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Патент USA US3079743

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March 5, 1963
P. DUMMEL
3,079,733
GRINDING MACHINE
Filed Oct. 28, 1957
INVENTOR
Pa u/ Dz'z'mzzz 2/
BY
ATTORNEYS
iii
gal
$379,333
ittop,talented
Mar. 5, 1953
2
both provided by the present invention, have the particu
3,979,733
lar advantage that they make it possible to carry out a
linear polish of the workpiece, while prior art grinding
machines for frontal and circumferential polishing could
only carry out a surface polish. Linear polish has by
comparison to surface polish the great advantage that the
GRZPIBL‘JG
'nmel, Hulhen, near Urach,
Wit-trite. berg, Germany
Filed ‘Get. 28, 1957, Ser. lilo. 692,779
Claims priority, application Germany 9st. 27, 1956
ll Claims. (or. 51—94*)
This invention relates to a grinding machine for cir
cumferential grinding and polishing.
Circumferential polishing has a number of advantages
relatively to frontal polishing. For example, during cir
cumferential polishing the grinding disk is used up to a
lesser extent and more uniformly, and there is a
lesser tendency for the clogging up of the pores, etc.
However, circumferential grinding and polishing can be
used only in cases which are concerned with the grinding
edge and not with the surface of the workpiece contacting
the circumference of the grinding disk, since this surface
we
~iece is heated to a considerably lesser extent than
du
5 surface polish, and that the pores of the polishing
E
disk will not be stuffed up. These advantages are of the
10
greatest inportance for practical purposes, since they
make it possible to grind or polish steels which are easily
damaged by heat, with not too skilled labor, whereby an
easy grip of the polishing disk is always assured.
A further advantage of providing a movement along a
path tangential to the polishing disk in the case of grind
ing machines for circumferential grinding, consists in that
the workpiece can be set out of contact with the grinding
disk to the extent of any desired thickness of chip, where
by this chip thickness gradually diminishes during the
acquires the same curvature as the circtu .ference of the 20 movement of the workpiece upon the large circle, irre
disk, due to the fact that in this type of grinding the feed
takes place radially to the disk.
An object of the present invention is to improve a
spective of any high speed with which the feed movement
of the workpiece has taken place.
On the ‘other hand, in grinding machines known in prior
grinding and polishing machine of the described type.
art the workpiece must be always moved toward the
Other objects of the present invention will become ap 25 grinding disk very slowly and precisely when the work
parent in the course of the following speci?cation.
piece is being shifted out of contact with the grinding
In accomplishing the objects of t.e present invention,
disk. Despite every possible precaution it cannot be al
it was found desirable to arrange the holder of the work
ways avoided, as far as prior art grinding machines are
iece in such manner that it is capable of swinging, the
concerned, that the grinding disk will become ?at or un
construction being such that during the grinding the
round at the location of contact with the workpiece moved
holder moves swingably along the path which contacts
to the extent of a chip thickness.
the grinding disk.
In the grinding machine of the present invention, how
A particular advantage of the construction wherein the
ever, such damages to the polishing disk are eifectively
workpiece is so mounted that it is capable of a swinging
avoided clue to the gradual contacting of the grinding disk
movement along a path tangential to the grinding disk, in 35 with the workpiece which is moved to it either tangen
the case of circumferential grinding, is that the surface of
tially or upon a large circle. The grinding disk is then
the workpiece which is ground or polished during move
used up uniformly upon its periphery and it does not
ment along this path has no more curvature or a prac
have to be treated any more with a diamond to restore
tically negligible curvature. The radius of the curvature
its roundness, as in the case of prior art grinding machines.
of the polished surface depends upon the radius of the 40
These advantages of the grinding machine of the
swinging movement. For most constructions it is en
present invention are not only important for economic
tirely suf?cient when this radius is twice as great as the
reasons, since in prior art the polishing particularly of
radius of the polishing disk, whereby the axis of the
cutting steels had to be carried out only by skilled labor
swinging movement, which extends parallel to the axis
possessing a good ?nger touch and decades of experience,
of the polishing disk, is located upon the opposed side
but also in that a great saving in grinding disks has be
of the pohshi-“g disk. However, it is also possible to
come possible. Actual experiments have shown that
guide the workpiece holder in such
that the work
grinding disks of the machine of the present invention
piece is reciprocable in a plane tangential to the grinding
of the same quality, and being subject to the same treat
disk. For that purpose the holder of the workpiece can
be re i: .
bly guided in precisely worked guides. This
he advantage that the polished surface
will be precisely plane.
is two to three times greater than that of disks in prior
art machines, thereby attaining a saving of from 50% to
75% as far as grinding disks are concerned.
