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Патент USA US3079755

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March 5, 1963
A. L.. BRI-:EN ETAL
3,079,745
FLUID TWISTER APPARATUS Foa 'rwIsTING YARN
Filed Aug. 2s, Asso
$56.55
4 sheets-sheet 1
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$16.55
FIGJG
INVENT S
ALVIN l.. BRE
MARTIN V. SUSSMAN
NZM ¿î@MLM/1..,
ATTORNEY
March 5, 1963
3,079,745
A. L.. BREr-:N ETAL
FLUID TWISTER APPARATUS FOR TWISTING YARN
Filed Aug. 23, 1960
4 Sheets-S ee‘l'l 2
FIG. 19 Fläzo
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ALVIN LJBREEN
MARTIN V. SUSSMAN
'
ATTORNEY
March 5, 1963
A. L.. BREEN ETAL
3,079,745
FLUID TWISTER APPARATUS FOR TWISTING YARN
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Filed Aug. 25, 1960
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INVENTORS
ALVIN L. BREEN
MARTIN V. SUSSMAN
BY
ATTORNEY
March 5, 1963
A. l.. BREEN ETAL
3,079,745
FLUID TwIsTER APPARATUS FOR TwIsTING YARN
Filed Aug. 23, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
1:16.36
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ALVIN
FIG@
MARTIN V. SUSSMAN
MW
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INVENTORS
l.. BREEN
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` BY
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` , ATTORNEY
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United States Patent O ” ice
3,079,745
Patented Mar. 5, 1963
2
1
lack of product uniformity, and high maintenance costs
which rendered the product very expensive.
3,079,745
One object of this invention is to provide an efficient
FLUrD TWISTER AP‘ÈARAJTUS
FOR TWlSTING
ARD
Alvin Leonard Breen, Kennett Square, Pa., and Martin
`Victor Sussman, Istanbul, Turkey, assignors to E. I. du
Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Del., a
corporation of Delaware
Filed Aug. 23, 1960, Ser. No. 87,516
1 Claim. (Cl. 57-34)
10
(Filed under Rule 47(a) and 35 U.S.C. 115)
high speed yarn-twisting device containing no mechanical
moving parts. Another object of this invention is to
provide a yarn-twisting device capable of twisting yarn
at >a rate of over one million turns per minute.
Another
object of this invention is to provide an apparatus for
twisting yarns at higher speeds and at lower tension than
has heretofore been utilized.
According to this invention apparatus is provided for
imparting a high speed twisting motion to a filament,
This invention relates to apparatus for twisting, bulking,
yarn, or other strand by torque applied to the strand by
or crimping yarns continuously, and to products produced
means of a high velocity stream of fluid, preferably air,
thereby. This application is a continuation-inpart of
application S.N. 598,135 filed July 16, 1956, by Alvin L. 15 at a velocity of at least 1/2 sonic velocity. For an
ladequately uniform product, tens-ion on the strand, up
Breen and Martin V. Sussman, which issued as U.S.
stream of the fluid stream applying said torque, must be
Patent No. 3,009,309 on November 2l, 1961.
less than about 60 grams, preferably less than 15 grams,
lt has long been known that a yarn can be crimped by
and suñicient to avoid twist-doubling, i.e., second order
twisting, setting the yarn in the twisted configuration,
and then back-twisting the yarn. In a batch process true 20 twist. Accordingly, in its simplest embodiment, the ap
paratus of this invention comprises, in combination, high
twist is inserted into the yarn, the yarn is packaged, heat
velocity fluid twister means and feeding means for passing
set, and then back-twisted to give the yarn its crimp and
yarn through the twister at controlled low tension of
bulk. When such a process is carried out continuously,
less than 60 grams. The iluid twister comprises a yarn
a temporary twist is imparted to the threadline by a false
twister while simultaneously exposing the yarn to yarn 25 passageway which is a smooth curved concave surface
associated with one or more iluid conduits positioned to
setting means, eg., heat, steam, solvent, etc. The tem
direct a stream of fluid circumferentially Iabout the inner
porary twist is removed immediately after leaving the
periphery of the concave surface. The yarn passageway
twister, and the yarn is taken up on a suitable package.
may be integral with the iluid conduits, or the latter may
Examples of batchwise processes for imparting twist are
disclosed in U.S. Patents 2,019,185, Kagi; 2,019,183, 30 be spaced apart from the yarn passageway but in position
to direct fluid substantially tangentially to the inner
Herberlein; 2,197,896, Miles; and 2,564,245, Billion.
periphery of the curved concave surface at some point.
