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Патент USA US3079506

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Feb. 26, 1963
’G. D. BOGEL ETAL
SUPPLEMENTAL. SIGNALLING SYSTEM FOR SPECIAL
3,079,496
RAILWAY TRACK EQUIPMENT
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed W5. 12. 1957
i113. 1
[OE
WEST
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305
ll
glow
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Inventors
GhDnBo‘gel
w. .B. Edi/Jon
By, /”M, @www&J/¢)IQZZMI
?+tornegs
United States Patent 0 "ice
3,079,496
Patented Feb. 26, 1963
2
1
FIGS. 1 and 2, when placed side-by-side with FIG. 1
3,079,496
SUPPLEMENTAL SIGNALLING SYSTEM FOR
SPECIAL RAILWAY TRACK EQUIPMENT
Graham D. Bogel, 3110 E. La Salle, Colorado Springs,
(1010., and Willie B. Wilson, 5907 Lawrence St., Am
arillo, Tex.
Filed Dec. 12, 1957, Ser. No. 702,320
14 Claims. (Cl. 246—167)
This invention is an improvement on the system de 10
at the left, comprise a diagrammatic illustration of a
stretch of railway track having the usual track circuits for
controlling train traffic and including the supplemental sig
nalling system of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic view of a modi?cation of the
supplemental signalling system of the invention and cor
responds generally to the group of track sections shown
in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic view of the indicator apparatus
and circuitry, including the connection to the motor car
scribed in Grosjean Patent No. 2,630,524, issued March
axle.
3, 1953, and relates to a supplemental signalling system
In general, in the drawings the relay contacts are aligned
for use in conjunction with existing block signal systems
with the coil of their controlling relay, though in certain
of railway for protecting special track equipment that is
used along the railway and that is characterized by the 15 instances it has appeared more appropriate to separate the
contact from its controlling coil; and to facilitate check
fact that it does not interfere with the control of train traf
- ing the circuit operation, the relays and contacts associ
?c since it does not activate the block signal system.
ated therewith are designated by corresponding reference
Such special equipment may include the usual railway
characters.
motor cars or similar types of railway vehicles or it may
Referring now to the drawings and particularly to
include special portable indicating equipment that is car 20
FIGS. 1 and 2, placed side-by-side with FIG. l at the left,
ried by maintenance gangs working along the track.
, The principal object of the invention is to provide a
. the main track is divided into a plurality of successive
track sections designated 1T to 111‘, with the track sections
having the usual insulated joints I between their adjacent
or other special track equipment to warn of the approach
of a train in ample time to permit such equipment to be 25 ends. The track circuits are conventional and include at
one end thereof a track relay TR energized through the
removed from the track.
rails thereof by a track battery TB at the other end there
Another object is to provide such a system without in
of. The batteries TB are shown connected to the track
terfen'ng with the normal operation of the block signal
rails through an inductive reactor I to prevent alternating
system that governs train traf?c.
system for actuating an indicator located on a motor car
Still another object is to provide a system of this type 30 current signals from being'shunted through the battery.
This reactor I preferably has a low D.C. resistance and
that requires but a minimum'amount of auxiliary equip
an inductive reactance of several ohms at the lowest fre
j
' '
quency used in the system. The track relays require no
Other objects include the provision of a more sensitive
modi?cation since they are not responsive to'alternating—
and reliable indicating system that embodies frequency
sensitive apparatus for detecting the presence and/or di 35 current signals and since ‘the impedance'of their coils is
so high that the loss of alternating-current energy through
rection of approach of trains.
According to the invention an indicator is provided for " the coils is negligible. The above modi?cations apply
both to steady D.C. track circuits and to coded D.C.
each motor car or other equipment that is to be warned
track circuits.
‘
of the approach of a train. The indicator includestwo
In certain instances the track circuits are additionally
frequency-selective channels, one to indicate the approach 40
ment.
of a train from one direction and the other to indicate the
modi?ed by bridging non-shorting, high-capacity capaci
approachof a train from the opposite direction. Ap
tors C around certain of the insulated joints I between
cator channels is sensitive and the other signal is of the
sive protected ‘section. In this way a single installation
of warning apparatus may serve -a protected section that
sections. These capacitors couple alternating-current sig
paratus is provided for applying two alternating-current
nals between adjacent track sections and, in effect, link a
signals to the tracks for actuating the indicator. One of
the signals is of the frequency to‘which one of the indi 45 number of track sections'to‘gether to' form a more exten-‘
frequency to which the other indicator channel is sensi
includes a number of the usual track sections. The pro
tected sections are isolated one from another by virtue of
way-signalling system which employs the usual direct-cur 50 the fact that the insulated joints therebetween are not pro;
tive.
