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Патент USA US3079675

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March 5, 1963
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed Nov. 19, 1959
Fig. 2
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March 5, 1963
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed NOV. 19, 1959
L eonard F. Lander;
William 6‘. Bologh
March 5, 1963
Filed Nov. 19, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
United States Patent 0 ’ ice
Leonard F. Landon, 23226 Hazelhurst, South?eld, Mich,
glndh‘v‘lilliarn 6. Balogh, 32227 Chester, Garden City,
Filed Nov. 1‘), 19-39, Ser. No. 856,633
9 Claims. {CL 29-76)
Patented Mar. 5, 1963
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary bottom view showing
schematically the motions of the two ?le blades, this view
showing that the blades cut in a direction of motion oppo
site to each other.
FIGURE 7 is a partial top view of a species of our
invention employing adjustable leaf springs for imparting
This invention relates to a power operated body ?le and
a predetermined compressive force to the ?le blades 110
and 111.
FIGURE 8 is a partial sectional view along the line
more particularly to a conversion kit for a belt sander
by which the sender is converted to a body ?le.
which the ?le blades 110 and 111 are compressed to a
One of the principal objects of the invention is to pro:
vide a power operated ?le wherein each ?le blade has its
cutting stroke opposite to the adjacent blade. This elimi
8—-—8 of FlGURE 7 showing, in detail, the structure by
predetermined amount by the leaf springs to which they
are connected.
In the accompanying drawings, FIGURES 1-5, there
15 is shown a power operated body ?le 10 that is constructed
nates any push or bucking in either direction.
in accordance with the invention. The illustration shows
A further object of the invention is to provide a power
a belt sander 12 which frame 14 and other structural
operated ?le whose blades cut when moving in directions
parts are used in the construction of the body ?le. The
opposite to each other and wherein the blades are sup
parts shown in FIGURE 5 are arranged as a kit for ap
ported in such a way so that they are capable of floating
through a limited range, allowing each ?le blade to rise 20 plication to the sander 12. However, it is to be clearly
understood that the invention need not be practiced in
and fall in accordance with any irregularities on the panel
this manner. Instead of converting a belt sander, the
surface that is being ?led.
power operated body ?le may have its own specially de
A further object is to provide a power operated ?le
signed frame and a drive mechanism that is arranged
whose blades are ?exible so that they conform to the
25 along the lines of the drive mechanism for the ?le shown
contour of the surface being ?led.
in FIGURE 5.
Another object of the invention is to provide a power
Frame M has a drive shaft 16 extending transversely
operated body ?le whose principal purpose is in connec
across its lower part. Chain 18 drives a sprocket 2%? on
tion with the repair of motor vehicles but which has much
the end of shaft 16 and the chain and sprocket are en
wider application. A power operated body ?le is charac
cased in a housing 22. Stout bearings 24 and 26 mount
terized by the suspension of the ?le blades and the way
shaft for rotation. it has throws or cams 23 and 30
that they move with respect to each other, one cutting
fixed thereto, as by welding and these are located in such
while moving forward and the other cutting while moving
a manner that the connecting rods 32 and 34 are recipro
rearward of the main frame of the tool. Although the
cated in opposite directions in response to rotation of
principles of the invention are applicable in connection
with a self-contained power tool, one embodiment of the 35 shaft 1’. Base plate 36 is secured by bolts 38 to the
frame 14 and functions as a backing strip for the endless
invention involves a kit to convert an ordinary belt sander
sanding cloth or paper in the ordinary functioning .of the
into a power operated body ?le. A further embodiment
of the invention will utilize a separate frame especially
A mounting plate 49 is ?tted beneath the plate 36 and
is attached to it by studs 42 that pass through holes jour
Another object of the invention is to provide a power
naled or otherwise formed in plate 36. Fore slots 44 and
operated body ?le whose blades are adjustable in such a
as are in plate 49 while aft slots 44% and 59 are also in
manner that they may have imparted to them a predeter
plate 4% and for a similar purpose. The purpose of all
mined compressive force. In this manner, the stiffness
of the slots is to form a guiding function for the two
of the file blades and their resistance to bending may be
holders 52 and 54 located beneath plate 49. Each holder
adiusted to suit the contour of the surface being ?led.
