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Патент USA US3079651

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March 5, 1963
w. J. cosmos
Filed Nov. 25, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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March 5, 1963
‘w. J. cosmos
Filed Nov. 25-, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
llnited States fPiatent
Patented Mar. 5, tees
aged. The present method of construction and the re
sulting structure of the wheel itself is such that the rim
William 3. Cosmos, 651 Market St, ‘Waulregan, ill.
is adequately bonded, not only to the peripheral web
?anges, but also is integral with a body of the same ma
terial that is held between and bonded to the opposed
Filed Nov. 25, 1957, Ser. No. 698,669
faces of the web discs and consequently is so reinforced
4 (Zlahns. (62. 18-49)
as to withstand the damaging in?uence of the centrifugal
forces generated during use. it is therefore another ob
The invention relates to improvements in industrial
ject to provide a wheel structure of the character de
wheel units and more particularly to high speed contact
wheels for grinding and polishing machines employing 10 scribed with novel means to prevent disintegration by
reason of centrifugal forces.
revolvable coated abrasive belts or sleeves; roller sections
Another object is to provide a novel method and means
for industrial rollers; expanding wheels for mounting
for forming an integral wheel structure embodying the
abrasive belts and sleeves; and to the method of manu
novel features herein described.
facture of such wheels and wheel units. In the use of
a high speed contact wheel an abrasive belt is trained
Hcretofore, considerable di?iculty and expense has been
over and revolved at a high speed around-one or more
involved in making wheel structures having peripheral
such wheels and it is eilectively supported thereby for
working rims of diderent widths and with a web propor
the presentation ‘of the: work thereto. ' Such Wheels, as
tioned in thickness to the rim width so as to insure ade
quate rigidity to the ?nished wheel. Such variation oc
well as wheel units, roller sections and expanding wheels,
have a resiliently yieldable rim or working periphery, 20 curs in instances of integral wheels, segmental wheel units,
which, in some applications, is treaded to accommodate
roller units, or expanding wheels having different face
variations in a belt trained thereover and/or in the work
widths and web thicknesses. These can be made in the
same mold or dies with but slight modi?cation or sub
presented thereto, to facilitate cooling and to prevent
premature wearing of the belt, and marring, marking or
stitution therein. The modi?cation or substitution is eas
mutilation of the work, to make the wheel more or less
ily and quickly accomplished by practice of the herein
aggressive, and to provide ?rm binding of the belt or
sleeve over the wheel while it is in rotation.
disclosed novel method of construction, and it is there
fore another object of the invention to provide a novel
Wheels, roller sections, wheel units and expanding
wheels of this general character are operated at high
speeds, usually in excess of 1500 revolutions per minute,
and they comprise, generally, a mounting hub and concen
tric ?anges forming a peripheral surface connected. to the
hub by a web. More specifically, one example of such a
prior type of wheel structure has the hub, web and pe
ripheral surface formed as a unit, as by casting; the
?anges thereof extending in opposed directions on each
side of the web.
The resiliently yieldable rim or work
ing periphery is wrapped around and bonded to the out
side circumferential face or" said peripheral surface. The
method of manufacture which is readily adaptable for
making contact wheels or wheel elements of diderent
widths and having dl?erent degrees of rigidity in the web
portion thereof.
Another object is to provide a novel sectionalized in
dustrial roller.
With the foregoing and other objects in view which
will appear as the description proceeds, the invention con
sists of certain novel features of construction, arrange
ment and combination of parts hereinafter fully described,
rim, it smooth surfaced, is then milled or otherwise
illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and particu
larly pointed out in the appended claims, it being under
stood that various changes in the form, proportion, size
formed in any conventional manner with circumferential
and/or laterally directed channels, grooves or slots, so
departing from the spirit of sacri?cing any of the ad
as to provide a peripheral working surface having a multi
plicity of ribs, lands or islands, each having the requisite
resiliency and yieldability to function for its intended pur
pose. The working surface
sure uniformity of diameter
The construction of such
wheel structure involves an
is then dressed so as to in
and dynamic balance.
a known type of industrial
excessive amount of costly
labor and time, and it is therefore, an object of the inven
tion to provide a novelly constructed inexpensive industrial
wheel structure of the characte herein referred to.
