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Патент USA US3079691

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March 5, 1963
Filed July 29, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Mardi 5, 1963
Filed July 29, 1959
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Patented. Mar. 5, lâh?,
Stephen A. Dier, Warren, and Albert W. Gail', Fraser,
Mich., assignors to Thompson Ramo Wooldridge lne.,
Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Filed July 29, 1959, Ser. No. 830,239
3 tìlaims. (Cl. L29-432)
FIGURE l is an enlarged fragmentary side elevational
View, with parts in section, showing a socket as produced
in accordance with the principles or" this invention and
mounting therein an illustrative form of ball stud;
FIGURES 2 to Stare fragmentary sectional views
showing successive steps in the formation of a socket
from a solid metal rod;
FIGURES 6 and 7 are enlarged fragmentary sectional
views of punch inserts which may be used in the practice
-The present invention relates broadly to the art of
metal forming, and is more particularly concerned with 10 of the instant method; and
a novel method of extruding sockets of the character
employed in vehicular steering linkages.
It is an important aim of the present invention to
provide a method ot making tubular sections closed at
one end thereof and which features advancing an elon 15
gated punch member forwardly into a confined solid
FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary sectional view of a step
of this method, generally corresponding to the step of
FIGURE 5, and in which the punch insert of FIGURE 6
is employed.
Brieily stated, a tubular section is formed on an end
of a round bar in accordance with the instant method
by locating a length of round bar stock in a stationary
die member having a stepped cavity therein providing
a relatively large diameter mouth portion, a relatively
Another object of this invention lies in the provision of 20 small diameter end portion, and an intermediate diam
eter portion connecting the mouth and end portions.
a method of forming tubular members provided with
The diameter of the bar stock corresponds to the diam
an integral solid shank at one end utilizing only a single
eter of the cavity end portion, and one end of the bar
die member and a single punch assembly of relatively
stock bottoms against the end of the cavity end portion.
simple construction, and by which a solid metal rod may
be continuously extruded into socket configuration pro 25 With the bar stock so seated in the die member cavity,
a punch assembly is then advanced toward the bar stock.
ducing a structure of superior physical properties and at
The punch assembly comprises an outer supporting
substantial time savings as compared with existing struc
member receiving a sleeve member movable relative to
tures and methods.
the support, and a punch member which is slidable within
A further object of this invention is to provide a method
of making a tubular member having an integral solid 30 the sleeve member. Advancement of the punch assembly
metal body to cause a rearward metal flow of the body
along the outer diameter of the punch member to form
the tubular section.
vshank at one end and which features the steps of con
fining an enlarged solid head portion on a metal bar
locates one end of the sleeve member in bottoming con
tact with the die cavity mouth portion, and slidable
movement of the punch member within the sleeve mem
ber and against one end of the seated bar stock extrudes
in one direction, and moving the head portion relative to
an elongated punch surface to direct said surface into 35 or bulges the stock at one end to conform with the die
cavity intermediate portion, thereby forming an enlarged
the head portion while ñowing the metal mass from said
head on the bar stock. Continued advancement of the
Ahead portion along the outer diameter of the punch sur
punch member within the sleeve and against the stock
face and in the opposite axial direction to form a tubular
head portion, with the sleeve member seated against the
vhead section integral with a reduced diameter solid shank
against radial expansion and against axial movement
40 die cavity mouth portion, initiates a backward extrusion
of the metal mass in the head portion. This backward
A still further object of the instant invention lies in
extrusion of the metal mass causes rearward axial travel
the provision of apparatus for making a tubular member
of the sleeve member and a flowing of the metal mass
provided with an integral solid shank at one end, and
along the outer diameter of the punch member. The
which embodies a die member having a stepped cavity
-therein providing a relatively large diameter mouth por 45 punch member is continuously advanced into the enlarged
head portion of the bar stock to elongate the head por
Vtion, a relatively small diameter end portion, and an
tion along the punch outer diameter until a tubular section
intermediate diameter portion connecting the mouth and
of the desired axial length and wall thickness is provided.