'
'
5
This system is employed in ‘conjunction with a rail
rent track circuits for governing train traffic, and the
alternating-current signals will not affect the track relays
of the track circuits. Similarly, the special equipment
vided with by-pass capacitors. Thus, for example, the
train from such direction. The sensing of the approach
and 7T, the protected sections may be extended to any
desired range vby bridging the insulated joint by a tran
joint between track sections ST and 4T is not bridged by
a capacitor and de?nes the opposite limits of adjacent pro
tected sections. The same is true of the joint between
which is to be warned according to the invention will not
shunt the track circuits but responds only to alternating 55 track sections 7T and ST. This particular arrangement
of the track sections into the more extensive protected sec
currents of the predetermined frequencies. The apparatus
tions by means of the by-pass capacitors does not in any
for supplying the alternating-current signals which control
way interfere with the normal operation of the track cir
the indicator is arranged to respond to the approach of a
cuits.
train from either direction and temporarily remove the
As indicated at the joint between track sections 6T
particular signal that corresponds to the approach of a 60
of a train may either be carried out by line circuits under
the control of the existing track relays or by the use of
sistor ampli?er 17 having its input and output coupled
between the adjacent track circuits respectively. Such
quency characteristic, that are applied directly to the sec 65 ampli?er arrangements may also be employed where ex
cessive loss of alternating-current signal energy is expe
tions of track adjacent the particular section under sur
additional alternating-current signals, each of unique fre
veillance.
rienced due to poor ballast conditions.
In the system of the present invention, each protected
Other objects and advantages will become apparent dur
section is supplied with two alternating-current signals
ing the course of the following description.
In the accompanying drawings forming a part of this 70 of distinctive frequency characteristic. Preferably, the
signals are of ?xed but different frequencies. It may be
speci?cation and in which like numerals are employed to
seen that a typical protected section includes track sec
designate like parts throughout the same,
3,079,496
.
4
,
tions 4T throughTI‘, and ‘there is applied to this typical
to prevent attenuation of the voltage of the desired alter
protected section an alternating-current signal of a ?rst
nating~current signals until such desired voltage becomes
high enough to energize the appropriate indicator relay
properly. The ampli?ers in the illustrated arrangement
?xed frequency through an input supply arrangement
EF1 and an alternating-current signal of a second ?xed
frequency through an input supply arrangement WFI‘.
To eliminate the necessity of bridging the joint between
sections 5T and (ST, this supply equipment is positioned
at this joint with two separate sets of leads being ex
tended from each of the supplies to the track circuits.
In the case of the EF1 supply, one set of leads feeds the
track circuit for section 5T through the (—1) contacts of
the corresponding approach circuit relay 10EAR and the
are provided with automatic gain control and negative
feed-back to stabilize the gain over a wide range of tem
perature and battery voltage. In this connection, a bias
battery B1 is provided to delay the action of the auto~
matic gain control system until the actuating voltage
is su?icient to operate the relay.
Details of the design and operation of an example of
other set of leads feeds the track circuit for section 6T
the receiver ampli?er circuit are as follows: The input
circuit of the receiver ampli?er is connected to the track
through the (——2) contacts of the corresponding'approach
rails through slip rings SR on the wheels of the vehicle.
circuit relay 10EAR. Similarly, for the WFl'supply, one 15 Capacitor C1 prevents shunting of the DC. track circuit
set of leads feeds the track circuit for section 5T through
and permits passage of alternating currents only to the
the ( —1Iconta_cts) of the approach circuit relay 10WAR
input circuit of the receiver.
7
1
and the other set of leads feeds the track circuit for sec
Semiconductor diodes D1 and D2 are connected t
tion ‘6T through the (—2) contacts ofthe approach cir
shunt the input circuit. ‘The resistance of these diodes,
cuit relay 10WAR.
20 being high at very low voltage, do not shunt to any great
Each protected section preferably has two approach
extent when the input voltage is low, but as the input
circuits associated with it, with one approach circuit ex
voltage is raised above the minimum required toencr
tending in the east direction and the other extending in the
gize the indicator, the effective resistance of diodes D1
west direction suitable distances to allow ample time for
and D2 becomes lower and shunts a larger proportion
clearing the protected section upon the approach of a 25 of the input voltage. This increases the voltagedrop
train. The use of two separate approach sections permits
across series resistor R1 such that the diodes D1 and D2
of directional indication, and this is desirable. In the ar
function to limit the alternating-current voltage applied
rangement of FIGS. 1 and 2, line circuits 10B and 10W
to input circuits ET and WT. Since it would require a
comprise the east approach circuit and west approach cir
much higher voltage of some other frequency than ‘the,
cuit, respectively, for the protected section that includes 30 prescribed frequency to energize the relays ER and WR,
track sections 4T, 5T, 6T and 7T. Thus, the east ap
this limiting action prevents false cnergization of these
proach circuit 10E includes an approach relay IOEAR
relays by any other alternating frequency that might be
in series-connection with the ( ~1) contacts of track
present on the track rails.
