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Патент USA US3079538

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Feb. 26, 1963
A. soMLYODY
3,079,528
ELECTRONIC COUNTERS
Filed July 10, 1961
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INVENToR.
HRP/,7D 30ML YODY
Feb. 26, 1963
3,079,528
A. SOMLYODY
ELECTRONIC COUNTERS
Filed July l0, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
78
84
74
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ELEcmoN
J+1
BEAM '-5'
:Fig 2
:1:25
_E_Lqf 5
SDCUPREANT
SPADE
VOLTAGE
DYNAMIC LOAD
/
STATIC LOAD
LINE
INVEN TOR.
ARP/47D 50ML YÚDY
3,079,528
ttes
Patented Feb. 26, 1953
1
2
In another embodiment of the invention, the spade
electrodes are clamped at operating potential as described
above and a relatively large J +1 leakage current flows
3,079,528
Arpad Somiyody, Raritan, NJ., assigner to Burroughs
ELECTRONEC COUNTERS
and primes the J+1 spade. The spade electrodes are
arrayed in two sets, with adjacent spades being in dif
ferent sets. A high-speed driver is coupled to each set
Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Michigan
Filed July 10, 1961, Ser. No. 122,780
7 Ciaims. (Cl. S15-8.5)
of spades and is adapted to apply alternately relatively
high and relatively low potentials to the sets of spade
This invention relates to electronic counters and par
electrodes. The operation of this driver in combina
ticularly to electronic counters using multi-position mag 10 tion with the priming of the J+1 spade provides the de
netron beam switching tubes.
sired high-speed operation.
A magnetron beam switching tube is an electron dis
The invention is described in greater detail by refer
charge device which has a central cathode and a plurality
ence to the drawing wherein:
FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of a circuit em
of groups of electrodes surrounding the cathode, each
group of electrodes comprising a position to which an 15 bodying the invention;
electron beam may flow from the cathode and from
FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of a portion of the
which an output signal may be derived. Each group of
circuit of FIG. l;
FIG. 3 shows typical current-voltage characteristics
electrodes includes a target electrode which is adapted
to receive an electron beam and produce an output sig
curves of J and J+1 spade electrodes and a typical spade
nal therefrom, a spade electrode which serves to form and 20 load line for the circuit of FIG. 1;
FK?. 4 is a schematic representation of a modiiied cir
hold an electron beam on its associated target electrode,
and a switching electrode which is used to switch an elec
cuit embodying the invention;
tron beam from one position to the next. The tube also
FIG. 5 is a schematic representation of a portion of the
includes permanent magnet means providing a longitudi
circuit of FIG. 2; and
nal magnetic field which operates with electric fields within 25
the tube to control the ñow and switching of an elec
tron beam. The orientation of these tields urges an elec
trc-n beam in a characteristic direction with respect to each
group of electrodes, and this direction is known as the
leading direction.
FIG. 6 shows typical current-voltage characteristic
curves of l and J+1 spade electrodes and typical spade
load lines for the circuit of FIG. 2.
.
. '
The circuits described below are particularly suitable for
use with the various commercially available magnetron
30 beam switching tu-bes such as the type 6700 tube or the
Burroughs type 13K-1000 switch. in actual construction,
a magnetron beam switching tube is cylindrical in form,
There are many circuits known for using a magnetron
beam switching tube as a counting device, and these cir
cuits are generally satisfactory. However, in each of these
`but it is shown schematically in linear form as tube 10 in
FIG. 1. The tube 10 includes an envelope 12 which con
has a characteristic upper limit which is determined gen 35 tains a central lonoitudinally elongated cathode 14 and
erally by the time required to (1) move an electron beam
ten groups of electrodes spaced radially equidistantly
from one position and lock it in at lthe next position, and
from the cathode and surrounding the cathode. For sim
(2) return the spade electrode at the one position to
plicity, only tive groups of electrodes are shown numbered
normal operating potential so that it can properly per
“0,” “1,” “2,” “8,” and “9.” Each group of electrodes in
form its function when the beam again returns to its po 40 cludes a generally U-shaped elongated spade electrode 1'6
sition. The speeds at which these operations take place
and a generally L-shaped target electrode 18 positioned so
is affected to a great extent by spade interelectrode ca
that each target occupies the space between adjacent spade
pacity.