Continuous processes and apparatus for false-twisting are
disclosed in U.S. Patents 2,089,198, Finlayson et al.;
2,089,199, Finlayson et al.; 2,189,239, Whitehead;
2,111,211, Finl-ayson et al.; 2,463,620, Herberlein; and
2,741,893, Vandamme et al.
Nylon filaments were the iirst thermoplastic textile
materials capable of being heat-set and having adequate
recovery from deformation so that bulky and stretch
The axis of iluid ilow (entering the yarn passageway)
must not intersect the axis of the yarn passageway, but
35 it .may lie in a plane substantially perpendicular to the
longitudinal axis of the concave surface, or in a plane
inclined up to about 75 degrees or more from this per
pendicular in order to exert forward movement or braking
action upon the yarn in addition to twisting motion.
type “Helanca” yarns could be prepared. The initial 40 There may be a plurality of conduits directing iluid ñow
about the periphery of the concave surface, and these
conduits may be spaced longitudinally or circumferen
operation in which a continuous yarn was highly twisted,
process developed to make such yarns was a batch-type
ti-ally or both about the yarn passageway. Naturally,
in order to obtain the highest degree of torque on the
yarn, all of the fluid conduits, where there is a plural-ity
should be directed in substantially the same tangential
direction. lt is not necessary, however, that the longi
a package of the twisted yarn was then heated under
suitable conditions, and then the package was back
twisted to give a yarn that, on relaxation, coiled, curled,
or crimped sufiiciently to provide great bulk. ln addi
tion to the increased bulk, the yarn bundle had the elastic
properties of a conventional spring without the helical
tudinal axes of all the fluid conduits lie in the same or
“Helauca” or stretch-yarns is twisting. Mechanical
»twisters with rotating mechanical parts have severely
way while one or more others may have axes inclined
eiliciency of specially designed false-twisting apparatus
the yarn passageway, it may be desirable to provide one
or more exit ports along the yarn passageway, and these
parallel planes with respect to the axis of the yarn passage
regularity thereof.
The most time-consuming step in producing so-called 50 way. One or more or a plurality of fluid conduits may
have axes perpendicular to the axis of the yarn passage
to impart forwarding and twisting motion to the yarn
limited rotative speed because of friction and the effect of
while a lesser number of fluid conduits may have axes
centrifugal force on the rotating parts. The highest at
tainable speeds are of the orderl of 150,000 r.p.m. and 55 inclined backward toward the axis to partially inhibit the
passage of the yarn therethrough. ln the case where
this is for a false-twister which is more than nine times
there are a plurality of fluid conduits supplying fluid to
as fast as a standard commercial down-twister. Relative
and continuous twisting process versus la conventional
twister batch process is described in Fibres (Natural and 60 may be positioned at any convenient points.
Synthetic), vol. 16, August 1955, pj 276. As described
In the drawings, which illustrate specific embodiments
of the invention,
therein, a 60-denier nylon yarn which is twisted 65 turns
FIGURE 1 is an elevation of a simple embodiment
per inch, heat-set, and then back-twisted Via the con
of fluid twister, as viewed from a direction at right-angles
ventional twister route (12,000 rpm.) can be handled at
to both the yarn passageway and the single iluid conduit,
the rate of 0.4 pound/spindle/week of 168 hours. A 65
FIGURE 2 is an end view in the axial direction of
false-twister (32,000 rpm.) can produce this same
the yarn passageway of the fluid twister of FlGURE l,
stretch-yarn at the rate of 1.8 pounds/spindle/week (168
FIGURE 3 is an elevation of a more complex fluid
hours) or about 4.5 times faster than the batch operation.
twister having a plurality of lluid conduits and inter
011e rea-5011 Why these older processes and false-twisting 70 mediate exhaust ports along the yarn passageway,
apparatus have not enjoyed extensive commerci-al success
FiGURE 4 is cross-sectional end view on line 4-4
is their relatively slow speeds, low output and eiliciencies,
of FiGURE 3,
- 3,079,745
3
4
FIGURE 5 is a longitudinal cross-section taken along
the axis of the yarn passageway (see line 5-5 in FIG
URE 6) of a modified ñuid twister having a slot-shaped
FIGURE 27 is an end view of the fluid twister of FIG
iluid conduit,
.