According to another embodiment of this invention, the
mounted upon an axis
workpiece holder is swngably
'
which is parallel to
axis of the grinding disk and
which is located upon the other side of the grinding disk.
in this construction the curvature of the polished surface
'
ment as in prior art machines, have a life span which
*‘
practically all cases occurring in actual
ctice 1t is equivalent to a precisely plane surface. This
A particular advantage of the swinging faculty pro
vided by the present invention resides in that the work
piece can be moved without e?ort upon the path pre
scribed by the present invention.
it should be noted in this connection that throughout
the speci?cation and claims the term “swingably sup
ported system” is meant to de?ne a system which can be
construction has, however, the great advantage that the 60 reciprocated without any substantial resistance.
ne swing g movement takes place
ay rrom the area which is dirtied by the
sand produced during the rubbing off of the grinding disk.
Furthermore, '
such a construction it is easier to provide
small supporting friction and thus assure an easy recipro
cal movement of the workpiece upon a path tangev tal to
the grinding disk, than in the case of a guide extending
upon a plane
ial to a polishing di k.
T movement of the workpiece upon a plane tangen
tied to the grinding
as well as its movement upon a
lar 5 e circle contacti .2.. tne surface of the grindin
disk,
According to one embodiment of the present invention,
the support about which the oscillatable system contain
ing the workpiece carrier is swingable, is also movable in
an atrial direction.
This embodiment can be further con
structed so that
support is movably mounted in guid
ing rails upon ball bearing strips, so that the entire oscil
latable system can be easily shiited perpendicularly to its
swinging plane. Due to this arrangement it is possible
in ‘the case of workpieces which are considerably nar
rower than the grinding disk to move them during the
swinging movement in the axial direction of the grinding
screens
0
4
disk over the entire width thereof, so that the grinding
disk is uniformly used up throughout its circumferential
and carrying a counterweight 13. In ‘this construction
the movement of the workpiece during the grinding oper
=9
thickness even when grinding workpieces which are nar
ation takes place in the directions of the double arrow
14. In other respects this construction is the same as
‘rower than the grinding disk.
The invention will appear more clearly from the fol UK those previously described.
It will be noted that in the constructions shown in
lowing detailed description when taken in connection
FIGURES l, 2 and 3, the workpiece is moved during the
with the accompanying drawing showing by way of ex
grinding operation upon a large circle which contacts the
ample preferred embodiments of the inventive idea. It
circumference of the grinding disk 1. On the other hand,
will be noted that the individual features hereinafter dis
closed can be carried out individually or combined with 10 in the constructions shown in FIGURES 4 and 4a, the
workpiece is moved along a tangential line 15 (FIG. 4),
one or more embodiments.
contacting the circumference of the grinding disk 1 car
In the drawing:
ried upon the shaft 2.
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic side view illustrating the
In the construction shown in FIGURE 4 the holder
principle of a grinding machine of the present invention.
FIGURE 2 is a diagram atic side View illustrating a 15 5 which carries the workpiece is ?rmly connected with
a supporting rod I6 which is guided in guides 1'7. Any
different embodiment.
suitable means (not shown) may be used to reciprocate
FIGURE 3 is a diagrammatic side view illustrating yet
the rod 16 with the holder 5 in the directions of the
another embodiment.
double arrow. The workpiece 6 will then move along the
FIGURE 4 is a diagrammatic side View illustrating the
line 1:‘; and will contact the disk 1.
fourth embodiment.
FIGURE 4a shows a further development of the con
FIGURE 4a illustrates in diagrammatic side view a
struction
wherein the workpiece is moved along a tan
somewhat diiferent construction.
gential line; it illustrates two guides 18, which are swing
FIGURE 5 is a side view of a grinding machine for
ably mounted at 37' upon a supporting frame 15'. The
circumferential grinding constructed in accordance with
members
18 operate as tongs and are pivotally intercon
the principles of the present invention.
nected at 19. They are also connected at their pivots by
FIGURE 6 is a top view of the machine shown in
a spring 4%. Furthermore, the members 123 are connected
FIG. 5, some parts being shown in section.
at 19 with levers 21), the free ends of which are guided
FIGURE 7 is a diagrammatic illustration of the move
in a horizontal guide 21. The frame 16’ for the work
ments of a workpiece which is narrower than the grind
piece holders has a guide '22 in which the joint 19 is
ing disk during the grinding process.
guided. It is apparent that due to this tong-like arrange
The diagram of FIGURE 1 illustrates the principle
ment the workpiece holder 5 will be reciprocated along a
according to this invention of the construction of a grind
ing machine for circumferential grinding, that is, where
straight line extending tangentially to the circumference
other end of the carrier 4 and is used to carry the work
mounted upon a workpiece holder 5.