electrodes. Each spade electrode serves to form and
Accordingly, the principles and objects of the present
hold an electron beam on its corresponding target elec
invention are directed toward the provision of an im
trode. A generally rod-like switching electrode 20 is
circuits, the counting speed of the beam switching tube
proved high speed electronic counter circuit using a multi
position magnetron beam switching tube as the basic
counting unit thereof.
also included in each group of electrodes and is posi
tioned between each target electrode and the adja
cent spade electrode. The switching electrodes are known
Brieñy, the circuit of the invention utilizes a magnetron
beam switching tube of the general type described above
as switching grids. The shield electrodes which are em
ployed in the BX-1000 switch are not shown. Suitable
means is also included in tube 10 for providing -an axial
in a circuit in which means are provided (1) for causing
an electron beam to switch from one position7 known
as the J position, and lock in at the next position, known
magnetic ñeld which is utilized in conjunction with electric
fields within the tube to form an electron beam and to
switch a beam from one group of electrodes to the next.
as the J+1 position, and (2) for causing the spade elec
trode at the J position to recover to normal operating po
55 The direction in which the beam is urged, that is, clock
tential-«these operations occurring at high speed. In one
embodiment of the invention, all of the spade electrodes
are clamped at their operating potential which may be
higher than the normal spade operating potential, as
taught in the prior art. With the spade electrodes thus 60
avise or counterclockwise, is always the same and is de
termined by the orientation of the electric and magnetic
fields. The direction in which a beam is urged is called
the leading direction.
Briefly, in operation of tube 10, electrons emitted by
clamped, higher-than-normal current may flow to a I
the cathode are retained at the cathode if each of the
position and higher-than-normal leakage current may
spades, targets and switching grids carries its norm-al
flow to a J+1 spade without causing undesired switching
operating electrical potential. When a spade experiences
of an electron beam to the J+1 position. This J+1 cur
a suitable lowering of its potential, -an electron beam is
rent, in effect, primes the J+1 `spade for the next desired 65 formed and directed to the corresponding target electrode.
switching operation. A high-speed driving source is used
The electron beam may be switched from one target elec
to trigger each switching step. Thus, operation (1) above
trode to the next by suitably altering the electrical
is achieved. Operation (2) is achieved -by means of a
potentials of a spade or switching grid. Under nor
source of constant current which is coupled to each spade
mal operating conditions, whenever electrode voltages are
electrode and which causes a J spade to recover rapidly 70 such that a beam might be supported at several positions,
the beam switches to the most leading position and locks
to normal operating potential after a beam has switched
in at this position.
to the J +1 position.
3,019,528
A
3
A
In the circuit of FIG. l, the cathode 14 is connected to
a source of reference potential such as ground. A source
25 of positive pulses for clearing the tube 10 is coupled
to cathode 14, and a similar source Si? of negative reset
pulses is coupled Ito the “0” spade, that is, the spade
electrode 16 at the “0" position. Beam clearing and reset
circuits for magnetron beam switching tubes are well
known and need not be described in detail. The target
can be tolerated in the J+1 circuit of the invention,
whereas, in the prior ant, this current was generally limit
ed to about 10 mi-croamperes. In addition, the J current
may be about 8 milliamperes compared to 3 lrnilliamperes
in prior art operation.
In FIG. 3, are shown typical static and dynamic cur
rent-voltage characteristic curves -ior the J spade and for
the J+1 spade, respectively, and the load line for the
spade resistors 5S. Since the spade resistors are compara
electrodes 18 are each connected through a suitable load
resistor 32 to a comomn target bus 3S which is coupled 10 tively large, vthe load line is relatively flat. The load line
to a positive D.C. power supply Vt.
In addition, an
auxiliary output tap 44 is .provided at each target for
intersects the X-aXis at point-A and the static character
istie J curve at two points B and C. The dynamic J+1
connection to a utilization device such as an indicator
and static J characteristic curves very nearly coincide .
tube, a printing mechanism, or the like.
The switching grid electrodes 24J are connected in two
sets, with the grids iat the even-numbered positions in one
s_et and the grids at the odd-numbered positions in an
other set. Each set of grids is connected to a source Vgl
of positive bias potential and to one of the outputs of a
in the vicinity of point C. The various currents which
ñow at the J+1 position are indicated. In eitect, the
large leakage current Is which flows in the J+1 spade
prebiases this spade and primes it for performing its func
tion when the beam is switched from the J position to the
high-speed ñip-ñop cricuit 46.
