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Патент USA US3079552

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Feb. 26, 1963
E. c. OLSON
3,079,542
CURRENT SUPPLY APPARATUS
Filed March 29, 1960
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INVENTO/P
EC . OLSON
4%? 3%
A TTORNEV
United States Patent :0
we
7
3,019,542
Patented _ F eb. 26, 1953
1
2
3,079,542
rent path for supplying current from the supply source
to the ?rst transformer winding the impedance of which
CURRENT SUPPLY APPARATUS
Everette C. Olson, Columbus, Ohio, assignor, by mesne as
' signments, to North Electric Company, Galion, Ohio,
a corporation of Ohio
is very low when the transformer core is saturated.
I
The invention will now be ‘described in greater de
tail with reference to the accompanying drawing the
Filed Mar. 29, 1960, Ser. No. 18,390
13 Claims. (Cl. 323--22)
single FIGURE of which is a schematic view of a current
voltage substantially constant irrespective of variations of
tially constant a control circuit comprising a ?rst trans
supply circuit embodying the invention.
Referring now to the drawing, there is provided ap~
This invention relates to current supply apparatus and
paratus comprising a bridge recti?er 10 having a pair of
more particularly to apparatus for controlling the sup 1O input terminals 11, 12 and positive and negative output
ply of recti?ed alternating current to a load to maintain . terminals 13 and 14, respectively, for supplying recti
the load voltage substantially constant.
?ed current from an alternating-current supply source 15
An object of the invention is to provide improved
to a load 16 through a ripple ?lter having a series induc
apparatus comprising a saturable core transformer for
tive reactor 17 and a shunt capacitor 18. The voltage
controlling the supply of current from an alternating 15 and wave shape of the supply source 15 may vary but
current supply source to a load.
its fundamental frequency is substantially constant.
A further object of the invention is to provide im
There is provided for controlling the current supplied‘
proved current supply apparatus for maintaining a load
to the recti?er 10 to maintain the load voltage substan-’
peak amplitude of an alternating-current supply source. 20 former 20 having windings 21, 22 and 23 on a core 24
In a speci?c embodiment of the invention, herein shown
of saturable substantially square hysteresis loop magnetic
and described for the purpose of illustration, a recti?er-v ' material, a second transformer 25 having windings 26, 27
?lter is provided for rectifying and supplying to a load
and 28 on a saturable core 29 of substantially square
current from an alternating-current supply source‘ the
hysteresis loop magnetic material and a pair of p-n-p type
voltage of which may vary and the fundamental fre 25 transistors 30 and 31.
'
quency of which is substantially constant. There is pro
One terminal of the supply source 15 is connected to
vided for controlling the supply of current from the
a ?rst terminal of transformer winding 21 and to the
supply source to the recti?er a ?rst transformer having a
recti?er input terminal 11. The second terminal of
saturable core of substantially square hysteresis loop
transformer winding 21 is connected through transformer
magnetic material. Means are provided for connecting 30 Winding 26 to recti?er input terminal 12. The emitter of
the terminals of a winding of the transformer to the
transistor 30 is connected to the common terminal of
input terminals respectively of the recti?er.
windings 21 and 26 and the collector of the transistor is
connected through a rectifying element 32 to the lower
Current is supplied from the supply source to the
transformer alternately through a ?rst current path com
terminal of the supply source 15, as viewed in the draw
prising a ?rst rectifying element and the emitter-‘collector 35 ing. The collector of transistor 30 is also connected
path of a ?rst transistor in series and a second current
through a resistor 33 of 3,900 ohms, for example, to the
path comprising a second rectifying element and the emit
base of the transistor. The emitter oftransistor 31 is
ter-collector path of a second transistor in series. The
connected to the lower terminal of the supply source 15
core of the ?rst transformer is thus caused to saturate
and its collector is connected through a rectifying element
alternately in opposite directions. Conduction is‘ initiated 40 34- to the common terminal of transformer windings 21
in the transistors alternately in succession in response to
and26. The collector of transistor 31 is also connected
voltages derived from a second transformer having a
through a resistor 35 of 3,900 ohms, for example, to the
base of the transistor.
.
, '
saturable core of substantially square hysteresis loop mag
netic material and having a winding through which cur
. There is provided a series circuit which may be traced
rent is supplied to the recti?er input. The core of the 45 from the base of transistor 30 through arectifying ele-'
second transformer is also caused to saturate alternately
ment 36, a resistor 37 of 4 ohms, for example, shunted
in opposite directions. Conduction in each transistor is
by a condenser 38 of 150 microfarads, for example, and
maintained in response to a voltage derived from the
transformer vwinding 22 to the emitter of transistor 30.