>
FIGURE 6 is an end view of the iluid twister of FIG
URE 26,
„,
FIGURE 28 is an end view similar to FIGURE 14 to
further illustrate the motion of yarn in the yarn passage
Way,
FIGURE 29 isv an-end view of a fluid twister similar
URE 5,
FIGURE 7 is a longitudinal cross-section, similar to
to that of FIGURE 14 but having a yarn passageway
that of FIGURE 5, of a fluid twister having a slot-shaped
fluid conduit and a plurality of exhaust ports,
entry than at either yarn passageway port,
which is somewhat larger in diameter at the point of ñuid
_
FIGURE 30 is a perspective view of an extremely sim
v FIGURE 8 is an end view of the iiuid twister of FIG
ple construction of fluid twister,
UREv 7,
' '
FIGURE 31 is a cross-sectional end view of'a modified
FIGURE 9 is an end view of a lluid twister similar
'_ form of the ñuidtwister of FIGURE 30,
to that shown in FIGURES l and 2 but modiíied by
FIGURE 32 is a plan view of an apparatus for treat
having the ñuid conduit extended a short distance beyond
15 ing yarn showing the iluid twister in combination with
the intersection with the yarn passageway,
` FIGURE 10 is a cross-section along line liI-Iti of
yarn feeding means,
'
v
FIGURE 33 is a plan view of another embodiment
FIGURE 9,
FIGURE l1 is an elevation of a duid twister having a
' of the apparatus,
plurality of fluid conduits arranged in pairs entering
the yarn passageway from opposite sides, the view being
ofthe apparatus,
FIGURE 34 is a plan view of a further embodimentV
conduits,
of the apparatus,
'A >FIGURE 12 is a cross-sectional end view online 12,-12 '
of FIGURE 11,
~
FIGURE 35 is a plan view of still another embodimentY
taken in a direction parallel to the axes of the iìuid
Y
t
-
,
FIGURE 36 is a plan view of an additional embodi
ment of the apparatus, and
-
FIGURE 13 is a longitudinal cross-section of a ñuid
twister similar to that of FIGURE 1 but having a single
FIGURES 37 to 41 illustrate various novel yarn prod
ucts which can be produced with the apparatus of this
cylindrically-shaped fluid conduit at right-angles to the
invention.
yarn passageway,
_ -FIGURE 14 is an end view of the ñuid twister of
-
FIGURES l through 31 illustrate the manner of in
terception of a yarn passageway 51 by one or more iiuidl
FIGURE 13 which also illustrates the motion of yarn in 30 conduits 52 and exhaust ports 56 and also show various
the yarn passageway during operation,
FIGURE 15 is a longitudinal cross-section of a ñuid
twister having a plurality of iluid conduits extending into
forms which yarn passageway and lluid conduit may as
sume. It will be readily apparent that one or more of
the cross-sectional or right-end views may be the cross'
sectional or right-end views of one or more of the twister
the yarn passageway from a manifold,
FIGURE 16 is an end View of the ñuid twister of 35 heads shown in longitudinal section or front elevation.
FIGURE 15,
FIGURE 17 is a cross-sectional end view of a iiuid
twister similar to that of FIGURE 4 but having pairs
Like numbers appearing in the various ligures represent
similar structures although the shape or form ofv the
For
example, in each of the FIGURES 1 through 3l the yarn
direction of twist is reversed by merely shifting the supply 40 passageway is numbered 51 irrespective of whether the
of fluid from one conduit of the pair to the other conduit,
yarn passageway is cylindrical in form or a slot or a
structure may vary'from one ñgure to the next.
of opposed ñuid conduits for alternative use so that the
' FIGURE 18 is a cross-sectional end view of a double
venturi or the like. Similarly, the ñuid conduit is num
vortex fluid twister having a pair of parallel and con
bered 52 in each of the figures and so on.