Ordinary industrial wheels or wheel units of known
types tend to wobble to some degree, particularly when
used singly, while operating with a high power output,
primarily because of the inherent resiliency of the stock
comprising the web. Such wobble causes lateral shifting
of a belt trained thercover, and furthermore, there is sound
generation, uneven wear on the belt, sleeve, arbor, or
and minor details of the structure may be made without
vantages of the invention.
Referring to the drawings in which the same charac
ters of reference are employed to indicate corresponding
or similar parts throughout the several ?gures of the
FIGURE 1 is a diametrical section view of the nov
elly assembled contact wheel.
FIGURE- 2 is a diametrical sectional view of the die
or mold assembly, showing the dies in open position and
the wheel material positioned therein.
FEGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE 2, showing the
die assembly closed.
FlGURE 4 is a peripheral view of a segmental con
tact wheel, showing parts in section.
FIGURE 5 is a peripheral view, partly in diametrical
section, showing an expanding wheel embodying the fea
tures of the invention.
wheel unit itself, and the danger of wheel explosion is 60 FEGURE 6 is a peripheral view of an industrial roller
great. It is therefore another object of the invention
built up of removable and interchangeable sections each
to provide a wheel structure with novel means to prevent
constructed by the herein disclosed method.
such wobble.
‘During high speed operation of a wheel, the bonded
resiliently yieldable peripheral rim is subjected to tre
‘FEGURE 7 is a fragmentary diametrical sectional view
of a wheel unit, embodying a modi?ed form of con?
The high speed contact wheel and wheel units ‘disclosed
mendous centrifugal forces which tend to expand the rim
herein and embodying structure for overcoming the afore
outwardly radially and should the bonding of the rim
to the metal web ?ange be inadequate, or should there
mentioned disadvantages and characteristics of known
be air pockets in the rim material, the rim is liable to be 70 types of wheel structures, is made by pressure molding
come ruptured and disintegrate, in which event serious
in a heated die assembly. It comprises essentially, a pair
injury may result to the operator and the machine dam
of peripherally ?anged web discs tabricated, as by stamp
ing, ‘from sheet metal stock, which are seated in the open
die, and which have a mass of unvulcanized rubber, nat
ural or synthetic, of predetermined volume placed there
between. The dies of the die assembly include a tread or
rim forming cavity and when the dies are moved toward
plate 11 and terminating at its perimeter in a shoulder 23
and a surrounding annular surface 24. The shoulder 23
is of a height correspondingsubstantially to the width of
the flange 13 on one of the web plates 11, so that when,
said one plate is placed over the surface 22, as is best
shown in FIGURE 2, its ?ange 13 embraces the shoulder
23. The plate, and its ?ange, is thereby ?rmly backed
lbs.,per square inch) as is common practice during the
by the die surfaces 22-23.
molding operation, the unvulcanized rubber mass is dis
The other or lower die 17 of the die assembly is ar
tributed evenly between the web discs at a thickness de
termined by the setting of'the discs, and the rubber ex 10 ranged below and in ‘axial alignment with the upper die
21. The central die portion '18 is of such size as to receive
truded from between the discs ?ows outwardly radially
the-reover the other web plate 11 which plate is seated on.
into and ?lls the rim forming cavity which may or may
the top face of the die and has its peripheral ?ange 13.
not include landor tread forming con?gurations; The
snugly embracing an annular shoulder 25 surrounding said
whole is then heat treated or “cooked” at temperatures
ranging-from about 280° F. to, 320° F. for a period of 15 die surface. The surrounding die portion or collar 19
one another (usually at a pressure of approximately 2090
time required, to vulcanize the rubber and to bondit ?rmly
to the contacted metal surfaces of theweb discs. ‘When
the wheel structure is removed from the die it is mounted
on-an arbor :androtated :at high speeds, and dressed. The
amount of. .dressing required is nominal and is primarily
for ‘the purpose .of-obtaining a dynamic balance in the
wheel, ‘and for ‘removing the central circumferential area
of ‘thejperipheral worksurface which ‘bulges outwardly
constitutes the peripheral rim of the die assembly and this
collar is ‘recessed on its upper face, as at 26, to provide
a cavity in which thepworking surface or rim 15 of the
contactwheel is formed in a manner to be described
;As shown, the collar19 has an upper peripheral edge
27 which is carried into surface contact with the sur
rounding surface 24 of the upperlvdie when the dies are in
the closed position shown, in FIGURE 3. The vertical
at the circumferential center owing to applied centrifugal
forces. The dressed wheel unit structure, when idle, will 25 inside annular surface 28 of the recess or cavity 26 may
be smooth or itmay be formed with inwardly facing ribs,
therefore have a slightly concave surface laterally, which
or other mutually spaced projections 29 adapted to form
surface assumes a ?at condition during rotation of the
the lands 31 on the working periphery or rim 15 which is
formed in the cavity. In either event, the annular sur
The contact wheel 10 illustrated in FIGURE 1 is fabri
cated in anovel manner to vbe described presently. It 30 face 28 terminates at its lower end in a planular surface
comprises a pair of circular web plates 11, fabricated, as
bystamping, from heavy guage sheet metal stock, hav
ing-aligned axial openings 12 and each is formed on its
32 which is in horizontal alignment with the downwardly
disposed free edge of the bottom web plate ?ange 13 car:
ried on the central die portion 18.