?rst transformer over a period commencing prior to the
A second circuit connecting the base and. emitter of
time of saturation of the core of the second transformer 50 transistor 30 may be traced from its base, through a
and ending in response to the saturation of the core of
rectifying element 39 and transformer winding'28 to‘ the
the ?rst transformer.
emitter of the transistor. There is provided a circuit
4 Each transistor will thus be made conductive at a
which may be traced from the base of transistor 31,v
predetermined instant early in a half cycle period of the
through a rectifyingelement 40, a resistor 41 of 4 ohms,
supply source to cause nearly the full voltage of'the 55 for example, shunted by a condenser 42 of 150 micro»
supply source to be impressed across the winding of the
farads, for example, and winding 23 to the emitter of
transistor 31. A second circuit connecting the base and
?rst transformer.‘ As the'supply source voltage increases,
the time required for saturating the core of the ?rst
emitter of transistor 31 may be traced from its base,
through a rectifying element 43 and transformer winding
transformer will decrease and vice versa. ' When the core
_
,. , ;
saturates, of course, the voltage across the transformer 60 27 to the emitter ‘of the transistor.
The current supply circuit is believed to function-sub
winding will be reduced to zero. If the voltage pulses
stantially as described below to supply a direct current
across the ?rst transformer winding are plotted with the
up to a maximum of about 8 amperes to the load 16
instantaneous voltages as ordinates and time as the
While maintaining the voltage across the load substanT
abscissa, the area of the successive pulses will remain
constant irrespective of voltage changes of the supply 65 tially constant at about 12 volts irrespective of voltage
changes of the supply source 15. During ~a positive half
source. The constant area pulses are averaged by the
cycle period of the alternating-current supply source, for
recti?er-?lter to maintain a substantially constant voltage
example,
when the instantaneous voltage of the source
across the load when the frequency of the supply source is
increases to a value larger than the load voltage, cur;
constant. Each transistor is made non-conductive when 70 rent
will ?ow from a terminal of the supply source 15
the core of the ?rst transformer saturates to greatly in
through a circuit comprising recti?er 10, ?lter 17, 18,
crease the resistance of, or effectively interrupt, the cur:
load_16, winding 26 oftransformer 25, into the emitter
31,079,542.
4
and out of the base of transistor 39, resistor 33.and
move the short-circuit. In this state, the power dissipa
rectifying element 32 in its forward or low resistance
tion in the transistor is also very small because the cur
rent ?owing through the transistor is very small. Each
direction to the other terminal of the source 15.
The
resulting voltage induced. in transformer winding 28’
transistor thus switches from one low loss state to an
causes current. to flow into, the emitter and out of the
other low loss state when the core 24» saturates. Damage
to the transistors is thus avoided.
base of transistor 30 and through rectifying element 39.
in itsvforward direction. Transistor 30 is thus made
substantially. fully conductive and current will flow from
the. upper terminal of the supply source 15 through Wind
What is claimed is:
V
1. In combination, a transformer having a core of sat
urable substantially square hysteresis loop magnetic ma
ing 21 of transformer 20, into the emitter and out of 10 terial, and means comprising said transformer for con
the collector of transistor 34) and through rectifying ele
merit 32 in its forward direction to. the lower terminal
of the source. 15. The resulting voltage induced in
transformer winding 22 will cause‘ current to ?ow into
‘the emitter and out of the. base of. transistor 30, through 15
rectifying element 36 in its forward direction and through’
resistor. 37. While the transistor 30 is conductive during
a portion of a positive half cycle period of the supply
.sOurce _15, substantially the entire voltage of the source
trolling the supply of current to a load circuit from a
source of alternating current having a substantially con
stant fundamental frequency and having a peak voltage
which may vary, said means comprising means respon
sive to current in said load circuit for completing a
current pathfor supplying from said‘ source to said trans
former current for causing said core to saturate during
a'half cycle period of said alternating-current source,
and means responsive to the saturation of said core for.
.
appears across the transformer winding 21 and this volt 20 interrupting said current path.