end portions; and a punch assembly comprising a sup
Other features of the invention include punch inserts to
porting member, a sleeve member received in the sup
porting member and movable relative thereto, and a 50 be mounted on the punch active end, and these inserts
are ejected from the punch active end when the punch
punch member slidable within the sleeve member, the
sleeve member being sized to the diameter of the die
member is withdrawn, to leave at the base of the socket
a stop which bottoms the spring of the socket assembly.
cavity mouth portion and the punch member being of
Further features of this method will be brought out in
lesser diameter than the die cavity intermediate portion,
the detailed description which now follows.
whereby an enlarged solid head portion of a metal bar
coniined in the cavity intermediate portion is extruded
The present method is of proven successful application
axially along the punch outer diameter~ while simul
in the formation of sockets of the horizontal type em
taneously the sleeve member is moved in the same axial
ployed with drag links, tie rods and the like in vehicular
direction by the extruding metal mass.
steering linkages. The method will accordingly be spe
Other objects and advantages of the invention will 60 ciiically described in this connection herein; however, 'it
become more apparent during the course of the follow
will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the dis
ing description, particularly when taken in connection
closed and claimed forming method is additionally of
with the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings, wherein like numerals designate like
parts throughout the same:
substantial utility in the production of articles having
other end uses.
Referring now first to FlGURE l, there is shown a
received in or housed by the cavity mouth portion'33.
Movement of the sleeve member 41 is then terminated,
and sequentially thereafter the punch member 42 is di
rected forwardly toward the bar stock 30 and relative
to the sleeve member 41 to initially form the bar stock tok
the configuration shown in FIGURE 3.
By action of the punch member active end 42a against
the restrained bar stock 30, 'and while the cavity interme
socket assembly generally de'signated‘by 'the legend S and
formed in accordance with the principles of this inven
tion. The socket S comprises a solid shank portion 1t)
and an integral tubular head portion 11 at one end thereof.
The head portion11 has one side wall thereof apertured as
at 12 to receive a ball stud 13, which in turn may mount a
Pitman arm connection 14 held thereon by nut means 15.
The ball stud 13 is provided with a relatively slender stern
Aor shank portion 16 connecting with a roundedheadpor
diate portion 35 is closed bythe sleeve member 41 at one
_.,tionl'î received in a` pair ofbutton bearings v18 and 19.
end thereof, the end portion> of the bar stock 30 outwardly
of the cavity shoulder portionv 36 is ’radially or- transverse
'Íljh'e'` bearingî19 Ais held in 'positionïby a plugvZtì threaded
"'into'thefopen end ofthe sockettubular'portion'11,.and the
_opposite bearing _18 is ~bottomed by oneend of a spring Y,
...2,1 received about a shank '22‘of'a spring bottoming or
ly bulged'as indicated in FIGURE 3. The 'endportion '
ofthe b_ar stock duringvcompaction may have an‘inter
mediate expanded section ’43 of maximum diameterfvcon
‘stop’member 23. ‘The spring 21Y'1nayr be `'seen to bottom 15 necting at opposite ends' Withtapered 'expanded portions
4d and 45. 'Ultimately however, as the punch member
.f at its opposite end against a collar 24 formed` on the Asto-p
_ 23, 'andthe stop' may. further i belforme'd with' a_ pyramidal
t 42 continuously advances against the restrained'bar stock
.30, the end portion'of the bar stock occupies 't'hefentire
“hea'd'ÉS 'whichsea'ts in a ‘cavity'26 Vo_'f‘cgnrq'il,ementary
A__Shape. rIhe __ball stud headpor'tionj17 ,andbearings 18 u _closed intermediate cavity portion'lìi's'extending> "from vthe i
'_19 mayjbe lubricated througha'hole vor openin'gíz’l in 20 `cavity'shoulder» portion 36 tothe dat endjwall'41a ‘of the
.' another .side wall >ofthe socket tubular jhe'ad `vportion 111. l sleeve member 41.