'
-
nected yarn passageways located on each side of a fluid
The ñuid twister of FIGURE 1 contains an axial yarn`
conduit so that shifting yarn from one passageway to the 45 passageway 51 which, in this embodiment, is substantially
other reverses the applied twist,
cylindrical in form throughout its length. A conduit for
FIGURE 19 is a longitudinal cross-section of a ñuid
tluid 52 intercepts the yarn passageway at 53 at an angletwister similar to that of FIGURE 13 but having a yarn
of about 60 degrees to the axis thereof and is positioned
passageway which decreases in diameter towards the point
so that the longitudinal axis of the ñuid conduit 52 does
of entry of the fluid conduit,
50 not intersect the longitudinal axis of yarn passageway 51,'
FIGURE 2O is an end view of the ñuid twister of
as shown in FIGURE 2. When gas under pressure is
FIGURE 19,
passed through ñuid conduit 52 so that it reaches at least
FIGURE 2l is a cross-sectional end view of a iluid
1/2 sonic velocity upon emerging into the yarn passageway,
twister similar to that of FIGURE 2 but having a venturi
51, suñicient torque upon any yarn in the yarn passage
shaped ñuid conduit,
55 way is created to produce a high rate of twisting if the
FIGURE 22 is a cross-sectional end view of a ñuid
twister similar to that of FIGURES 13 and 14 but having
yarn is maintained at a tension less than about 60 grams.
At relatively high ñuid velocities less dense ñuids may be
employed to obtain substantially the same torque pro
an additional fluid conduit located so as to introduce
duced by a higher density ñuid traveling at lower velocity.
ñuid into the yarn passageway at a different point and
in an opposing direction for the purpose of varying the 60 Fluid may be supplied to the fluid conduit 52 by any con
Venient means. As shown by FIGURES 1 and 2, fluid
rate of twisting of yarn as it passes through,
may be supplied by ñtting 54, which is fastened over the
FIGURE 23 is a cross-sectional end view of a iiuid
fluid conduit exterior port and threaded for attachment
twister having fluid conduits entering the yarn passage
to a fluid supply pipe. Preferably, the yarn passageway
way at four locations around the circumference,
FIGURE 24 is a cross-sectional end view of a ñuid 65 will have rounded edges at both ends to minimize tear
ing of the yarn bundle, and in accordance with one em
twister having a pair of fluid conduits entering a non
bodiment shown in FIGURES 3 and 4, the yarn passage
cylindrical yarn passageway from opposite sides,
way is widened by bevels 55 at the yarn entrance and exit
- FIGURE 25 is a cross-sectional end view of a iluid
ports.. Naturally, it is not necessary that these widened>
twister having fluid conduits of diñ‘erent diameters en 70 portions of the yarn passageway be symmetrical or evenv
tering a cylindrical yarn passageway from opposite sides,
similar in shape.
FIGURE 26 is an elevation of a ñuid twister similar
_ When the yarn passageway is of substantial length, itVV
to that'of FIGURE 5 but the slot-shaped fluid conduit is
1s desirable that the yarn passageway contain one orî
arranged to impinge on a shoulder at the point of entry>
more ñuid exhaust ports 56, as illustratedv in FIGURESï
into the yarn passageway,
75 4 and 8, in order to facilitate removal of ñuid from the
3,079,745
5
.
yarn passageway. The fluid twister may be designed to
provide for ease in Stringing-up a threadline by provid
ing a string-up slot running the entire length of the yarn
passageway.
The string-up slot may simultaneously
serve as an air conduit or exhaust port, as desired. FIG
URE 3 illustrates one possible form of string-up slot S7.
FIGURES 9 and l0 illustrate a preferred embodiment
for providing froid entry into the yarn passageway where
by the duid will vbe cushioned against itself at the point of
entry into the yarn passageway and thereby malte a very
smooth operation possible. riîhis result is obtained, as
shown in FÍGURES 9 and l0, by designing the lluid
twister so that the fluid conduit extends beyond the yarn
6.
centrifugal thrust forces the yarn bundle to roll on the
inner periphery of the yarn passageway in a motion
analogous to that of a planetary gear. This twisting
action is referred to herein as “reverse twisting,” and it
will be apparent that with “reverse twisting” the twist
imparted to the yarn is opposite to the twist obtained by
“direct twisting,” even though in each instance the direc
tion of fluid flow about the yarn passageway is the same.