2.. In combination, means for controlling the supply of
age is impressed across. the input of recti?er 10 in series
current to a load circuit from a source of alternating
with ‘the transformer winding 26. The core 29 of trans~>
current the voltage of which may vary and having a sub
former 25 will saturate to reduce the voltages across each
stantiallyv constant fundamental frequency comprising. a
of its windingsv substantially to zero and subsequently
the core of transformer '20 will saturate to reduce the 25 transformer having a winding on a saturable. core of
substantially square hysteresis loop magnetic, material,
voltages across each of its windings substantially to zero.
and means responsive to current in said load circuit for
The voltage duev to the charging of condenser 38 is in
completing a current path for supplying current from said
an opposing direction with respect to the voltage across,
source to said winding to cause said core to saturate
winding22 so that, when the voltage across. winding 22
falls to zero, the. transistor 30 becomes non’conductive. 30 and for subsequently interrupting said current path in
During each negative half cycle period of the supply
source 15,,conduction in transistor 31 is similarly initiated
due to the current ?ow in. winding 26 and the resulting
response to saturation of said core.
3'. Apparatus for controlling the supply of. current. to
a load circuit. from a source of alternating current having
a fundamental frequency which is substantially constant
base circuit of transistor 31. The transistor 31 is held 35 and having a pealc voltage which may vary comprising
a transformer having a winding on. a saturable. core of
conductive by- the voltage induced in transformer wind,
‘substantially square hysteresis loop magnetic material,
ing; 23 because of the current from the supply source
means responsive to current in said load circuit for com
15 ?owing in a circuit. comprising the emitter-collector
pl'eting a current path for supplying- from said source to
path of transistor 31,, rectifying element 34 and winding
said winding current for causing said core to saturate,
21,, all- in. series. When the core 24 of transformer 20
and. means for interrupting said current. path in response
saturates, the voltage across winding 23: is reduced'sube
to saturation of said core.
stantially to zero with the. result that conduction in the
voltage-from winding 27 impressed. upon the emitter.
transistor 31 is interrupted.
4. Apparatus for controlling the supply of, currentto a
load circuit from a source of alternating current having a
, The peak‘ amplitude ofv the successive voltage pulses.
‘thus; produced. across the transformer winding 21. and 45 fundamental frequency which is substantially constant
and having. a peak. voltage. which. may, vary comprising; a
impressed upon the input circuit of rec'ti?erltl increases
transformer having a winding on a. core of. saturable sub,
as.’ the peak: voltage‘ of; the supply source 15v increases
and vice vers .. However, the core 24 saturates. earlier,
stantially. squarehyst'eresis, loop magnetic material, means
vol-tagedslarge. than whenv the supply voltage is‘relatively
from. said source to said winding, and means responsive
smaller. The. area enclosed. by a curve connecting the
instantaneous voltages andv the time axis is, the vsame
to.» a. voltage derived; from said transformer for holding
saidfcurrent pathcompleted for a'period. duringvwhich the
and, therefore, thev voltage: pulse across winding 21 ter- ' responsive. to. current, in said load circuit- for initiating
ininates:earlier-,1v in. a. half cycle period? when the supply 50 the completion of a current path for supplying, current,
flux. in. said core is increasing toward saturation,,said de—
for eachvoltage- pulse-across the winding 21?. The circuit
comprising- recti?er 10 and ?lter 17, 18" averages the 55 rived voltage decreasing substantially to zeroiniresponse,
to saturation of said. core to cause the interruption of. said
voltageimpressed upon the recti?er-?lter circuit from the
current path.
I
,
transformer ‘winding,- 21 to maintain. the direct voltage
5. Apparatus for controlling; the, supply of current: to
across: the. load. 16 substantially constant;
a loadicirjcuit' from a supply, source; of alternating’ current
When transformer core 24 saturates and one of the
transistors: 30 and‘ 311 is fully conducting», a low» imped 60 having ‘a; fundamental. frequency which. is, substantially
constant and having a peak voltage which may; vary;
ance;.path'or. substantially a short-circuit ‘is placed across
comprising» aq?rst and-a secondtransforrner; each having} a
theysupplysource 15 for an’ instant. Since the voltage
across the fully conductingv transistor is veryv low; the
core-of saturable substantially square hysteresis loopma'g
netic material, said ?rst transformer having a ?rst wind
power‘dissipation in the transistor is also veryv low; It
is desirable, of; course, to insert a. very high impedance 65 ing, said' second transformer having; a second winding;
mean'sfor supplying said load. currentv through said sec
in the circuit’ or to substantially ‘interrupt the circuit
ond winding to cause the core of saidsecond transformer
to eliminate the short-circuit as. soon as~possible after the
to.