1
relays 6TR through, 11TR. Similarly the west approach
Tuned circuit ET is resonant to frequency EF1 and
circuit includes approach relay 10WAR in series-con 35 passes this frequency to transistor EQI and tends to re
nection with the (——1) contacts of track relays lTR
through 5TR.
ject other frequencies. Transistor EQl ampli?es the
'
EF1 energy and passes it to transistor EQ2 through the
The protected section which includes track sections
resonant circuit E’I‘l, which serves a double purpose of
8T, 9T, 10T, and 11T has an east approach circuit 20E
' matching the output impedance of EQl to the input im
that includes an approach relay 20EAR in series-connec 40 pedence of EQ2 and adding more’ selectivity for- fre
tion with the (——2) contacts of track relays llTR and
quency EF1. Transistor EQ2 further ampli?es the EF1
additional track relays (not shown) that would‘ belocated
frequency and transmits it on to EQ3 through a resonant
to the'right of llTR, and a west approach circuit 20W
circuit ET2, which performs the same function as previ
that includes an approach relay 20WAR in series-con
' ously explained for ETl. EQ3 further ampli?es the‘EF'l
nection with the (—2) contacts of track relays STR 45 frequency and transmits it to bridge recti?er ERX through
through 10TR.
v
'
>
resonant circuit E13. Transistor EQ3 is a POWCILOUt'
Finally, the protected section which includes track
put type of transistor which is capable of su?icient output
sections 1T, 2T and 3T has an east approach circuit
to energize relay ER through recti?er ERX, which rectie
3013 that includes an approach relay '30EAR in series
?es the EF1 outputrof EQ3 to produce direct current to
connection with the (——3) contacts of track relays 2TR 50 energize relay ER.
through STR and a west approach circuit 30W that in
As a further safeguard against false energization of
cludes an approach relay 30WAR and the (—3) con- 7
relay ER by any frequency other than EF1, the automatic
tacts of track relays lTR and additional track relays ‘(not
gain control circuit consisting of resistor ER3, capacitor
shown) that'would be located to the left of '1TR.
ECl, resistor ER2, diode EDI and battery EBI is pro
The indicator employed in the present system, as shown 55 vided. The alternating-current voltage developed across
in FIG. 4, is equipped with a dual-channel receiver 40
ER3 in the emitter circuit of transistor EQ2 is recti?ed
and separate indicating relays ER’ and WR for each
by the semi-conductor diode EDl to produce a negative
channel. Thus the east channel is shown at the top of
DC. voltage which is applied through the battery EB1
FIG. 4, and it includes a three-stage transistor ampli?er
to the emitter of transistor EQl to provide automatic
which energizes a sensitive D.C. relay ER through a 60 gain control. This negative DC. voltage reduces the
bridge-type recti?er ERX. Similarly, the west channel,
gain of EQl and prevents its output voltage from exceed
which is shown at the bottom of FIG. 4, includes a three
ing a safe level. The battery BB1 is selected and con
stage transistor ampli?er which energizes indicating relay
nected with proper polarity and voltage to prevent auto
WR through a recti?er-type bridge WRX. '
'
matic gain control action until the voltage of EF1 is‘ su?i
The input to the dual~channelreceiver from the track 65 cient to energize relay ER. Relay ER, energized, lights
rials is connected to the ampli?ers through resonant-cir
a green light--de-energized, lights a red light. The tran
cuit arrangements ET'and WT which are tuned, respec
sisto rampli?er at the bottom of FIG. 4 is identical to the
tively, to the alternating-current signals EF1 and .WFI:
one at the top except that its input and coupling circuits
This input circuit for the ampli?ers includes diodes D1
are resonant to frequency WFl and performs the same
and D2, which, in conjunction with‘ resistor R1, act as 70 function with WF1 as described above for EF1.
an input limiter and prevent the input voltage from be
As mentioned previously, the supplemental signalling
coming high enough'to cause false operation by stray ‘al
system of the invention is intended for use on the usual
terna-ting-current signals of a frequency other than the fre- ,
railway motor cars, though it may, as well, be employed
quency-selected for use in the supplemental signalling
in connection with special portable indicating equipment
system. *Ihe initialresistan'ce- of the diodes is sufficient 75 that is carried by vthe maintenance gangs and connected
3,079,496
5.
signals are applied at the east end while the WFl signals
by suitable ?exible leads from a wayside location to the
track rail. For purposes of disclosure, only the use in
connection with motor cars need by described.
In the case of a motor car, the indicating apparatus
of FIG. 4 is mounted on the vehicle in front of the oper
ator for ready visibility. As shown in FIG. 4, a typical
motor car to which the invention is applicable may in
clude a wheel arrangement wherein the wheels W, each
of which is in electrical contact with the rail on which it
rides, are insulated by means of an insulated joint I] 10
provided in the axle connecting the wheels. Thus, the
motor car does not operate to shunt the track rails. Al
ternating-current signals in the track rails are connected
to the input circuit for the receiver 40 through the usual
slip rings SR.
-
‘
are applied at the west end.
Since the approach circuit is provided by the rails in
this case, two additional alternating-current signals, EFZ
and WFZ, preferably of ?xed but di?erent frequencies,
are applied directly to the rails of each protected section.
Thus, signal EF2 is applied at the east end of protected
section 4T to 7T and is detected by a tuned receiver
ampli?er 40E for controlling relay 30EAR, which con
trials the application of EF1 signals to the protected sec
tion that includes track sections 3T and 2T. Thus the
rails of protected section 4T to 7T, in conjunction with
the EF2 supply at the east end thereof, form the approach
circuit for the protected section that includes track sec
15 tions 2T and 3T. Similarly the rails of track sections ST
The indicating apparatus is arranged to provide a red
light and/or green light indication for each channel.