is preferably hollow and square in cross-section. ins 56
A further object of the irvention is to provide a practi
and 53 are ?xed to the bottom walls of the holders and
cal ?le whose use will materially reduce the effort involved
pass through openings in the top walls thereof as well as
in ?ling metal. In the repair of motor vehicle bodies or
open through the slots are and 44. Aft pins 6% and 62
other metal panels, the ?ling of the metal, lead, etc. is
quite di?'icult
involves manual ?ling. Our invention 50 are similarly attached to the two holders, and they pass
through the aft slots 5% and ‘i8. Collars s4 and :56 are
considerably reduces the effort necessary on the part of
disposed on the upper ends of pins 58 and 56. Each
the mechanic in making such repairs. Moreover, our
collar has ears 63 and 76 respectively thereon and lower
tool is smoothly operative in that the ?le blades out while
flanges which seat on the upper surface of plate sill. The
moving in opposite directions, each absorbing the reaction
ears are fitted between the forks 74 and 75 at the outer
thrust of the other.
extremities of rods 34 and 32. Wrist pins 73 and 3%
Other objects and features of importance will become
pass through aligned holes in the forks 74 and 76 and also
apparent in following the description of the illustrated
in cars 63 and '76. The opposite ends of the rods have
form of the invention.
circular bearings 32 and 34 that are disposed on the throws
in the drawings:
tailored for the body ?le .
FEGURE l is an elevational view of a ?le constructed
in accordance with the invention, parts being shown in
section to illustrate details of construction;
FIGURE 2 is a sectional View taken on the line 2-2
of FIGURE 1;
FEGURE 3 is a transverse sectional view taken on the
line 3——3 of FlGUR-E 2;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the
line 4-4 of FIGURE 2 and showing a part of the means
for establishing a floating mount for one of t e ?le blades;
or cams 2S and 3% thereby establishing a drive connection
between the power operated shaft 16 (usually driven by
an electric motor in the frame 14) and the ?le blade
holders :32 and 54.
The ‘ile blades 9% and $2 are of standard construction
insofar as their shape and the teeth are concerned. They
are sufficiently ?exible, however, to conform to the con~
tour of the surface being ?led. It is observed from
FEGURE 6 that the blades are arranged with the teeth
opposite to each other. When blade 9t) is cutting as it
moves in one direction with respect to frame 14, blade 92
FIGURE 5 is an exploded perspective view of the parts 70
is also cutting but it is moving in the opposite direction
that are applied in an ordinary belt sander in order to
convert that sander to a body ?ling tool; and
with respect to the frame 14. ' Then when the files return,
neither cuts. The action of the blade holders and the
blades is reciprocatory since side plates 93 and 94 which
depend from one edge of plate 49 function as guides to
take up side thrust of holder 54 and similar plates 95
adjusted so that the ?le blades are placed under relatively
slight compressive forces. This makes the blades more
flexible and enables their conformance to the highly curved
surface. Conversely, if the surface being ?led has a more
and 96‘ depending from the opposite edge‘ of plate 40,
exercisesa similar function with'regard to blade holder 52!.
gradual contour, the blades can be adjusted so that they
are more highly compressed and do not bend as readily.
With the wide variety of curvatures presented by the vari:
' Three studs 98 rise from the rear surface of blade 90
ens-body‘ surfaces ofmodern automobiles, it' is now pos
and a like number of studs 99 rise from the rear surface
sible with our invention for the worker to preset the com
of blade 92. 'Each of the studs, is accommodated in a
‘similar shock. absorbing mount which enables the ?ex 10 pressive forceapplied to the ?le blades- so that they will