saturate, means for deriving a ?rst voltagein response
core saturates. For e?icient. Operation, it. is. also, de
to. the, flux in said second, transformer core. increasing
sirable thatthe impedancein series with thesource. and 70 toward
saturation, means responsive to 'said'?rst voltage’
the transformer winding 21 be as low as possible prior
for initiating the completion of a current path for supply
to saturation of the core 24. Because the base current
ing current from said source to said first winding to cause
‘of theytransistor drops to zero immediately when core-24
the flux in said ?rst transformer core to increase toward
saturates, the transistor thus, assumes; its ‘high impedance
saturation, means for deriving a‘ second voltage in' response
state to substantially interrupt the circuit. to thereby re‘ 75 to-‘sai'd increase of ?uii ins'aid ?rst‘transforme'r ‘core, and
5
3,079,542"
means responsive to" said second derived voltage for
maintaining said current path completed during a period‘
starting prior to the time of saturation of said second
transformer core and ending substantially at the time of
6,
a- saturable‘ core of‘ substantially square hysteresis loop
magnetic material, means for'connecting the terminals of
said winding to the terminals respectively of said load,
means for connecting a ?rst terminal of said winding to
saturation of said ?rst transformer core.
5 a ?rst terminal of said supply source, a ?rst current path
6. Means for supplying current to a load circuit from
for connecting the second terminal of said winding to the
a supply source of alternating current the voltage of which
may vary and having a fundamental frequency which is
substantially constant comprising a ?rst transformer hav
second terminal of said supply source comprising a ?rst
rectifying element and a ?rst transistor in series, a second
current path for connecting the second terminal of said
ing a ?rst winding, on a ?rst saturable core of substan~ 10 winding to the second terminal of said supply source
tially square hysteresis loop magnetic material, a second
comprising a second transistor and a second rectifying
transformer having a second winding on a second saturable
core of substantially square hysteresis loop magnetic
material, means for supplying said load current through
element in series, said ?rst transistor and ?rst rectifying
element being poled to conduct current of one polarity
only and said second transistor and second rectifying ele
said second Winding to cause said second core to saturate, 15 ment being poled to conduct current of opposite polarity
a transistor for completing a current path for supplying
only, and means for deriving from said transformer in
current from said source to said ?rst winding to cause
said ?rst core to saturate when said transistor is conduct
response to changes of flux in said core voltages for con
trolling the conductances of said transistors respectively.
ing, means for initiating conduction in said transistor in
10. Apparatus for supplying current to a load from a
response to increase of ?ux in said second core, and means 20 supply source of alternating current the voltage of which
for subsequently maintaining conduction in said transistor
may vary and having a substantially constant funda
in response to increase of flux in said ?rst core, saturation
mental frequency comprising a ?rst transformer having a
of said ?rst core causing said transistor to return to its
?rst, a second and a third winding on a ?rst core of sat
non-conducting state.
urable substantially square hysteresis loop magnetic ma
7. Means for supplying current to a load circuit from 25 terial, a second transformer having a fourth, a ?fth and
a supply source of alternating current the voltage of which
a sixth winding on a second core of saturable substantially
may vary and having a fundamental frequency which is
square hysteresis loop magnetic material, means for con
substantially constant comprising a ?rst transformer hav‘
necting a ?rst terminal of said load and a ?rst terminal
ing a ?rst winding on a ?rst saturable core of substantially
of said ?rst winding to a ?rst terminal of said supply
square hysteresis loop magnetic material, a second trans 30 source, means comprising said fourth winding for con
former having a second winding on a second saturable
necting the second terminal of said load to the second
core of substantially square hysteresis loop magnetic
material, means for supplying said load circuit current
through said second winding to cause the ?ux in said
terminal of said ?rst winding, a ?rst and a second tran
sistor each having an emitter, a collector and a base, a
?rst current path for connecting the second terminal of
second core to change from saturation in one direction to 35 said ?rst winding to the second terminal of said supply
saturation in the opposite direction in response to a re~
source comprising the emitter-collector path of said ?rst
versal of said load circuit current, a ?rst and a second
transistor and a ?rst rectifying element in series, a second
transistor for completing current paths for supplying cur
current path for connecting the second terminal of said
?rst winding to the second terminal of said supply source
cessive half cycle periods respectively of said supply source 40 comprising the emitter-collector path of said second tran
when said transistors respectivel are conducting, means
sistor and a second rectifying element in series, the
responsive to change of ?ux in said second core for ini
emitter-collector path of said ?rst transistor and said ?rst
tiating conduction in said transistors alternately in suc
rectifying element being poled to conduct current of one
cession during successive half cycle periods of said supply
polarity only of said supply source and the emitter-collec
source, and means for subsequently maintaining conduc 45 tor path of said second transistor and said second rectify
tion in said transistors alternately in succession in re
ing element being poled to conduct current of opposite
sponse to change of ?ux in said ?rst core during successive
polarity only, a third, a fourth, a ?fth and a sixth rectify
half cycle periods of said supply source, saturation of said
ing element, a circuit comprising said second winding, said
?rst core causing said transistors alternately in succession
third rectifying element and the emitter-base path of said
50 ?rst transistor in series, a circuit comprising said ?fth
to return to the non-conducting state.