of the grinding disk 1.
in the circumference of the grinding disk engages the
FIGURE 5 illustrates diagrammatically a grinding ma
workpiece. A support 3 is located above the grinding 35
chine constructed in accordance with the principle shown
disk 1, which is rotatab-ly mounted upon a shaft 2. A
in FIG. 3. As illustrated in FIGURE 5, the grinding
carrier 4 is mounted upon the support 3, so that it can
disk 1 is rotatably mounted upon a shaft 2 and is adapted
swing about an axis parallel to the shaft 2 of the grind
to
engage a steel 6 which is to be polished and which is
ing disk 1. A workpiece holder 5 is mounted upon the
The holder 5 is
mounted upon a carrier 4 in such manner that it can be
piece 6. The workpiece ho‘der 5 is movable in the di
shifted backwards and forwards in the direction of the
rection of the feed and is adjustable in the directions of
double arrow 23 with respect to the feed spindle 7. This
its height and width in the usual manner (not shown),
mounting of the workpiece holder 5 is best shown in FIG.
so that it'is possible to subject any desired surface of the
workpiece 6 at any desired angle to the grinding and 45 6 and it includes two telescoping tubes 24 and 25 as well
as dove-tailed guides 26 and 27. The parts which are
polishing operations. The carrier 4 and the workpiece
not covered by the outer tube 24 are enclosed by two
bellows 28 and 29.
The carrier 4 consists essentially of two arms which
In operation, during the grinding or polishing process,
are
supported upon bearings 3 in such manner that the
50
the carrier 4 and the workpiece holder 5 can be easily
carrier 4 can swing about an axis extending parallel to
swung backwards and forwards in the direction of the
the direction of the shaft 2. For that purpose the bear
double arrow 8 relatively to the feed spindle 7, whereby
ings 3 are ?rmly connected with a rail 43 having the
the surface of the workpiece being polished describes a
shape of an inverted U and movable longitudinally in the
circle about the support 3 which contacts at 9 the cir
55 directions of the double arrow 43 upon ball bearing
cumference of the grinding disk 1.
strips 38 carried upon a guide rail 31.
FIGURE 2 also shows a grinding disk 1 carried by a
A curved arm or tube 32 has one end which is ?rmly
shaft 2 and a carrier 4 connected with a workpiece holder
connected to the carrier 4 intermediate the ends of the
5.‘ This construction differs from the one shown in
carrier. The tube 32 extends in a curve over the sup
FIGURE 1 in that in the construction shown in FIG. 2,
port
3 and the U-shaped rail 4-1, and has a rear end lo
the support 3' for the o-scillatable system consisting of the
cated behind the guide rail 31 and carrying a counter
carrier 4 and the holder 5, is located below the disk 1,
holder 5 form a system which is oscillatory due to its
swingable suspension.
weight 33. The Weight balancing produced by the weight
so that the workpiece holder 5 carried by the carrier 4
33 must be such that the torque resulting from the forces
is reciprocably swingable over the grinding disk I in the
of gravity and acting upon the swingable members 4 and
directions of the double arrow It}. The angle of oscil
lation of the oscillatable system 4, 5, is limited by two 65 5 is completely balanced.
In order to eliminate the necessity that the tube or
stops 11. In other respects, the construction and opera
lever arm 32 must have an excessive length or that the
tion of the device shown in FIG. 2 is essentially similar
counterweight 33 must be quite heavy so as to follow
to that shown in FIG. 1.
the above stated requirements for the balancing of the
FIGURE 3 also illustrates a construction having a
grinding disk I carried upon the shaft 2 and a carrier 4 70 forces of gravity, a further lever 34 is provided in the
apparatus. The lever 34 is pivotally mounted upon a sup
provided with a workpiece holder 5. In this construction
port 35 and has two arms
and 314". The arm 34'
the carrier 4 is swingable upon a support 3" which is
carries a second count weight 36 whicn can be shifted
located to the side of the grinding disk 1. Furthermore,
upon the 34' and placed in any desired position. The
in ‘this construction the carrier 4 is rigidly connected or
second arm 31%” carries at its end a member having a
integral with an ‘arm 12 extending beyond the support 3"
3,079,733
5
guiding slot 37. A pin 38 is located within the slot 37
and is carried upon a bracket 39 which is ?rmly con
nected with the carrier 4. Due to this arrangement the
arm 34" presses against the pin 33 and this pressure acts
against the weight of the carrier 4 and the parts con
nected therewith. The weights 33 and 36 must be so
selected that the swinging system composed of the mem
bers 4 and 5 is balanced in each swinging position.