be best suited for the particular surface being ?led. This
ible blade to rise and fall and’ also bend in accordance
enables a uniformity of workmanship heretofore found
with the depressions over which, it is moved.‘ A typical
impossible. The worker can now know in advance the
‘such mount is shown in FIGURE '4 and consists of a
precise setting required in order to position‘ the ?le blades
case 199 which is-?xed to the bottom wallof blade holder
54. Bolt 192 is passed through a hole in the top of the 15 for any surface. with an assurance that‘ the ?le will per?
form in the desired-manner
case and is threaded into bar 104 that slides as aplunger
in‘ use: the power operated-?le-ishandled much‘like an
within the bore of case 100, Spring 196 seats on’ the sub
electrically operated belt sander. It is held'by one but
stantially closed top wall of case 100 and on tbe'upper
preferably two, handsandapplied-against. the surface. that
surface of plunger 104. The spring exercises a yielding
opposition to the inward-movement’ of theplunger; Stud 20 isto bev ?led; The‘bladehold'ers. 52.and'54 are recipro
cated- through the. action. of the connecting rods and other
98' is threaded. in atapped bore- of ‘ plunger 104 thereby
partszof thepower. train between shaft16 :and the blade
‘connecting the bladein a7separable-manner tos-theplunger.
holders 52.and.54... It. is'important; that the blades: cut
A further species of: our'invention- is‘. shown in FIG;
while their strokesarein opposite directionsso that the
URES '7v and 8 whereby the ?le'blad'es 1'10 and’ lll'ware
adjustably and ?exibly mounted on leaf springs 112' and 25 reactiveforceof eachds; absorbed by. the other.. It'gi'sof
113. The leaf springs are connected to ?le blade holders
115 and 117 which function in the same manner as- the
further importance that the ?exihle‘blades: be mounted-so
that'they, are capable; of‘; ?oating slightly, and bending so
?le blade holders 52 and 54 as shown in FIGURE 3 of
as. to provide. for feel in. the tool asthe mechanic uses'it
and to enable the blades. to. ride over. irregularities and
the drawings. The ?le- blade holders 1'15; and 117 are
shown in phantom in, FIGURES 7 and 8, since these 30 depressions.andzto-conformto thesurface being ?led.v
?guresrelate primarily to theleaf spring construction and
the manner in which the leaf spring is used in, adjustably
compressing the ?le blades. The leaf springs 112 and
113 areconnected to the holders 115 and 117 by means of
screws 114 which are threadably engagedin bosses 116 35
a?ixed to the under portion of'the/blade. holders by-con
ventional means such as welding.
The leaf springs are longer than and extend beyond
the ends of the blade holders'115 and-{117. On the upper
surface of the leaf‘ springs, there are scribed numbers as 40
In. general, the. power operated body ?le of our inven+
tion employs a relatively short strokejof the ?le blades
in. the order ofzoneaquarter to threeand one-half. inches.
Alongerstrokecan be. employedalthough a stroke within
this‘rangeis preferredsince ithasbeen found that itsuse
enables more readily maintaining the contour. ofithework
being?led; Witha shortstroke, the'?le. bladesr’tend-to
keep clean sincezthe. ?led material is discharged from/the
blades ontheir return strokes. With hand ?lesLwhere-a
long .strokemustbe employed,the ?le bladesquicklybes
shown at 121 in FIGURE 7. These numbers are posi
comeidirty'sothat itis necessaryrto periodically stop and
tioned radially around threaded holes in the leaf springs.
Attached to opposite ends of the leaf-springs are hinge
cleanv them .before further ?ling can be accomplished
The ?exible nature of the ?le. blades employedvin our
body'?leenablesthe?le'blades to adhere to the surface
supports 119 which are a?i'xed to the springs through con
ventional means such as welding. A?ixed to‘ the inner 45 being ?led. Thisisiaccomplished merelyby exerting pres
sure on the?lebyi'theoperator. When ?ling depressions
surface of‘ the lower portion ofthe hinge supports 119
or dents, ,ouri?le may be‘placed. directly over'the dent so
are spacers 120-having holes threaded therein. The ?le
thatthe ?lev blades: exert-pressure on either. side of.2 the
blades 110.. and. 111‘ are ?rmlyv held- to the hinge supports
dent-or depression but vnotiinit. This is importantsince
through means of screws 122 which threadably'engage
the holes in spacers 120.