It will be remembered that in the absence of train tra?ic,
and the sections to the east thereof, which include a
are normally energized, and their contacts normally con
rails of the protected section of which track sections 2T
source (not shown) of EFZ signals, in conjunction with
the tuned receiver-ampli?er 41B and relay IOEAR, form
the east approach circuit for the protected section that
the alternating-current signals are continuously applied
to the track sections under surveillance so that any car 20 comprises track sections 4T through 7T. The west
approach circuit for protected section 4T through 7T
along these sections will continuously pick up these sig
comprises a source (not shown) of WFZ signals and the
nals. Thus, the indicating relays ER and WR of FIG. 4
and 3T are a part, in conjunction with the tuned receiver
indicate that there are no trains within a predetermined 25 ampli?er 42W and relay 10WAR. Finally, the west ap
proach circuit for the protected section of which section
distance of the car.
nect the green light portion of the warning circuit to
8T is a part includes the rails of protected section 4T
Upon the approach of a train to the sections under
and 7T, the tuned receiver-ampli?er 43W, and relay
ZOWAR. The east approach circuit for the protected
corresponding to the direction of approach of the train
section
of which ~8T is a- part is not shown nor is the
30.
will be terminated, as will be described hereinafter, and
surveillance, the alternating-current signal in the track
west approach circuit vfor the protected section of which
the corresponding indicating relay becomes de-energized,
track sections 2T and ST are a part.
dropping its contact to interrupt the green light portion
of the circuit and establish the red light portion. Thus,
The operation-of the supplemental signalling system
of FIG. 3 is essentially the same as that for the system
and direction of an approaching train. If desired, an 35 of FIGS. 1 and 2. For purposes of illustration, the
operation will be described in connection with a; train
audible signal may also be actuated to warn of the ap—
approaching from the east, and it will be assumed that
proach of a train.
the train has just entered upon the section of track that
To illustrate the operation of the track circuit portion
the operator on the vehicle is informed of the presence
constitutes a part of the east approach circuit for protect
of the supplemental signalling system, reference is again
made to FIGS. 1 and 2.
It will be assumed that the 40 ed section 4T through 7T.
As soon as the train enters
this approach circuit, it shunts the alternating-current
equipment which is to be warned of the approach of a
train is located somewhere within the protected section
that includes track sections 4T through 7T, and it will
energy supplied to this east ‘approach circuit at its east
end (not shown) from a source of EFZ energy. There
be assumed that a train is approaching from the east and
is just entering track section 11T. As the train enters
become de-energized, thereby removing the EF1 signals
fore, the approach of the train causes relay IOEAR to
from protected sections 4T to 7T. The indicator on~a
section 11T, its wheels shunt the direction-currenttrack
circuit and cause track relay 11TR to become de-ener
vehicle within this protected section will then respond
gized, thereby opening series-contact ‘11_TR—1 of the east
approach circuit 10B and de-energizing the east approach
in the manner previously described.
.
relay ER is energized and lights the green light only when
frequency EF1 is being received, relay ER is now de-ener
gized, extinguishing the green light for the east channel
relay EGEAR, thereby causing EF1 signals to be removed
from this protected section.
As the train proceeds in its approach from-the east
relay 10EAR. This drops contacts 10EAR-1 and 50 and enters section 7T, it will shunt the east approach
section for the protected section of which track sec
NEAR-2 and removes the alternating-current signal EF1
tions 2T and ST are a part and thus will de-energize
from the protected track section 4T through 7T. Since
55
and lighting the red one to indicate a train east of the
motor car. As described, the light indicator of the east
channel changes from green to red and remains red until
the motor car is removed from the track.
It will thus be seen that the objects of this invention
have been accomplished in that the system provides a
directional indication of the approach of a train to a
motor car on a protectedsection of track or to other
types of special equipment electrically connected across
Instead of employing separate line circuits for the 60 the rails of a protected section of track. In addition,
it provides such indications without interfering with the
approach circuits, the invention contemplates an alterna
normal operation of the block signals system, and it
tive arrangement wherein the rails themselves may be em
requires but a minimum amount of auxiliary equipment.
ployed to complete the approach circuits. Such an ar
rangement is shown in FIG. 3, wherein a protected sec
As disclosed, the system is preferably frequency-sensi
65 tive so that it will not respond to spurious signals that
tion again extends from track sections 4T to 7T, inclusive.
It will be noted in this arrangement that the joint between
track sections ST and 6T is provided with bypass capaci
tors C. The general arrangement of the direct-current
track circuits may ‘be identical to the arrangement shown
in FIGS. 1 and 2, though, for simplicity, the track cir
cuits are not shown. Once again the alternating-current
signals for controlling the indicating apparatus are desig
nated EF1 and W1 and with respect to the protected
section 4T through 7T, it may be seen that the EF1 75
may exist, and it includes ampli?cation facilities so that
the signals applied to the rails and transmitted there
through need only be of suf?cient strength as to permit
their indication.