If desired, either one of the dies 17 or 21 may carry an
outer perimeter with a peripheral ?ange 13. When as~
sembledin a contact ‘wheel, the web plates 11 ‘are main 35 axiaLpost 33 adapted to extend through the axial openings,
12 in the web plates 11 and telescope into an axial recess
tained in spaced relation one to the other by the presence
35 in the other die when the dies are closed. In the pres
of a layer of rubber‘14 of predetermined thickness there
ent disclosure, the post 33 is carried by the lower die
bemeen and with their peripheral ?anges extending out
wardly in opposite directions. These ?anges constitute a 40 portion 18.
The molding of 1a wheel structure of the character 'here
peripheral surface upon which is bonded a resiliently
in disclosed involves the placing of a web .plate 11 on the
yieldable rim or working periphery 15 that is integral
lower die, as illustrated, while said dies are separated.
with the intermediate layer of rubber 14. There is thus
The exposed face of said plate 11 preferably is rough
provided a contact wheel 10 ‘having a resiliently yieldable
ened by sand blasting and is coated with a bonding adhe
working, periphery or rim that is bonded ?rmly to the
plate ?anges '13 and is integrallylconnected to a'layer-of 45 sive. A predetermined mass 34 of unvulcanized rubber,
natural or synthetic, is then placed upon the top surface
rubber. 14 interposed between and bonded to the opposed
of said web plate whereupon the upper die 21, carrying
facesof the plates 11. '
the other web plate 11, similarly coated, is moved relative
‘The web plates 11 and the layer 14 therebetween con
stitute the web of vtheicontact wheel and because of the
increased thickness afforded said web by the presence of
the interposed layer 14 and the fact that the said layer is
'bonded ?rmly to both discs, said web ?at resists distortion
while the wheel is in use and accordingly avoids wobble
to the die 17 andsuf?cient pressure is maintained on the
mass sandw'iched-therebetween to compress the mass be
tween the matched web plates 11. The pressurizing is
accomplished in the presence of su?icient heat, supplied
to the die assembly in any suitable manner, such as for
example through ducts 36 therein, so as to maintain the
known practices. The presence of the web layer 14 has 55 rubber mass in pliable state.
‘Thedistance of travel of the upper die 21 relative to
other distinct advantages which will become apparent as
sooften present in wheels constructed according to prior
the lower die assembly 17 is limited by contact between
the peripheral edge 27 of the surrounding die collar
19 with the surface 24. This distance is such thata
segments disclosed in FIGURES 4, i5, 6 and 7, and later
described, disclosed in FIGURE 1, is fabricated in a 60 predetermined quantity of the rubber mass is uniformly
distributed between the web plate 11 with the excess
novel manner'by a simple inexpensive one-step molding
r?owing outwardly radially into the cavity 26 so as to
method illustrated in FIGURES 2 and 3. The entire
fcgm the working periphery or rim 15 of the contact
wheel is made in one integrated body of metal and rub
w ee .
The walls of the cavity 26 are previously coated '
her by~a moldingprocess in ‘a heated die assembly gen
the description proceeds.