It is an important feature of this invention that during
the twisting of the yarn bundle, whether the twisting action
is “direct twisting” or “reverse twisting,” the longitudi
nal axis of the yarn describes a surface similar to the inner
surface of the yarn passageway and spaced from the inner
surface of the yarn passageway by a distance equal to
In the case of twisters containing a multiplicity of fluid 15 about the radius of the yarn bundle. This feature of the
instaat invention is illustrated in FIGURES 14 and 28.
conduits, it is convenient to design the twister in a manner
FIGURE 14 illustrates direct twisting of a yarn bundle
to provide a manifold region 61 (FIGURE 15) to facili
59 in yarn passageway S1 and shows, by arrows, that the
tate maintenance of air at constant pressure to all fluid
yarn twists about its axis in the same direction as fluid
conduits where that is desired. Fi-’GURE 16 illustrates
a particular embodiment of fluid twister containing a 20 flow about the inner periphery of the yarn passageway
while the axis of the yarn bundle describes a surface
string-up slot 57. The twister of FIGURE 16 is divided
spaced from the inner surface of the yarn passageway by
in two sections, as shown, to further facilitate string-up,
a distance at least the radius of the yarn bundle, both sur
the two sections being held together by bolt d3. lf de
faces having a common longitudinal axis. FIGURE 28
sired, the sections may be hinged at d2. In FIGURES 23
illustrates the motion of a yarn bundle 59 subjected to
and 25 there is provided a manifold housing 54 suitable 25 reverse twist action showing that the yarn bundle rotates
for surrounding the entire twister head with fluid, and
about its axis in a direction opposite to the flow of fluid
the twister head in these embodiments is porous to permit
about the inner periphery of the yarn passageway while
the transmission of fluid therethrough at a slow rate to
the axis of the yarn bundle moving in the same direction
reduce yarn-to-wall friction, FIGURE 27 illustrates a
as the ñow of duid about the passageway describes a sur
twister in which the lluid conduit 52 has a shoulder 65, 30 face spaced from the inner surface of the yarn passageway
and FIGURE 29 illustrates a twister in which the yarn
by a distance equal to the radius of the yarn bundle, both
passageway is somewhat wider at the point of fluid entry
of said surfaces having a common longitudinal axis.
than at either yarn passageway port.
Some prior attempts to rotate yarn by means of fluid
The fluid twisters of FÍGURES 17, 18 and 22 are use
flow have been characterized by endeavors to rotate the
35
passageway to form a fluid conduit extension 58.
ful for applying intermittently opposed twisting to produce
alternating twist yarn. Reversal of twist is accomplished
yarn about its own stationary axis by the turbine action
of a fluid vortex. Yarn tensions have been maintained
with the duid twisters of FIGURES 17 and 22 by supply
suliiciently high so that the yarn was maintained rigid,
ing iluid alternatively to the opposed fluid conduits with
thereby preventing displacement of the yarn from the cen
suitable rotary valve means or the like interposed be
ter of the yarn passageway despite eccentric ñuid forces
4.0
tween the ñuid source and the twister proper. The direc
acting on the yarn periphery. Low torque was imparted
tion of the twisting vortex applied to yarn can also be
to the ‘yarn because of the short lever arm through which
reversed in a different way without interrupting the flow of
the tangential forces must act due to the small diameter of
fluid when using the fluid twister shown in FIGURE 18.
the yarn.