Such an arrangement otters obvious
advantages over systems wherein the signals in the rail
must be of su?icient strength to actuate relays directly.
The system of the invention has been described in
its most basic form, and numerous re?nements will occur
to those skilled in this art; for example, tra?ic stick relays
can be used to supply alternating-current signals to the
3,079,496
7
track behind a train after the train has passed the point
where the alternating-current signals are coupled to the
ment that is electrically connected across the rails of
said section but is not adapted to shunt the direct cur
rent from said track relay and comprising indication
means on said equipment and selectively responsive in
the absence of either one of two alternating current
signals to be provided in the track rails to correspond,
track. '
It should be understood that the description of the
preferred form of the invention is for the purpose of
complying with Section 112, Title 35, of the US. Code
and that the claims should be construed as. broadly as
respectively, to ?rst and second track positions spaced
in opposite directions from said section, with each sig
We claim:
a
nal being of a unique frequency characteristic andubeing
1. In combination with a stretch of railway trackidi 10 of such nature that said relay is non-responsive thereto,
vided’ into a plurality of protected sections each having
supply means connected across the rails of said section
a track relay which is normally energized by current
and normally supplying said alternating current signals
prior art will permit.
a
supplied to the rails of its section and which releases
due to the shunting effect of the wheels and axles when
thereto simultaneously, and means responsive to the
presence of a train at one of said positions and con
a train occupies its section, said stretch being provided 15 nected for selectively controlling said supply means to
with a railway-signalling system controlled by said track
terminate the supply to said section‘of the one of said
relays for governing the movement of trains through
signals corresponding to the position of the train and
said stretch from one end to the other end thereof, a
thereby cause a selective response‘ of said indicating
supplemental signal system for warning equipment in
means.
said stretch that is connected across the rails thereof 20
4. In combination with a stretch of railway track di
and that is not adapted to shunt said track relays, said
vided into a plurality of protected sections each having
supplemental signal system comprising indication means
a track relay which is normally energized by current
connected across the rails and selectively responsive to
supplied to the rails of its section and which releases
current in the track rails of a character different from
due to the shunting eifect of the wheels and axles when
that normally suppliedrto said track relay and to which 25 a train occupies its section, said stretch being provided
current of distinctive character the track relays are non
with a railway-signalling system controlled by said track‘
responsive, means for applying said current of distinc
relays for governing the movement of trains through
tive character to the rails of at least one of said sections,
said stretch from one end to the other endv thereof,v a‘
means for applying another current to the rails of sec
supplemental signal system ‘for warning equipment‘ in‘
tions of track adjacent said one section,- said last-men 30 said stretch that is connected across the railsithereof
tioned current being applied to said’ adjacent sections
and that is not adapted to shunt said track relays, said‘
at the ends thereof remote‘fro-rn said one section ‘and
system‘ comprising indication means selectively respon
being different in character from that supplied to the
track relays of {said adjacent sections and being such
sive to current in the track rails of a character dilferent
from that normally supplied to said track relay and to
that the track relays are non-responsive thereto, :and 35 which current of distinctive character the track relays
means adjacentthe other ends of said adjacent'sections
are non~responsive,- means for applying said current of
responsive to said last-mentioned current thereat and con~
distinctive character to the rails of at’ least one’ of said
nected to the ?rst-named means for applying current to
sections, means for supplying another current to sec
maintain the applicationv of current of distinctive char
tions of track, adjacent said one section, said last-men
acter to said one section only when said adjacent sec 40 tioned current being applied to said adjacent sections
tions are not occupied.
at the ends thereof remote from said one section and‘
2. ‘In combination with a protected section of railway
being different in character from that supplied to the
track provided with a track relay which is normally
track relays of said adjacent sections’ and being such
energized by current supplied to the track rails and which
releases due to :the shunting effect of the wheels and
45
axles when a train occupies said section, said relay con
trolling a railway-signalling system for governing the
movement of trains through said section, a supplemental
signalling systeni for warning equipment in said section
that is connected across the rails thereof and that is not 50
adapted to shunt said track relay, said supplemental
signalling system comprising indicating means on said
equipment connected across the rails of said section and
selectively responsive in the absence of either one cur
that the track relays are non-responsive thereto, and
means adjacent the other ends of said adjacent sections
responsive to said last-mentioned current thereat and
connected to the ?rst-named means for applying current
to terminate the application of said current of distinctive
character to said one section when said adjacent section
is occupied.