"The socket S'is'form'ed of va"ny`o`“r"tl:te‘known' steels 'suit
This is inmunes is FIGURE 4whicnfsh0ws‘ the vstoer
head‘portion'as the punch member active'endi4'2 moves
`able for thispurpose, and the’socket may. be seen to have
fa solid "shankp'ortion 18 of round ‘crossfse'ction'connect- '
_ling With‘thetubular headportiondl _by a rounded shoul
¿der portion ’j The 'tubular >portion §11 „h_asjconcentric
-itinerand 'outer diamefersfthroughout, andas will be later
described in connection with YFIGURES 6 and 8,5,the stop
'..Oír spring Yhòtwmirlg 'means 23111215' belocated in the Posi
therein. However, prior to Ithe punch member initiating
a lmetal ñow therealong; the closed >intermediate `cavity
portion 35 is entirely ñlled` by the metal'massï'provide'd
Yby the bar stock portion extending axially' outwardly'ff?om
the cavity shoulder portion 36, as shown in FIGURE V«2.,
Upon completion of the forming step shown in uninter->
“ tion' shown interiorly "ofthe tubula‘rvportìoni as aïstep in 30 mediate status in 'FÍGURE 3, the -bar stock has "an e'n
larged head'portion `46 (FIGURE 4) thereon, vwhich
n .',Tihe formingrprocess islinitiatedfby locating roundbar
as earlier noted completely’iìlls the v>intermediate'_c'zlc'J'sÄed
_cavity portion 35. It may thereby be‘seen that the `stock
'_‘stock 30 of a predeterminedll'ength"in a die Vmemberßl .
'in the manner‘sh'own .in FIGURE 2. The die member '31
Íhas ga‘s'tepped cavity „provided therein, and the cavity
:comprises a _relatively .shallow _mouth _portion A33 'having
head portion 46 is coniined against transverse o'r radial
outward movement -by the side walls of the cavity inter
“mediate portionSS, 'and further, is confined against axial
Amovement in a direction opposite to *the'direction'eof
_'arelatively'large diameter andßbnnecting with a relatively
)punch movement by the cavity shoulder portion-36.
‘As> the punch member 42 is advanced' continuously
,f cavity portionrâS. connects with `the'cavity end portion 34 40 `Aagainst the confined stock headportion'ddgthe punch vac:
'_isrnàll 'diameter cavity _end portion 34 by _an intermediate
"diameter cavity I portion _35. "_'Ih'e Àintermediate diameter
tive end 42a penetrates or enters the metalmassÍin'the
"byrneansgof a generally rounded'sho’ulder 36, and as
Yhead portion 46 essentially astshown inFIGURE Y4. »iÁs
illustrated therein, the vpunch active end'42a initially forms
_shown inFIGURE 3, the cavity end pt_:vrtionV 34 terminates
at 37v in the die member.’ 31.V The cavity end portion 34 is
¿sized to thefdiameter ofthe barstock' 36„ and when the
ïbarsstock is seated in the die cavity,32_,'one end of the
v'a recess k46a in the'headportion 46, or as otherwise stated,
the metal mass at the punch end of the headportion '4.6
extrudes in’a’direction opposite'to the direction of punch
_',stocklbottoms‘against the cavity Vwall 37fto’restrain >the
'jf'st'ock agains'taxial travel during fthe 'forming operation.
„Aus locatedv inthe positionlsh'owniin ’FlGUREL‘the Work
`movement or rearwardly to form an annularV neck sec
tion ‘4611 Von the stock head portion 46. During rearward
,or backward metal movement and .forward punch mo’ve
¿piece ,or bar stock 30 is Vconcentrically Vspaced‘from the
vfolavity mouth and intermediate portions 33 vand 35, andV 50 ment, forming the annular neck portion 46b,1the fouter
Yend `of the continuously extending neck yportion exerts
'_Aone'endrof, thebar stockprotrudes axially'outwardly from
va rearward axial force against the essentially ilat end .face
4the cavity 32„'oras may be otherwise Stated, from sur
41a of the sleeve member 41 to move said sleeve-mem
Y __'façe 31a of 'they' die member‘31.
@The 4diejrnernber 31 is preferably. held stationary during
_',practicefof the steps'of this method, and 'employed with
th'ejdieniember `31. is va punch'ïassembly ' generally desig
ber in the direction of metal flow. As shown in FIGURE
Á’Qnated' by thenurneral38, The punchassembly 3S `con-i
>_prises en_imovable outer support member '39' having van
4, the vannular neck portion 46!) is in 'sliding hugging con
tact with the punch outer diameter, vand in the illustrated
phase of the forming step the sleeve member 41'has're
ceded approximately one-half of the depth 'of the cavity
V"ope'rìingldß therein slidably receiving a movable annular
mouthportion 33 to open a space-47 between the sleeve
Q_s‘leeve'v member 41 of concentric inner and outerdiarn 60 end face`41a and the bottom -Wall 33a of the-cavity mouth
[eters 'Receivedby the sleeve member forA axially slidable
„movement therewithin is ‘a punchrmember42 of >round
-"cross-section 'andhaving asubstantially flat active end
portion 33.