50 depressions. are normally ?lledup-with solder. prior. to
?ling. The solder isssofter thanthe. adjacent-metal and
After being connected’ to the hinge supports; theblades
is, therefore, more; easily removed; With hand?ling,
are compressed'by engaging the end of screws 118 with
there; is'zatendencyto remove .more metalifrom the sol
the upper surface of the spacers 120. Screws 118 have a
dered portion than from the adjacent-metal areas. Asa
pointer, 122 ai?xed to the upper- surface’ of their heads.
As the screws are rotated so- as to exert pressure against 55 result, thesurface is‘ not ofuniform contour. Since the
?le blades in our ?le press. against theiadjacent hard metal
the spacers 120, the pressure appliedis indicated, by. the
areas, the portion of the ?leblades lying‘ over the solder
position of the pointer 122 relative to the scribed mark
containing. depression automatically; assume the correct
ings 121‘ on the upper surface of the leaf springs.
contour of the surface as determined 'by the contour of
Through this means, it is possible to adjust to a predeter
mined amount the compressive force exerted on the blades 60 the adjacent metal areas. Thus, our ?le bridges the
solder-?lled depression and maintains the true contour of
il?-andlll. If the compressive force exerted on the
the surface even though the solder is softer and more
?le blades is the same at each end, the blades will be
readily ?led than the surrounding metal surfaces.
boweddownwardly so that‘their. low point coincides with
Because of the relatively high rcciprocatory. speed of the‘
the middle of the blades. If the compressive force exerted
on one’ end of the blade is greater than that exerted on 65 ?le blades in our body ?le, the blades have What may be
the- other end, the low point of- the blade-will be dis
de?ned as a hammering action in reducing or‘ shrinking
placed fronrthe middle toward the end of the blade on
raised portions on the metal surface being ?led. On their
which the least compressive force is asserted.
return stroke, the blades slide over the raisedv portion in
As described in the preceding paragraphs, the structure
such a manner that‘each' ?le tooth imparts a downward
possessed" by the species of our» invention set forth in 70 force against the raised metal. Thus, the blades are
EIGURES 7'andj 8, enables adjustment of' the ?leiblades
over an in?nite ran'geof compressive stresses; In'use,
the- blades press against-‘the surface being ?led so that
they tend ‘to assumethe; curvature of ,that'surface. If‘ the
sprfagehas anextremecurvature;_the screws 118 can be
functioning on their return stroke; as‘, well. as: on their
forwardstroke; On their return stroke, the the teeth ham
merv the raised portions'so‘ asto shrink ‘them, and on their
forward stroke they ?le the raised portions.
The hammeringgaction of the ?le. blades ‘in our body
leaf spring having a plurality of holes drilled there
through at positions adjacent its ends, said ?exible ?le
blade connected to said leaf spring through hinge means
a?xecl to the ends of said leaf spring and also to said
?le makes possible ?ling operations which heretofore
have been found impossible. With a hand ?le, it is next
to impossible to shrink the metal in a raised portion on
the metal surface being ?led. If the operator attempted
to remove the projection by hand ?ling, he succeeded only
?le blade, adjusting means comprising a screw thread
ably engaged in said holes in said leaf spring and en
in ?ling a hole through the metal which then had to be
soldered or welded. It was, therefore, necessary to ?rst
gaging the upper surface of said ?exible ?le blade so
that one rotation of said screw said blade is placed under
shrink the projection by striking it with a hammer and
then attempting to ?le out the hammer marks. In using
a predetermined compressive force.