8. Apparatus for supplying current to a load from a
winding, said fourth rectifying element and the emitter
supply source of alternating current the voltage of which
base path of said ?rst transistor in series, a circuit com
may vary and having a fundamental frequency which is
prising said third winding, said ?fth rectifying element
substantially constant, a ?rst transformer for controlling
and the emitter-base path of said second transistor in
the supply of current from said source to said load, said 55 series, and a circuit comprising said sixth winding, said
?rst transformer having a ?rst winding on a ?rst saturable
sixth rectifying element and the emitter-base path of said
core of substantially square hysteresis loop magnetic
second transistor in series, each of said third and fourth
material, switching means for completing a circuit for
rectifying elements being poled to conduct current in the
supplying current from said source to said ?rst winding
same direction as the emitter-base path of said ?rst tran
to cause said ?rst core to saturate alternately in opposite 60 sistor and each of said ?fth and sixth rectifying elements
directions during successive half cycle periods of said
being poled to conduct current in the same direction as
the emitter-base path of said second transistor.
supply source, a second transformer having a second wind
11. Apparatus in accordance with claim 10 in which
ing on a second saturable core of substantially square
there are provided means in said circuit comprising said
hysteresis loop magnetic material, means for supplying
65
second winding for holding said ?rst transistor noncon
said current to said load through said second winding to
ductive in the absence of voltages across said second and
cause said second core to saturate alternately in opposite
?fth windings, and means in said circuit comprising said
directions during successive half cycle periods of said
third winding for holding said second transistor noncon
supply source, and means responsive to changes of flux
in said second core for in part at least controlling said 70 ductive in the absence of voltages across said third and
sixth windings.
switching means.
12. In combination, a load, a transformer having a
9. Apparatus for supplying current to a load from a
core of saturable substantially square hysteresis loop mag
supply source of alternating current the voltage of which
netic material, and means comprising said transformer
may vary and having a substantially constant fundamental
for supplying current from an alternating-current supply
frequency comprising a transformer having a winding on 75 source of substantially ?xed fundamental frequency to
rent from said source to said ?rst winding during suc
7
said load,‘ said‘: means: comprising-means for completing a.
low? resistance; circuit; for. supplying; current from said‘
sourceto said transformer in response to’ an increase of.
current insaid-load circuit near thebeginningof each; half.
cycle period: of, said. supply source and" for subsequently
interrjupting- said. circuit during each half cycle‘ period in’
response‘to the: saturation of; said core.
13., In combination-,_ an ?rst and a: second transformer
each havingawindingzqn a; core of saturable substantially
square hysteresis 1001?: magnetic material, means com-
prising‘v said‘ first transformer for‘ controlling the supply of
8
.
former core is; unsaturated. for causing the.v completion.» of:
at low’ resistance path; for supplying; current from said
source to said winding of said ?rst transformer, and means.
responsive; to a voltagederived from said ?rst transformer
for maintaining said low resistance path for a per-iodin-v
cluding the time at which said second transformer core
becomes saturated and ending at the time that said ?rst‘.
transformer core. becomes saturated.
References Cited‘ in the ?le of this patent:
UNIIED STATES PATENTS,
current: to a, load circuit-from, an» alternating-current
source» of substantially constant fundamental frequency
the. vo1tag‘e.~ofiwhi_ch; may vary, means for connecting said.
2,591,918:
2,632,870
21,753,510’
Cole et a1 _____________ ..__ Apr. 8-,, 1952
Boxer‘et al ____________ _,Mar'. 24; 1953:
Smith" _______________ __ July 3-,, 195.6:
winding of‘ said second; transformer in series: in said load
circuit, means. responsive to a voltage derived from said’
2,764,725
2,772,770v
second-transformer duringperiodslwhem saidfsecondtrans
- 2, 7-98 ,5 7 1
Buie: ________________ __ septa-25,‘ 19-56,
Bruce-ct a1; __________ __ Nov..27, 1956
Schaelchlinv, et; al ________ ._v_ 11113" 9",v 1957
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