spring means in such a direction as to change 35 teeth in said head, said pawl being adapted to transmit
the force acting on the pawl from said last-named spring
means so that one of the spring means may predominate
to urge the pawl toward a selected one or" said ends of
the recess.
5. In a ratchet mechanism, the combination of a mem
ber having a head and another member rotatably mounted
in said head, one of said members having a circular
toothed surface and the other of said members having
a recess open to said circular toothed surface, a pawl
carried in said recess, said pawl being of smaller size
than the recess to permit circumferential displacement
of the pawl and withdrawal from the circular toothed
surface, said recess having two ends adapted to engage
the pawl for receiving the thrust of the pawl, the ends
f said recess converging toward each other in a direc
tion away from the circular toothed surface, one end
of the recess receiving the thrust of the pawl for one
direction of driving and the other end of the recess re
ceiving the thrust of the pawl for the other direction of
driving, said pawl having an arcuate side having teeth
adapted to concurrent driving engagement with said
circular toothed surface, all of said pawl teeth being
used for driving in both directions, and control means
vfor bringing the pawl into reversible engagement with
thrust in two directions through the pawl to the work
turning member, and control means for bringing the
pawl into reversible engagement with the teeth in said
head, said control means including an adjustable mem
ber mounted for ‘movement to either of two operable
positions with respect to said work-turning member in
the direction of the axis of rotation of the work-turning
member, said control means including means resiliently
engaging the pawl for urging the pawl to drive in a se
lected direction, the last-named means operatively con—
necting the adjustable member and the pawl, said ad
justable member being arranged to move the last-named
means according to the operable position of the adjust
able member so that the last-named means has a reversi
ble action on the pawl.
‘9. In a ratchet mechanism, the combination of a mem
her having a head with inwardly extending teeth, a work
turning member rotatably mounted in said head, a pawl
carried by said work-turning member in position to en
gage the teeth of said head, said pawl having teeth for
engaging the teeth of said head, the pawl being adapted
for driving in both directions, and control means engag
ing the pawl for directing the ratcheting action of the
pawl, said control means including two resiliently-act
the circular toothed surface, said control means in 60
ing members acting between the pawl and said work
cluding adjustable means carried by one of said mem
turning member, one of said resiliently-acting members
bers and arranged for movement to different elevations
urging the pawl to drive in one direction and the other
in a direction paralleling the axis of rotation of the
resiliently-acting member urging the pawl to drive in
member mounted in the head, said control means in
cluding means for directing the pawl toward either 65 the other direction, the forces exerted on the pawl from
the resiliently-acting members being of di?'erent magni
selected end of said recess, said adjustable means being
tude, the resiliently~acting member of greater magnitude
predominating to control the direction of driving, said
control means including means for selectively displacing
directs the ‘pawl toward the other end of the recess when 70 the resiliently-acting member of greater magnitude to
the adjustable means is at another elevation.
reduce its force on the pawl, whereby the resiliently
6. In a ratchet mechanism, the combination of a driv
acting member of lesser magnitude may control the di
ing member having a head, a work-turning member
rection of driving.
'
mounted in said head for rotation therein, reversible
10. In a ratchet mechanism, the combination of a
pawl means carried by said work-turning member for 75 driving member having a head with inwardly extending
arranged to act on the last-named means so that the last
named means directs the pawl toward one end of the
recess when the adjustable means is at one elevation and
3,078,978
7' '
teeth, a work-turning member rotatably mounted in sm'd
head, a reversible one-piece pawl carried by said work
turning member in position to engage the teeth in said
head, said pawl having a plurality of teeth ‘for engag
8
the operable position of said adjustable member for se
lec-tively biasing the pawl to drive in either direction.
11. A ratchet mechanism according to claim 10,
wherein the last-named means comprises two spring
ing the teeth in the head, said pawl being adapted to 5 members acting on the pawl, one spring member urg
transmit thrust in two directions, relative to the pawl,
to the work-turning member, and control means for
bringing the pawl into reversible engagement with the
teeth in said head, said control means including an ad
justable member carried by one of said driving and 1°
work-turning members and arranged to have two oper
able positions at di?erent elevations in a direction par
aileling the axis of rotation of said work-turning mem
her, said control means including means responsive to
ing the pawl to drive in one direction and the other
spring member urging the pawl to drive in the other di
rection.
References Cited in the tile of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,571,939
2,836,273
2,981,389
Pfauser et al. ________ __ Oct. 16, 1951
Odlurn et al. _________ -_ May 27, 1958
Kilness _____________ __ Apr. 25, 1961
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