4. in a power operated body ?le including a recipro
our ?le, what was formerly accomplished in the two steps 10
catory ?le blade holder, the improvement comprising a
of hammering and ?ling is now accomplished in one op
?exible support means mounted on the underside of said
oration with a ?le whose blades cut on their forward
?le blade holder which support means is capable of flex
stroke and hammer on their return stroke.
ing in both a vertical and horizontal direction, a ?exible
A further bene?t accruing from the use of our improved
body ?le is that the metal is heated by the rapid action 15 ?le blade adjustably connected to said support means,
and adjusting means mounted on said support means in
of the ?le blade. In the case of ?ling with a high speed
operative relation to said ?le blade whereby said ?le blade
grinding disc or high speed sander, heating of the metal
can be placed under a predetermined compressive force.
can be a disadvantage since it is di?icult to control. Our
5. The power operated body ?le of claim 1 in which
?le does not cause such extreme heating so that the heat
ing can, with reasonable care by the operator, be used 20 the length of stroke of said ?le blade ranges between
about 1A to about 31/2 inches.
to great advantage. As is commonly known, warm metal
6. A power operated body ?le comprising a frame,
is softer and easier to cut than cold metal. This enables
guide means mounted on the underside of said frame,
the use of badly worn ?le blades in our body ?le which
ile blade holders positioned slidably against said guide
would not be suitable for hand ?ling. They perform very
well in our ?le, however, since the soft, warm metal is 25 means, drive means mounted on said frame and con
nected to said ?le blade holders so that the holders are
readily cut even with dull blades.
reciprocated with the adjacent holders being reciprocated
The foregoing description is considered as illustrative
in opposite directions, a plurality of ?exible ?le blades
only and should not be implied as limiting the scope of
in which adjacent blades are positioned with their cutting
our invention. Numerous modi?cations and changes, such
as for example operating the ?le from a remote power 30 surfaces oppositely disposed and ?exible support means
capable of ?exing in both a horizontal and vertical direc
source connected to the drive shaft 16 through means of
tion connecting said blades and said holders so that the
an adjustable shaft, are within the scope of our invention.
lades can ?ex in both a horizontal and vertical direction
Further, it is not necessary that the ?le blades be rec
and can thereby conform to the surface being ?led.
tangular in cross section as shown. For certian types
7. The power operated body ?le of claim 6 in which
of surfaces, it may be desirable to employ ?le blades hav 35
adjusting means are mounted on said ?exible support
ing, for example, a half-round or semi-circular cross
means in operative relation with said ?le blades whereby
section. It as an essential feature of our invention,
said ?le blades can be placed under a predetermined
however, that the ?le blades be ?exible so that they can
compressive force.
conform to the surface being ?led. Use of blades hav
ing a cross sectional area which would not permit ?exi 40
bility is, therefore, not within the scope of the invention.
Having fully de?ned our invention, we desire to be
limited only within the scope of the appended claims.
8. The power operated body ?le of‘ claim 7 wherein
the adjusting means compries a screw threadably engaged
in said ?exible support means and bearing against said
flexible ?le blade.
9. The power operated body ?le of claim 6 wherein
This application is a continuation-in-part of appli
cation, Serial No. 671,290, ?led July 11, 1957, now aban 45 said flexible support means is a leaf spring having a
plurality of holes drilled therein at positions adjacent
its ends, hinge means a?ixed to the ends of said leaf
We claim:
spring and being connected to said ?le blade, adusting
‘1. In a power operated body ?le including a frame,
guide means mounted on the underside of said frame,
means comprising a screw threadably engaged in said
means, and drive means mounted in said frame for im
of said ?exible ?le blade so that on rotation of said
screw, said blade is placed under a predetermined com
a ?le blade holder positioned slidably against said guide 50 holes in said leaf spring and engaging the upper surface
parting reciprocatory movement to said ?le blade holder,
pressive force.
the improvement comprising a ?exible ?le blade, a ?ex
ible support means connecting said ?le blade to said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?le blade holder, which support means can ?ex in both 55
a vertical and horizontal direction so that said ?le blade
can ?ex both vertically and horizontally and thereby
conform to the surface being ?led.
Schwabe ____________ __ Aug. 11, 1931
2. The power operated body ?le of claim 1 wherein
Lovelace ____________ __ Dec. 30, 1941
Drefahl _____________ .._ May 12, 1942
Lapkoff ______________ __ June 6, 1944
Cole ________________ __ Jan. 3, 1950
Skillman _____________ .._ Jan. 26, 1954
the adjusting means comprises a screw threadably en
gaged in said spring means and bearing against said
?exible ?le blade.
3. The ?le of claim 1 wherein said spring means is a
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