.
Y
According to the invention, each spade electrode in
is connected to the anode of a clamping diode 5G, the
cathode of which is connected to a bus 54 which is
coupled to a positive D.C. power supply Vs. Each spade
J+1 position.
When it is desired to switch the electron beam from the
J to the J+1 position, a negative switching pulse is ap
plied by t‘ne liip-ñop 46 to the switching electrode lâ at
the J position. The actual switching of the electron beam
to the J+‘1 position occurs more or less conventionally.
is also connected through a suitable relatively large load 25 However, the speed with which the J+1 spade charges
and locks the beam in position is increased by the high
resistor 53 to a bus 62 Vwhich is connected to another
position, and the adjacent leading position is designated
J+1 spade leakage current and the primedcondition of
the J+1 spade. In addition, since the J spade is connect
larger than Vs. Source Vss and resistor dä are selected
ed to the constant current source, comprising power sup
to provide a constant current source ttor the spade elec
trodes. In one suitable operative arrangement, Vs is 30 ply Vss and resistor 58, the J spade discharges rapidlyy
and linearly, `and .returns to normal spade potential Vc
about 60 Volts, Vss is about 100G volts, resistors 53 are
about 1 megohm, Vt is about 80 volts, and Vg is about 20
volts.
In the circuit of FIG. l, the tube 1G operates as a
counter by switching an electron beam from position to
rapidly. Thus, the J spade is quickly prepared for the
return `ot the electron beam as it completes its counting
cycle. This sequence is repeated each time »the beam
moves from one position to the next in tube 10.
A modiñcation of the invention shown in FIG. 4 op
erates >by means of spade switching rather than grid
switching, as in‘ FIG. 1. In spade switching, the switch
ing pulses which drive the beam switching tube 10 are
position, and the adjacent leading position is designated 40 applied .to the spade electrodes 16, rather than the switch
ing electrodes 2t). In the circuit of FIG. 4 including tube
the J+1 position. In the operation of a beam switching
10, the target electrodes 18 and their connections are
tube, it is known that an electron beam flowing to a
not `shown since they may be the same as in F-IG. 1.
group of electrodes has a certain cross-sectional area and
The switching electrodes 20 are arranged to set a rel-a
density, and, if a certain maximum density and area is
exceeded, leakage electrons flow to the adjacent leading 45 tively high level of J +1 leakage current, and, in one suit
able arrangement, they me connected together and to
J+1 position. The spade electrode at the J+1 position
cathode potential which, in this case, is ground.
v
receives the leakage current, and in typical prior art op
According to the invention, the spade electrodes 16 are
eration, its potential is gradually reduced to a poten
arranged in two sets, with the even-numbered electrodes
tial at which involuntary switching of .the entire beam to
the J+1 position occurs. Thus, in the past, the current 50 in one set and the odd-numbered electrodes in the other
position under the control of the flip-nop circuit 46. An
output current ñows from each position to which the elec
tron beam tlows. A position or group of electrodes to
which an electron' beam is flowing is designated the J
in the beam had to be limited to a relatively small value.
The present invention permits the use of electron beams
many times greater than in the prior art without involun
set. The even-numbered electrodes are connected through
normal spade load resistors '74 of about 150,000 ohms to a
bus 7S which is connected to one output terminal Sil of a
tary switching occurring.
ñip-i'lop $2, and the odd-numbered spade electrodes are
In operation' of the circuit of FIG. l and referring to 55 similarly connected through normal load resistors 74 to a
bus 84 which is connected to the other output terminal
the portion thereof shown in FIG. 2, it is assumed that an
S6 of the flip-flop. The flip-hop 82 has a sui-table, high
electron beam is `tlowing to one position, the J position,
speed of operation. Each spade electrode 16 is also con
and the'bea'm is to be switched to the adjacent J+1
nected to the anode of a clamping diode 91%, the cathode
position. With a beam ñowin-g to the J position, @at all
of the other positions, current flows from the Vss supply 60 of which is connected to a bus 94. The bus 94 is coupled
to a positive D.C. power supply, Vc, the clamp voltage
through the spade resistors 58 and the diodes 50 to the
for lthe spades 16. Voltage Vc is always below the po
Vc supply. This current serves to clamp all of the
tentials applied to buses 7-8 and S4 by the flip-flop to pro
spade electrodes except J spade at positive operating po
vide the desired clamping action. Typically, in the circuit
tential Vc. At the J+1 position, current I splits into two
portions, Id which ñows through diode 5() and Is which 65 of FIG. 4, Vc may be ground potential, ,and the Iflip-flop
outputs may alternate between about 2O volts and about
flows through the spade electrode. Current Is»V is leakage
8O volts.