‘The contact wheel 10, as well as the wheel units and
erally indicated ‘at 16. vAs shown, the die assembly in 65 with a bond resisting powder or like substance. This
cludes a lower die ,17 which-is'co’mprised of a central die
powder or like substance is not brushed or wiped 'o?
portion IS'and'a’surrounding die portion or collar‘19,
by the radial flow of the extruded rubber into the cavity,
and an upperrdie 21. . One ofthese dies 17 or 21 is sta
cavity through a feed opening in the peripheral wall of
tionary, while the other one is carried on a vertically recip-.
as so often occurs when the mass is ?owedinto the rim
70 a die assembly. Any material in excess over the amount
required to fill th space between the plates andpin the
vertically toward and awayfrom the ?rst named die.
cavity, may escape through bleeder holes 37 provided
The said upper-die 21 has a downwardly facing diesur
in an adequate number in the dies 17—21, which holes
face formed‘ with an annular ‘downwardly offset surface
also insure proper bleeding of any ,air trapped in the,
22 Ma diameter'corresponding to the diameter of 1a‘ web 75 die during its closing operation.
' '
rocal hydraulically plunger (not shown) for movement
The closed die assembly, with the rubber properly
distributed therein, is allowed to remain closed for a time
required to effect vulcanization of the rubber and its
?rm bonding to the opposed faces of the web plates 11
and to the peripheral ?anges 13 thereof, after which the
die assembly is opened and the contact wheel 11 is
_ 'In the event that it is desired to provide hub portions
likelihood of the rim tearing loose from the peripheral
web ?anges to which it is also bonded. Furthermore,
the tensioning of the web layer between the Web plates
to which it is bonded, in response to contrifugal force,
CPI not only reduces the inherent ?exibility of the web struc
ture, but it also exerts a lateral force inwardly on each
web plate so as to increase the rigidity of said web plates
and thereby eliminate all tendency of the web to wobble.
Although rubber, natural or synthetic, is suggested
38 on each side of the web, this may be e?ected during
the molding operation. To this end, the upper die 21 10 herein as the material best suited for the fabrication of
and the die portion 13 of the lower die may each be
the rim and the web layer integral therewith, other elastic
formed with an axially concentric cavity 39 of such size
or resilient.y compressible moldable material capable of
as to receive therein one of the rubber hub portions 33.
tight bonding to metal may be used, and in a Wide
These hub portions are in surface contact with the outside
range of densities for different speci?c uses.
faces of the respective web plates 11 and they are ?rm 15
It is believed that the invention, its mode of con
ly bonded thereto during the pressurized vulcanizing op
strnction and assembly, and many of its advantages
eration previously described.
should be readily understood from the foregoing without
It should be quite evident at this time that applicant
further description, and it should also be manifest that
has provided a novel means for pressure molding a wheel
while preferred embodiments of the invention have been
structure wherein the rim or working periphery thereof 20 shown and described for illustrative purposes, the struc
is bonded ?rmly to the ?anges of the metal web plates
tural details are nevertheless capable of wide variation
and is integral with the reinforcing layer of material
within the purview of the invention as de?ned in the
appended claims.
distributed evenly between and bonded to said plates.
The thickness of the interposed layer and the width of
What is claimed and desired to be secured by United
the rim may be varied by increasing or decreasing the ef— 25 States Letter Patent is the following:
fective depth of the perimeter wall 28 of the die collar
1. The method of making an industrial Wheel in a
19'. Consequently, the herein disclosed process and meth
mold assembly which comprises the placing of a disc
od may be employed in the production of contact wheels,
having a circumferential ?ange on its outer periphery
or wheel or roller units, of different face width and web
and extending from one face thereof onto a mold surface
thickness with but a slight variation in the equipment 30 with the ?ange extending downwardly, arranging a mass
of unvulcanized rubber of predetermined volume upon
FiGURE 4 shows a wide faced contact wheel com
the upper face of said disc, placing a like disc over the
posed of three wheel units 16a, each corresponding in
mass with its ?ange extending upwardly, pressing the discs
structure to contact wheel it? in FIGURE 1, which are
toward one another to distribute the rubber uniformly
between the discs and cause a portion thereof to be ex
made by the herein disclosed method. Wheel unit Ida
differs from wheel it} in that web layer 1411 is thinner than
web layer 14, and the Wheel unit has a narrower periph
truded outwardly radially beyond the ?anged peripheries
eral face or rim 15a. The thinner web layer 14a in
a wheel unit is satisfactory‘ because of tight face-to-face
said ?anges, and ?nally vulcanizing and bonding the rub
abutment of the units which affords rigidity to the wheel
of said discs, molding the extruded rubber into a cir
cumferential rim on the outside circumferential faces of
her to the opposed faces of the discs and to the ?anges.