The operation of the machine has been already de
scribed in connection with the diagram illustrated in
FIGURE 3. Practical experience has shown that the
6
piece and of the ?rst-mentioned arm, and a counterweight
carried by said lever arm.
3. A grinding machine for circumferential grinding,
said machine comprising, in combination with a rotary
grinding disc and a workpiece holder; a pivoted freely
swingable manually operable arm having an end portion
carrying said workpiece holder for swinging it during the
grinding along a path tangential to the circumference of
said grinding disc about an axis located beyond that side
of the grinding disc which is opposite to the point of
Contact of the grinding disc with the workpiece, manually
saving in grinding and polishing disks attained by this
operable means connected with said arm for shifting said
machine is from 50 to 75% greater than in prior art con
workpiece holder in the direction parallel to the axis of
structions.
rotation of said rot ry grinding disc, a curved arm con
FIGURE 7 illustrates diagrammatically the movements 15 nected with the ?rst-mentioned arm and extending in a
of a workpiece in relation to a grinding disk 1, which is
direction opposite to that of the ?rst-mentioned arm and
rotatably mounted upon a shaft 2 and which is substan
beyond the pivot thereof, and a counterweight carried by
tially wider than the workpiece. In that case the work
the second-mentioned arm.
piece will be moved relatively to the grinding disk 1 along
4. A grinding machine for circumferentially grinding
the zigzag path indicated diagrammatically by the nu 20 a workpiece, said machine comprising, in combination
meral 42 in FIGURE 7.
with a rotary grinding disc and a workpiece holder, a
it is apparent that the examples shown above have
pivoted carrier having a freely swingable manually oper
been given solely by way of illustration and not by way
able end portion carrying said workpiece holder for guid
of limitation, and that they are subject to many varia
ing it alone a path tangential to the circumference of said
tions and modi?cations within the scope of the present
grinding disc and for swinging it back and forth along said
invention. All such variations and modi?cations are
path during the grinding, means connected with said car
to be included within the scope of the present invention.
rier for shifting said workpiece holder in the direction
What is claimed is:
toward the axis of rotation of said rotary grinding disc,
1. A grinding machine for circumferential grinding,
a support having downwardly extending lips and support
said machine comprising, in combination with a rotary
ing said carrier, at frame-carried guide extending parallel
grinding disc and a workpiece holder; a pivoted carrier
to the axis of rotation of said grinding disc, and ball
having a freely swingable manually operable end portion
bearing strips between said support and said guide, the
connected with said workpiece holder for guiding it along
lips of said support extending over said guide, a lever
a path tangential to the circumference of said grinding
pivoted intermediate its ends and having one arm con
disc and for swinging it back and forth along said path
nected with said end portion of the carrier adjacent said
during the grinding, and manually operable means con
workpiece, and a counterweight carried by the other arm
nected with said carrier for shifting said workpiece holder
of said lever for opposing the forces of gravity of said
in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation of said
workpiece and said end portion of the carrier.
rotary grinding disc, and a counterweight carried by an
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
opposite end portion of the carrier for balancing the 40
forces of gravity of the workpiece holder.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2. A grinding machine for circumferential grinding,
said machine comprising, in combination with a rotary
grinding disc and a workpiece holder; a pivoted freely
swlngable manually operable arm having an end portion 4
carrying said workpiece holder for swinging it during the
grinding along a path tangential to the circumference of
said grinding disc about an axis located beyond that side
of the grinding disc which is opposite to the point of con
tact of the grinding disc with the workpiece, manually 50
operable means connected with said arm for shifting said
workpiece holder in the direction parallel to the axis of
rotation of said rotary grinding disc, a lever arm con
43,005
53,725
327,934
507,639
1,112,015
1,386,638
1,599,405
1,868,266
2,056,168
2,697,312
1864
1866
1885
1893
1914
1921
1926
1932
1936
1954
FOREIGN PATENTS
nected with the ?rst-mentioned arm and extending in a
direction to balance the forces of gravity of said work 55
Brown ________________ __ June 7,
Baker ________________ __ Apr. 3,
Frech _________________ __ Oct. 6,
Smith ________________ __ Oct. 31,
Lichter et al __________ __ Sept. 29,
Loomer ______________ __ Aug. 9,
Bugbee ______________ __ Sept. 14,
Woodsend ____________ __ July 19,
Crowley ______________ __. Oct. 6,
Kallenborn et al _______ __ Dec. 24,
1,080,246
France ______________ __ May 26, 1954
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