~
I _
5. A supplemental signalling system for a stretch ‘of
railway track along which special equipment, as well
as trains, is operated, said special equipment being con-_
nected across the track’ rails for electrical response only
rent or the other current therein, said one current and 55 to alternating currents therein, the rails of said stretch
said other current each being of distinctive character
being divided into a plurality of successive protected-V
to which said relay is non-responsive and each being
track sections each provided with a track circuit com
different from the current normally supplied to said
prising a track relay and a source of direct current con
track rails, supply means connected across the rails of
nected across the rails thereof such that said circuits
60
said one section for simultaneously supplying said one
are shunted by trains but not by said special equipment:
and said other currents thereto, with said one and said
said supplemental signalling system comprising indica-j
other current corresponding respectively to ?rst and sec
ond track positions spaced in opposite directions from
tion means on said equipment and selectively respon
sive to two alternating current signals in the track rails,
said section and means responsive to the presence of a
with each signal being of unique frequency character;
train at one of said positions and connected for selec 65 istic and being of such nature that said relays ‘are non»
tively controlling said supply means to terminate the
supply to said section of only the one of said currents
corresponding to the position of the train and thereby
cause a selective response of said indicating means.
responsive thereto; supply meansrnormally supplying said’
alternating current signals simultaneously to the rails of
each of said sections; means responsive to the presence
in said stretch of a train and connected for selectively"
3. A supplemental signalling system for use with a 70 controlling said supply means to terminate they supply
protected section of railway track provided with a track
to the protected track section of the one of said signals,
relay which is normally energized‘ by direct current sup
corresponding to the direction in which the trainis
plied to the track rails and which releases due to the
spaced from the protected section, saidrneansincluding
shunting effect of the wheels and axles when a train
second
supply meansfor simultaneously applying tofther
occupies said section; said system warning special equip 75 rails of each of said sections two additional alternating
3,079,496
10'
current signals each of individually unique frequency
trains, is operated, said special equipment being con
characteristic suchthat the rails of any intermediate
section of said stretch normally carry said ?rst-mentioned
two alternating current signals and the sections adjoin
ing such intermediate section normally carry said two
additional alternating current signals, ?rst means for
nected across the track rails for electrical response only
to alternating currents therein, the rails of said stretch
being divided into a plurality of successive protected track
sections each provided with a track circuit comprising a
track relay and a source of direct current connected
across the rails thereof such that said circuits are shunted
each intermediate section selectively responsive to one
of said two additional alternating current signals in one
by trains but not by said special equipment: said supple
mental signalling system comprising frequency-sensitive
vof the sections adjoining such intermediate section for
maintaining, only during the period when said one ad 10 indication means on said equipment and selectively re
sponsive only in the absence of either one of two alter
joining section is not occupied, the supply to said inter
nating-current signals in the track rails, with each signal
mediate section of the one of said two ?rst-mentioned
being of unique ?xed frequency and being of such nature
signals that corresponds to the spacing direction of a
that said relays are non-responsive thereto; supply means
train relative to said intermediate section, and second
normally supplying said alternating-current signals simul
means for each intermediate section selectively respon
sive to the other of said two additional alternating sig
nals in the other section adjoining said intermediate
taneously to the rails of each of said sections; means
responsive to the presence in said stretch of a train and
section for maintaining, only during the period when
said other adjoining section is not occupied, the supply
connected for selectively controlling said supply means
occupies said section; said supplemental signalling sys
tem warning special equipment that is electrically con
alternating-current signals and the sections adjoining such
to terminate the supply to the protected track section of
to said intermediate section of the other of said two 20 the one of said signals corresponding to the direction‘ in
which the train is spaced from the protected section, said
?rst-mentioned signals.
means including second supply means for simultaneously
6. A supplemental signalling system for use with a
applying to the rails of each of said sections two addi
protected section of railway track provided with a track
tional alternating-current signals each of a unique ?xed
relay which is normally energized by direct current sup-'
plied to the track rails and which releases due to the 25 frequency such that the rails of any intermediate section
of said stretch normally carry said ?rst-mentioned two
shunting effect of the wheels‘ and axles when a train
intermediate section normally carry said two additional
alternating-current signals, ?rst means for each inter
nected across the rails of said section but is not adapted
to shunt the direct current from said track relay and 30 mediate section tuned to and responsive to current of the
unique frequency of one of‘ said two additional alternat
comprising frequency-sensitive indication means on said
ing-current signals in one of the sections adjoining such
equipment and selectively responsive only in the absence
intermediate section and connected to the ?rst-mentioned
of'either one of two alternating current signals to be
provided in the track rails to correspond, respectively,
to'?rst and ‘second track positions spaced in opposite
directions from said section, with each signal being of
supply means for maintaining, only during the period
35
when said one adjoining section is not occupied, the supply‘
to said intermediate section of the one of said two ?rst
a unique ?xed frequency and being of such nature that
mentioned signals that corresponds to the spacing direc
said relay is non-responsive thereto, supply means con
tion of a train relative to said intermediate section, and
second means for each intermediate section tuned to
nected across the rails of said section and normally
supplying said alternating current signals thereto simul 40 and responsive to current of the unique frequency of
taneously, and means responsive to the presence of a
train at one of said positions and connected for selec
tively controlling said supply means to terminate the
supply to said section of only the one of said signals
the other of said two additional alternating signals in the
other section adjoining said intermediate section and con—
cause a selective response‘ of said'indicating means.