,faceézzn AIt will now v'be seen that the support member
of `the stockrproduces a shape essentially as shownin
Continued advancement of the punch member .active
en'df42a into the enlarged and restrainedvhead _portion 46
'39, sleevemembe'r 41 and punch member 42 of the punch 65 FIGURE 5. VThis view illustrates the completionV of vthe
` assembly '38 are movable 'relative to oneanother, and suit
<extrusion operation and shows retraction of the punch
able meansare of course provided vto eiîect this relative
member 42 subsequent thereto. The sleeve member »41
has been driven rearwardly by the moving annular metal
fmovemem. _,
f .
l `-Äsan initial step in the practiceof the instant method,
mass a distance essentially equal to that of the mass ex
the punch assembly 38 is advanced toward the'die mem 70 tending outwardly from the ,surface „31a of the ,die Vmem
ber 31. The entire punch assembly 38 is then completely
y"iber v31 with the bar'stock 30 located therein as shown in`
`VFIG'URE'Z.Y ' During this advancementrelatively 'ilat fac'e
`,414 ofthe sleeve members?! abutsfagaînstlbattom,wall
“33d 0f lille Cal/ifi( mouth Í’ÓIÍIBOD' '33,- ABÍS ÍllÍÍS‘ÍÍaÍed in FIG
y URE 3, and one end of the sleeve member 41 is thereby 75
,retracted-tto _a position generally that shown ¿in .FIGURE
2, 'and the 'die'member 31 may `beopened to removethe
formed part therefrom.
The part as produced by the steps described is indi->
URE I1 by punching a keyhole slot or other aperture 12
cated by the numeral 4S in FIGURE 5, and may be seen
in the side Wall for receiving the ball stud 13 and by in
to comprise a solid shank portion 49 and a tubular head
ternally threading the open end for receiving the plug 20.
portion 50 which connects with the shank portion 49 by
The tapped hole 27 for a grease fitting may be formed by
a rounded shoulder portion 51 conforming to the contour
punching or drilling the side wall.
of the die cavity shoulder 36. The tubular portion 5€)
lt is to be understood that many changes and modifica
accordingly has a cylindrical cavity 52 formed therein
tions from the herein specifically described and illustrated
with an essentially straight bottom 52a conforming to
embodiments may be effected without departing from the
the essentially flat active end 42a on the punch 4Z. By
novel concept of this invention.
the steps described, the annular head portion 50 of the
We claim as our invention:
extruded part 48 has concentric inner and outer diameters, 10
1. A method of making a tubular member having an
and it may be found that adjacent or outwardly of the
integral solid shank of smaller diameter at one end which
open end of the tubular portion 50 the walls are slightly
tapered, as at 53, and this taper may be removed in the
conñning and restraining one end of a rod member of
ñnishing operations.
a predetermined length and uniform diameter against
rthe shaped article 48 of face FIGURE 5 is then iin
axial and radial movement,
ished to produce a socket S as shown in FÍGURE l.
upsetting the other end of said rod member While said
The open end of the formed part 48 is threaded to receive
one end is confined and restrained to form an en
the plug 2e, the apertures 12 and 27 are provided therein
larged head portion with said other end integral
and the end wall 52a of the head portion cavity 52 formed
with an elongated shank portion of said one end,
to receive the spring bottoming device 23. However, as 20
conñning and restraining the upset end against radial
will now be described, the end wall or spring bottoming
expansion and against axial movement in the direc
device 23 may be located essentially as shown in FiG
tion of said one end, and
URE 1 by using it as a separable punch nose in the ex
while continuously maintaining the solid shank sec
truding step.