This has two cylindrical yarn passageways 51a and Sib
In another species of ñuid twister such as disclosed in
which have parallel axes spaced apart at a distance some
U.S. Patent 2,515,299 to Foster et al., yarn is passed at
what less than their diameters so that the passageways
substantially no tension through an enlarged chamber
are interconnecting along their lengths, hence have a
filled with revolving air and the yarn balloons within the
ñgure-of-eight cross-section as shown in FIGURE 6. The
chamber to provide an annular reach which is revolved
interconnection is of suñicient size to permit the yarn to
in the manner of a mechanical twister. Because of the
50
be shifted from one passageway to the other by changing
enlarged chamber, excessively low tension on the thread
the point of yarn feed, as with conventional traverse
line and the distortion of the threadline, throughput rate
means. Fluid is supplied to both passageways simultane
is low. Consequently, as disclosed in this patent, such
ously through the common huid conduit 52, located so that
a false-twister is suitable for low rates of twist of heavy
the axis is in the plane equidistant from the axes of the
threadline (e.g., staple roving).
passageways, to form vortices which twist in opposite direc
When operating with the apparatus of the present in
tions as indicated in the drawing.
vention, however, ballooning of the yarn, to the extent
The yarn passageway of the fluid twister of this inven
that it occurs, is greatest outside the ñuid twister and
tion preferably has an internal diameter (in the case
the yarn undergoes a twisting action as above described
where the yarn passageway is cylindrical) of between
at tensions below 60 grams. Balloon’ng of the s'rand
about 0.002 inch and about 0.125 inch and preferably be 60 within the twister is not discernible. High twist is thus
tween 0.015 and 0.040 inch. Yarn passageways which
obtained, and yarns 'having more than 50 turns per inch
are not cylindrical will preferably have cross-sectional
are readily obtained at twisting rates substantially h’gher
areas at the initial point of contact between the yarn and
than on million turns per minute when the path> of
stream of ñuid corresponding to areas of circles having
yarn rotation is contined within a yarn passageway of
these diameters. The ratio of yarn hole diameter to the 65 small diameter, that is, less than about 0.06 inch, or in
yarn diameter should be in the range of 2-l0 and pref
larger diameter passageways where reverse twist occurs
erabiy 3_6. For liuid twisters of this invention having
by the yarn rolling on the inside of the passageway wall.
yarn passageways with cross-sectional areas comparable
For direct twisting, the rate of yarn twisting is about
to a circle having a diameter up to about 0.125 inch, the
equal to the rate at which the yarn bundle rotates around
direction of rotation of the yarn bundle during twisting 70 the axis of the yarn passageway. For reverse twisting,
is in the direction of lluid flow about the inner periphery
the rate of twisting may exceed this rotation rate since
of the yarn passageway, and this direction of rotation will
be referred to herein as “direct twisting.” With yarn
passageways having cross-sectional areas comparable to a
circle with a diameter of more than about 0.125 inch,
the yarn may roll about its own axis many times in
making one turn about the axis of the yarn passageway.
Fluid twisters of this invention having a yarn passage
way diameter of about 0.125 inch may be operated with
@79,745
direct twisting or reverse twisting by adjusting yarn ten
sion, alignment of the yarn passageway, feed rate of
yarn supply, or the like. The term “yarn” as used here
in is representative of any strand material in the form
ing applications it may be desirable to utilize a fluid with
a plasticizing effect.
Other gases, such as carbon di
Oxide, nitrogen, and the like, may be utilized, if desir
_of a monoñlament, multililament or spun staple yarn or
able. In order to operate the process in accordance with
the invention, it is necessary that the fluid, when a gas,
film strips.
be at a velocity of 1/2 sonic velocity or more immedi
.
tely prior to impinging upon the yarn, to effect the high
twisting rates of this invention. Non-gaseous ñuids
equal to that of the ñuid inlet conduit at the point of
should reach velocities suñicient to do comparable twist
interception. Fluid jet devices in which the ratio of the 10 ing. Such fluids, of course, do not have to reach the
cross-sectional area of the yarn passageway to the cross
same velocities because of their higher densities.` By
Sectional area of the ñuid inlet Orifice at the point of
increasing the velocity of the fluid ñow on the yarn,
interception varying from about 4:1 to about 1:10 may
twisting speeds in excess 'of this amount are obtained.
be used, however. Preferably, the yarn passageway and
For the production of uniform stretch yarns, it is im
the ñuid passageway are cylindrical in shape but either 15 portant that the tension on the yarn being twisted (meas
or both may be other than circular in cross section and
ured adjacent to and up-stream of twister) be maintained
The cross-sectional area of the yarn passageway in
the fluid jet device of this invention is preferably about
neither need be uniform in area or cross-sectional form
throughout its length. The figures illustrate various
fluid jet devices of this invention, but it will be apparent
within critical tension range at which high twist without
twist-doubling occurs. Where a high degree of twist is
desired at a high throughput rate, preferred tension limits
that the figures are illustrative only, and many variatfons 20 are between about 3 grams and 15 grams. Tension on
the yarn downstream of the twister may be somewhat dif
of the ñuid twisters shown in the ñgures will be readily
ferent (higher or lower) than that on the yarn upstream
apparent.