section of the other of said two ?rst-mentioned signals;
9. A supplemental signalling system for a stretch of
railway track along which special equipment, as well as,
nected to the ?rst-mentioned supply means for maintain
ing, only during the period when said other adjoining
corresponding to the position of the train and thereby 45 section is not occupied, the supply to saidintermediate
7. A supplementalsignalling system for a stretch of
railway track along which special equipment, as well as
trains, is' operated, said special equipment being con
trains, is operated, said special equipment being con
prising a track relay and a source of direct current con
nected across the rails thereof such that said circuits
into a plurality of successive minor track sections, with
nected across the track rails for electrical response only 50 nected across the track rails for electrical response only
to alternating currents therein, the rails of said stretch
to alternating currents therein, the rails‘of said stretch
being divided into a plurality of successive major track
being divided’ into a plurality of successive protected
sections with insulated joints de?ning the limits of said
track sections each provided with a track circuit com
are shunted by trains but not by said special equipment;
said supplemental signalling system warning said special
equipment and comprising frequency-sensitive indication
majorv sections and'with each major section being divided
insulated joints de?ning the limits of said minor sections,
each minor section being provided with a track circuit
comprising a track relay and a source of direct current
connected across the rails thereof such that said circuits
in the absence of either one of two alternating current 60 are shunted by trains but not by said special equipment,
electrical means conductive only to alternating-current
signals to be provided in the track rails to correspond,
means on said equipment and selectively responsive only
respectively, to ?rst and second track positions spaced
in opposite directions from the particular protected sec
tion to which the special equipment is connected, with
each signal being of a unique ?xed frequency and being
signals bridged across the insulated joints between the
minor track sections of each major section; indication
means on said equipment and selectively responsive in
65 the absence of either one of two alternating-current sig
nals in the track rails, with each signal being of unique
frequency characteristic and being of such nature that
said relays are non-responsive thereto; separate supply
current signals simultaneously to the rails of each of
means for each major section normally supplying said
said sections, and means responsive to the presence of
a train at one of said positions and connected for selec 70 alternating current-signals simultaneously to the rails of
each of said sections, separate control means for each
tively controlling said supply means to terminate the
supply means responsive to the presence in said stretch
supply to said last-mentioned section of only the one
of a train and connected for selectively controlling the
of said signals corresponding to the position of the train.
corresponding supply means to terminate the supply to
' 8. A supplemental signalling system for a stretch of
railway track along which special equipment, as well as 75 the major track sections of the one of said signals corre-_
of such nature that said relays are non-responsive there
to, supply means normally supplying said alternating
3,079,496
11
sponding to the direction of spacing of the train there
from, said control means including second supply means
for each major section simultaneously applying to the
rails thereof two additional alternating-current signals
each of individually unique frequency characteristic such
that the rails of any intermediate major section of said
stretch normally carry said ?rst-mentioned two alternat
ing~current signals and the major sections adjoining such
12
connected across the rails of each major track section
with each supply means individually and simultaneously
supplying ?rst and second alternating-current signals to
its major section, said ?rst and second alternating-current
signals corresponding, respectively, to ?rst and second
track positions spaced in opposite directions from such
major section, each alternating-current ‘signal being of
unique frequency characteristic and being of such nature
intermediate section normally carry said two additional
that said relays are non-responsive thereto, separate means
alternating-current signals, ?rst means for each inter 10 for each major track section responsive to the presence
mediate section selectively responsive to one of said two
of a train at one of said positions and connected for con-v
additional alternating-current signals in one of the sec
trolling the supply means vfor such major track section
tions adjoining such intermediate section and connected
to terminate the supply to said one section of the alternat
to the ?rst-mentioned supply means for such section for
ing-current signal corresponding to the position of the
maintaining, only during the period when said one adjoin 15 train, and indicating means connected across the rails
ing section is not occupied, the supply to said intermediate
section of the one of said two ?rst-mentioned signals that
corresponds to the direction in which said one adjoining
section is spaced £rom said intermediate section, and sec
ond means for each intermediate section selectively re
sponsive to the other of said two additional alternating
signals in the other section adjoining said intermediate
section and connected to the ?rst-mentioned supply means
for such section for‘maintaining, only during the period
of one of said sections and selectively responsive to the
absence of either one of said ?rst and second alternating
current signals.
7
12. In combination with a stretch of railway track
divided into a plurality of protected sections each having
a track relay which is normally energized by current sup
plied to the rails oi its section and which releases due
to the shunting effect of the wheels and axles when a train»
occupies its section, said stretch being provided with a
when said other adjoining section is not occupied, the 25 railway-signalling system controlled by said track relays
supply to said intermediate section of the other of said
for governing the movement of trains through said stretch.
two ?rst-mentioned signals.
from one end to the other end thereof, a supplemental
'10. In combination with a stretch of railway track
signalling system for warning equipment in said stretch‘
divided into a plurality of protected ‘sections each having
that is connected across the rails thereof and that is not
a track relay which is normally energized by current 30 adapted to shunt said track relays, said supplemental sig
applied to the rails of its section and which releases due
nalling system comprising supply means connected across
to the shunting effect of the wheels and axles when a
the rails of one of said sections for individually and simul
train occupies its section, said stretch being provided with‘
taneously supplying ?rst and second currents thereto cor
a railway-signalling system controlled by said track relays
responding, respectively, to ?rst and second positions in
for governing the movement of trains through said stretch 35 said stretch spaced in opposite directions from said sec
from one end to the other end thereof, a supplemental
tion, said ?rst current and said second current each being
signalling'system for warning equipment in said stretch
‘of individually distinctive character to which said relays
that is connected across the rails thereof and that is not
are non-responsive and each being di?ferent from the
adapted to shunt said track relays, said supplemental sig
current normally supplied to said track relays, means
nalling system comprising supply means connected across 40 responsive to the presence of a train at one of said posi
the-rails of at least one of said sections for individually
tions and connected for controlling said supply means to
and simultaneously supplying ?rst and second currents
terminate the supply to said one section of the current:
thereto corresponding, respectively, to ?rst'and second
corresponding to the position of the train, and indicating
positions in said stretch spaced in opposite directions from
means connected across the rails of said one section for
said one section, said ?rst current and said second current
selectively indicating the absence of one of said currents.