tion stationary and the upset end restrained, mov
Referring to FIGURE 6, a punch member 54 may be 25
ing an elongated punch of uniform diameter in the
provided having an end portion 5S with a recess 56
direction of said one end and into said upset end
formed therein to receive the shank portion 22 of the end
while ñowing the metal mass from said upset end
wall or spring bottoming means 23. The collar portion
along the outer diameter of said punch in the direc
24, of the stop or spring bottoming means 23 abuts as
tion opposite the direction of movement of said
shown against end wall 55a of the punch end portion 55. 30
punch to form a tubular head section integral with
A punch of the character shown in FIGURE 6 is em
a solid shank section of smaller diameter.
ployed with an identical die member 31 and identical
2. A method of making a tubular member havin-g an
support member 39 and sleeve member 41, as shown in
integral solid shank of smaller diameter at one end in
FIGURE 8. Like numerals have accordingly been ap
plied to like parts in this View, and upon completion of the 35 accordance to the method of claim 1 wherein said elon
gated punch member has a spring bottoming device re
extrusion operation the punch 54 is withdrawn to leave
leasably attached thereto, and embedding said spring bot
embedded in the formed metal mass the spring bottoming
toming device in the base of the formed tubular section
device 23. Metal movement in all other respects is the
by said punch member during the formation of said tubu
same as earlier described in connection with the preceding
views, and one advantage of the punch construction shown 40 lar head section.
3. A method of making a tubular member having an
in FiGURES 6 and 8 is a relatively longer tool life. In
integral solid shank of smaller diameter at one end which
addition, since the spring bottoming device 23 is em
bedded in formed part 57 as part of the extrusion opera
locating a rod member of predetermined length and
tion, subsequent ñnishing of the part 48 is not required
uniform diameter in a cavity having a relatively
to receive the stop or spring bottoming device.
large diameter mouth portion, a relatively small
The use of the end Wall 23 as a separable nose on the
diameter end portion having a diameter equal to the
punch 54 provides a new active end on the punch for each
extruding operation and maintains desired dimensions
diameter of the rod member, and an intermediate
diameter portion connecting the mouth and end por
for the cavity being formed. Machining steps can be
eliminated and sharp corners can be provided at the end 50
conñning and restraining one end of said rod member
of the cavity by this removable nose to prevent interfer
The nose can assume
against axial and radial movement by bottoming the
any desired shape and need not have a spring bottoming
function. Since it is tightly embedded in the metal being
pierced and extruded, the punch nose can be readily re
one end of the rod member in said cavity end por~
outwardly from said intermediate cavity portion,
leased from the punch by rearward punch movement to
partially closing said intermediate cavity portion by
ence with inserted components.
leave the nose secured in the end of the cavity.
In substitution for the male punch insert or nose 23
of FIGURES 6 and 8 there may be employed a female
punch insert or nose 58 as shown in FIGURE 7. A punch 60
member 59 may have a solid head or tongue portion 69
provided at one end thereof receiving in relatively tight
ñtting contact the cap member nose or female punch
insert 5S.
The nose 5S may thus be seen to be essen
tially in thimble form and surrounds the linger or head 65
portion 60 of the punch 59. In the manner described
in connection with FIGURES 6 and 8, the nose or punch
insert 53 is embedded in the base of the interior of the
tubular section, and upon retraction of the punch 59 re
mains therein to bottom a suitable spring structure.
The punch member construction employed in the prac
tice of the steps of the instant invention may accordingly
be seen to be susceptible of wide variations.
The sockets formed by this invention are finished for
use as housings for ball joints of the type shown in FIG 75
tion, the other end of said rod member extending
a sleeve member telescoped in spaced relationship
over said other end of said rod member and inserted
in the cavity mouth portion,
upsetting the other end of said rod member while said
one end is coníined and restrained to fill the cavity
intermediate portion and form an enlarged head por
tion with said other end integral with an elongated
shank portion of said one end,
confining and restraining the upset end against radial
expansion and against axial movement in the direc
tion of said one end, and
while continuously maintaining the solid shank section
stationary and the upset end restrained, moving an
elongated punch of uniform diameter in the direc
tion of said one end and into said upset end while
flowing the metal mass from said upset end along
the outer diameter of said punch in the direction op
posite the direction of movement of said punch to
move the sleeve member from said cavity mouth por
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