current which is derived from the electron beam at the J
In the circuit of FIG. 4 (FIG. 5), with a beam in the J
position. - Since the J+1 spade is clamped at positive po
position, current I flows through the J+1 spade load re
tential Vc, it can accept considerably greater leakage
current than in prior art operation without its potential 70 sistor 7‘4 and splits into clamp current Id which ñows
through diode 9i) and spade leakage current Is which iiows
being lowered and without its causing undesired switch
through
the J+1 spade.> As set »forth above, the switch
ing of an electron beam. ri-hus, the current to the J po
ing grids 20 are arranged so .that the J+1 leakage cur
sition and :the resultant output current from the J target
rent Is is relatively large. Again, since'Is may be large,
can be considerably increased over that possible in the
prior an. As an example, 400 microamperes or more 75 the current to the J position-may be large. Witha beam
3,079,528
5
6
in the J position, the llip-ñop 82 is in such a state, and it
electron beam from one group of electrodes to the
is so designed, that a =ñrst low potential is present on the
next;
clamp means coupled to each of said spade electrodes
for clamping each spade at a first normal operating
potential at all times except when an electron beam
is ñowing to it,
said clamp means thus allowing considerable leakage
J spade and bus 73 and a second higher potential is
present on' -the J+1 bus S4. The J +-l spade, and all of
the spades except the J spade, -are clamped at poten
tial Vc.
FIG, 6 shows the typical static and dynamic current
voltage characteristic curves for the J and J+1 spades,
respectively. FIG. 6 also shows that the circuit of FIG.
4 operates with static J and dynamic J+1 load lines which
are parallel to each other and intersect the X-axis at dif
ferent places, A and A', determined by the two flip-flop
current to :How to a J+1 spade electrode without
switching an electron beam thereto from the J spade;
and a relatively constant current source coupled to each
of said spade electrodes for causing rapid charging of
the J spade capacitance immediately after an elec
tron beam has switched to the J+1 spade electrode,
the J spade thus being quickly returned to normal
output potentials. As in FIG. l, the relatively large J+1
leakage current Is primes or prebiases the J+1 spade and
prepares it for the switching operation and for its function
of locking the beam in position.
The switching operation is initiated by a change in state
of the flip-ñop, and, when this change occurs, the potentials
operating potential.
3. An electronic counter circuit including a magnetron
beam switching tube having an electron-emitting cathode
and a plurality of groups of electrodes,
on the buses 78 and 84 are quickly reversed. At this time,
the bus 84 assumes the low potential, and the bus 7S 20
assumes the higher potential. Thus, the load lines are
switched, and the J+1 spade, which is in an unstable state
due to the leakage current Is, quickly moves to stable point
each comprising a position to which an electron beam
may ñow and from which an output signal may ilow;
each group including a target electrode which receives
an electron beam and produces an output signal
C, and the beam is locked in the J+1 position. At the
same time, the J spade quickly returns to its normal operat 25
ing potential Vc under the influence of the relatively high
potential on bus 78. This cycle of operation is repeated
each time the flip-Hop changes state, and, for all practical
a spade electrode which holds an electron beam on its
purposes, the counting speed of tube 10 may be as high as
about 10 megacycles.
30
The present invention provides a counter which is rela
therefrom,
associated target electrode,
and a switching electrode which serves to switch an
electron beam from one group of electrodes to the
next;
diode clamp means coupling each of said spade elec
trodes to a source of normal operating potential
therefor;
tively simple and inexpensive and which operates at speeds
a constant current power source coupled to each spade
of at least l() megacycles. This speed is at least ñve to
ten times higher than speeds which were readily attain
able in the past. In addition, output currents about three 35
times greater than in the past are obtainable.