each being of individually distinctive character to which
' 13. In combination with a stretch of railway track
said relays are non-responsive and each being different
divided into a plurality of protected sections each having
from the current normally supplied to said track relays,
a track relay which is normally energized by current
means responsive to the presence of a train at onecof said
supplied to the rails of its section and which releases due
positions and connected for controlling said supply means 50 to the shunting effect of the wheels and axles when a
to terminate the supply to said one section of the current
train occupies its sections, said stretch being provided with
corresponding to the position of the train, and indicating
a railway-signalling system controlled by said track relays
means connected across the rails of said section and
for governing the movement of trains through said stretch
selectively responsive to the absence of either one of said
vfrom one end to the other end thereof, a supplemental
?rst ‘and second currents for indicating the presence of 55 signalling system for warning equipment insaid stretch
the train at a position corresponding to the absent cur
rent.
>
11. A supplemental signalling system for a stretch of
railway track along which special equipment, as well as
that is connected across the rails thereof and that is not
adapted to shunt said track relays, said supplemental sig
nalling system comprising supply means connected across,
the rails of at least one of said sections for individually
trains, is operated, said special equipment being con 60 and simultaneously supplying ?rst and second currents
nected across the track rails for electrical response only
thereto corresponding, respectively, to ?rst and second
to alternating currents therein, the rails of said stretch
positions spaced in opposite directions from said section,
being divided into a plurality of successive major track
said ?rst current and said second current each beingrof
sections with insulated joints de?ning the limits of said
individually distinctive character to which said relays are
major sections and with each major section being divided 65 non~responsive and each being diiferent from the current
into a plurality of successive minor track sections, with
normally supplied to said track relays, means responsive
insulated joints de?ning the limits of said minor sections,
to the presence of a train at one ‘of said positions and
each minor section being provided with a track circuit
connected for controlling said supply means to terminate
comprising a track relay and a source of direct current
the supply to said one section of the current corresponding .
connected across the rails thereof such that said circuits 70 to the position of the train, and indicating means con
are shunted by trains but not by said special equipment,
nected across the rails of said section and having means
electrical means conductive only to alternating-current
responsive to the presence of both said ?rst and second
signals’ bridged across the insulated joints between the
currents for indicating that said section is clear of trains
minor track sections of each major section; said supple
and means selectively responsive to the absence of either
mental signalling system comprising separate supply means 75 one of said ?rst and second currents for indicating the
8,079,496
13
presence of the train at the position corresponding to the
absent current.
14. A supplemental signalling system for a stretch of
railway track along which special equipment, as well as
trains, is operated, said special equipment being connected
across the track rails for electrical response only to alter
nating currents therein, the rails of said stretch being
divided into a plurality of successive major protected
rack sections with insulated joints de?ning the limits of
said major sections and with each major section being
divided into a plurality of successive minor track sections,
with insulated joints de?ning the limits of said minor
sections, each minor section being provided with a track
circuit comprising a track relay and a source of direct
current connected across the rails thereof such that said
14
sponsive thereto; seperate supply means for each major
track section normally supplying said alternating-current
signals simultaneously to the rails of each such major
track section; and separate means for each major track
section responsive to the presence in a major track section
adjacent one end of said last-mentioned major track section
of a train and connected for selectively controlling said
supply means to terminate the supply to said last-men
tioned section of the one of said signals corresponding to
10 the position of the train and thereby cause a selective
response of said indicating means.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,786,815
circuits are shunted by trains but not by said special
1,791,168
equipment, electrical means conductive only to alternat
1,816,628
ing-current signals bridged across the insulated joints be
2,611,075
tween the minor track sections of each major section;
said system comprising indication means on said equip 20 2,617,922
2,630,524
ment and selectively responsive in the absence of either
‘2,794,117
one of two alternating-current signals in the track rails,
2,816,218
with each signal being of unique frequency characteristic
and being of such nature that said relays are non-re
2,822,463
Aspinwall ____________ __ Dec. 30, 1930
Sasnett ________________ __ Feb. 3, 1931
Williams et a1 _________ __ July 28,
Marlowe ____________ __ Sept. 16,
Thompson ___________ __ Nov. 11,
Grosjean _____________ __. Mar. 3,
Rees et al. __________ __ May 28,
Rees et al. __________ .__ Dec. 10,
Thompson ____________ .. Feb. 4,
193]
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