2. The method of making an industrial Wheel of a
FIGURE 5 shows an expanding wheel or hub unit ltib
fabricated like the wheel and wheel units 10 and lilo.
type having spaced circular metal plates bonded to an
intermediate layer of rubber and a rim integral with
Expanding wheel 10b is designed to receive slidably
thereovcr working sleeve 41 which is ?rmly held during
rotation of arbor 42 by centrifugal expansion of threaded
periphery rim 15b. This wheel has a thick web layer
14b integral with rim 15b and bonded between web plates
said layer and embedding the peripheral margins of said
plates, said method comprising placing one plate in, a
circular mold cavity having a rim forming cavity into
which the peripheral margin of said plate projects, ar
and which includes a thin web layer 24c bonded between
and cause a portion of said mass to ?ow outwardly radial
ranging a mass of unvulcanized rubber of predetermined
volume on said plate, placing a second like plate over
FIGURE 6 shows an industrial roller 43 composed 50 said mass with its peripheral margin extending into the
rim forming cavity, pressing the plates toward one an
of several interchangeable and replaceable roll units 160,
other to distribute the mass uniformly between the plates
each of which is made by the within discribed method
ly and fill the rim forming cavity and embed the periph
These roll units may be smooth surfaced, as shown, or 55 eral margins of the plates therein, subjecting the molded
they may be treaded as required.
wheel to heat to vulcanize the rubber, removing the mold
FIGURE 7 shows a contact wheel unit fabricated in
ed wheel, and ?nally mounting the wheel on a rotating
arbor and dressing the peripheral surface of its rim.
the same manner as the wheels and wheel units described
web plates 11c and integral with its peripheral rim 15c.
hereinabove. In this instance the w eel unit includes a
3. The method of molding an industrial wheel of a
pair of sheet metal web discs 11d which are devoid of 60 type having spaced circular metal plates bonded to an
any peripheral ?anges. Instead the peripheral margins
intermediate layer of rubber and a rim integral with
said layer and embedding the peripheral margins of said
plates, said method comprising placing one plate in a
peripheral rim 15d, as at 44, and said rim is integral
with the resiliently yieldable web layer 14d interposed
circular mold cavity having a rim forming cavity into
between and bonded to the opposed faces of the web 65 which the peripheral margin of said plate projects, ar
of the discs are embedded in and bonded to the resilient
A contact wheel, roller unit or wheel unit, made ac
cording to the teachings herein disclosed will have a long
er wearing life and will not wobble during high speed
working operations. When such wheels are rotated at
high speeds required for e?icient use, the centrifugal
force acting on the rim- is transmitted throughout the
entire body of the integral layer of rubber between the
web plates with the result that such radial stress is sub
stantially absorbed by the said layer thus reducing the
ranging a mass of unvulcanized rubber of predetermined
volume on said plate, placing a second like plate over said
mass with its peripheral margin extending into the rim
forming cavity, and then heating the said mold and
pressing the plates toward one another to distribute the
mass uniformly ‘between the plates and cause a portion
of said mass to ?ow outwardly radially and ?ll the rim
forming cavity and embed the peripheral margins of the
plates therein.
4. The method of molding an industrial Wheel of a
type having spaced circular metal plates bonded to an
intermediate layer of rubber and a rim integral with said
rubber and bond it to the plates, and ?nally ‘dressing
layer and embedding the peripheral margins of said
the peripheral
of its
in the
‘rim.?le pf-this-patent
plates, said method involving the use of a circular mold
having hub cavities and a rim- forming cavity, placing 5
rubber hub members one in each hub cavity, arranging
a pair of like plates one over each hub member .with
their peripheral margins projecting into the rim forming
Smith _____‘___ __________ __ Nov. 22, 193;;
cavity, arranging a mass of unvulcanized rubber of pre 10
.Piiron ______ _,____I______ Apr. 20,_ 19.48
Heinish ___I ___________ __ Apr. 13, 1954'
' Van Deventer _.._..>_______ Aug. 28,1956
determined volume between said plates, pressing the
plates toward onenanother to distribute the mass uni
formly between the plates and cause a portion ,of said
mass to ?ow outwardly radially and around the pro
jecting plate margins and ?ll the'rim forming cavity, 15
subjecting the molded wheel to heat to vulcanize the
1,101,559 '
‘ 550,800
V ’ 675,679
Bansieur ______________ __ Oct. 2,v 1928
Carthew _____________ .._ Feb. 20, 1934
France a _____ _>____H_..>..___ Oct. 7, 1955
Germany ---V---l--+- May 20, ‘1932
Great Britain 'v._.v_f_u___-__l__ ‘July'l6, i952
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