What is claimed is:
l. An electronic counter circuit including a magnetron
electrode for quickly returning a J spade to normal
operating potential lafter a beam has left it;
means coupled to said switching electrodes for causing
a relatively large leakage current to flow to a J+1
spade when an electron beam is ñowing to a J spade,
said diode clamp means preventing undesired switching
of the electron beam due to said leakage current.
4. The circuit deñned in claim 3 and including a flip
beam switching tube having an electron-emitting cathode
40
and a plurality of groups of electrodes,
flop circuit coupled to said switching electrodes for causing
each comprising a position to which an electron beam
may ñow and from which an output signal may ñow;
a position to which an electron beam is ilowing being
designated the J position and the adjacent leading
position being designated the J+1 position;
each group of electrodes including a target electrode
45
which receives an electron beam and produces an
associated target electrode,
source and a relatively large spade load resistor coupled
between said potential source and each spaced electrode.
6. An electronic counter circuit including a magnetron
output signal therefrom,
beam switching tube having an electron-emitting cathode
a spade electrode which holds an electron beam on its
and a switching electrode which serves to switch an
electron beam from one group of electrodes to the
said switching electrodes to switch a beam from position
to position in said tube.
5. The circuit deñned in claim 3 wherein said constant
current source comprises a relatively high D.C. potential
50
next;
clamp means coupled to each of said spade electrodes
for clamping each spade at a ñrst normal operating 55
potential at all times except when an electron beam is
flowing to it,
said clamp means thus allowing considerable leakage
current to flow to a J+1 spade electrode without
switching an electron beam thereto from the J spade;
and relatively high voltage supply means coupled to 60
each of said spade electrodes for quickly returning a
J spade to normal operating potential after an elec
tron beam has left it.
2. An electronic counter circuit including a magnetron
beam switching tube having an electron-emitting cathode 65
and a plurality of groups of electrodes,
each comprising a position to which an electron beam
may ñow and from which an output signal may flow;
each group including a target electrode which receives 70
an electron beam and produces an output signal
therefrom,
a spade electrode which holds an electron beam on its
associated target electrode,
and a switching electrode which serves to switch an 75
and a plurality of groups of electrodes,
each comprising a position to which an electron beam
may tlow and from which an output signal may ñow;
each group including a target electrode which receives
an electron beam and produces an output signal
therefrom,
a spade electrode which holds an electron beam on its
associated target electrode,
and a switching electrode which serves to switch an
electron beam from one group of electrodes to the
next;
means `coupled to all of said switching electrodes for
causing relatively high leakage current to ilow to
J+1 position when an electron beam is in the J
position;
means clamping all of said spade electrodes at a iirst
potential which comprises a normal operating poten
tial therefor and which allows said high leakage
current to flow to a J+1 spade electrode without
switching an electron beam thereto from the J spade;
said spade electrodes being connected in two sets with
every other spade being in the same set;
a ñip-ñop circuit;
each set of spade electrodes being coupled to one of the
outputs of said Hip-flop circuit whereby adjacent spade
electrodes are successively at relatively low and rela
3,079,528
8
tively high potentials each time that the ñip-ñop
switching electrodes are connected together and to the
changes state, each change of state of the flip-flop
causing a beam to switch quickly from the J position
cathode of the tube, the desired flow of leakage current to
a J+1 yspade electrode thus being achieved.
to the J+1 position by the application of a relatively
low potential to the J+1 position and a relatively 5
high potential to the J position, said relatively high
potential causing the J spade to return quickly to
its normal operating potential.
7. The circuit deñned in claim 6 wherein all of said
References Cited ÍD the file 0f this Patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
3’008’067
Somlyody “““““““““““ “" NOV' 7’ 1961
UNITED STATES PATENT oEEICE
CERTIFICATE 0E CORRECTION
Patent No.- 3,079,528
February 26v 1963
Arpad Somlypdy
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
. ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
y
Column.. 3, line. l,O..\Y for "eomomn" read ~-- .Common ---; line
20, for "cricuitf'uread --„ circuit ----g line 27, strike out
"position, andy .the adjacent leading position is designated”
and insert instead -- positive D. Ce power supply Vss which
is
considerably- ~--; col-umn ó„ line 47‘7 for "spaced" read
-Y- spade --'.
Si.g.ne.d..,.and sealed this 24th day of September 1963.
SEAL)
ttest:v
ERNEST W. SWIDER
Attesting- Officer
DAVID L' LADD
Y
Commissioner of Patents
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