¿j The length of the yarn passageway may be widely
of the twister. For certain very high yarn speeds, Le.,
varied. >A very eñicient fluid jet device is one having a
100G-2000 y.p.m. and up and for- heavier deniers, i.e.~,
yarn passageway length between about 0.125 and about 25 10U-500 denier or larger, it is possibleto use very low
tensions. The lowest operable tension if a uniform prod
0.5 inch and having only one lìuid inlet port. The length
uct is desired is a tension just great enough to prevent
of the yarn passageway should not be less than its di
twist-doubling, that is, second or third order twist. Oper
ameter (or its substantial equivalent where the passage
ating at such very low tensions results in a non-steady
way is not circular in cross section). Preferably, the
state condition and can be useful for novelty or intermit
yarn passageway will be about l0 times its diameter and
desirably will not be more than 25 times its diameter.
Longer yarn passageways may be utilized and are very
tent etfects but not for the production of a uniform stretch
yarn.
eliìcient when “reverse twisting action” is employed. In
the case of fluid jet devices having relatively long yarn
FIGURE 32 shows in schematic form one possible
string-up assembly in which the pneumatic twister of this
passageways, it is often desirable to utilize a plurality 35 invention may be utilized. FIGURE 32 shows yarn being
taken from a yarn package 75 passed through pigtail 76
of fluid supply conduits and one or more exhaust ports
to tension feeding means 77, such as the tension Vgate
connected to the atmosphere or to a reduced pressure
source to facilitate escape of the driving ñuid and mini
shown, which is utilized to maintain yarn tension in the
twisting zone at less than 15 grams. From the tension
mize back pressures. With short yarn passageways, ex
hausting of Huid is no problem since the fluid passes 40 gate the yarn is passed through a heating zone 78, where
the yarn is heated by a hot plate, and then through tbe
directly through the open ends of the yarn passageways.
yarn passageway of twister 79, then between advancing
ItV may be desirable to have some fluid supply conduits
rolls 80 and S1 through pigtail 82 and wound up as back
angled forward to impart forward motion to the yarn
while others exert rotative thrust. Obviously, this effect
can also be achieved with a fluid twister having a longer
yarn passageway and a plurality of fluid inlet ports.
Pneumatic twisters with yarn tubes of very small di
ameter show surprisingly high efficiency in terms of air
consumption vs. useful work produced. This is an im
windable package 83. Tension between the nip rolls and
windup package S3 is maintained at standard windup ten
sion.
-
In one method of operation of FIGURE 32 apparatus,
zero twist poly(ethylene terephthalate) continuous fila
ment yarn is passed through the tension feeding means at
portant consideration since air consumption is directly 50 150 yards per minute; windup speed is 128 yards per min
Yrelated to cost of manufacturing. Fluid yarn twisters
of thisl invention appear to operate at highest eliiciencies
when the yarn tube is about the same as the individual
air inlet tubes. In a preferred embodiment, the air inlet
tube axis is olf-center with respect to the yarn tube axis
by approximately the dimension of the air tube radius,
and the yarn tube length is between about two and about
fifteen times the yarn tube diameter in order that moti
ute and yarn tension is 3 grams measured upstream of the
hot plate. Process twist is Z. The fluid twisterV is of
the type shown in FIGURES 15 and 16 and operates on
30 pounds per square inch air. The hot plate is main
tained at 270°. The liuid twister is slightly misaligned
with respect to the direction of travel of the threadline
with the result the yarn threadline alternately sticks and
slips at the yarn passageway ports so that the yarn is
twisted and cranked in a pulsating manner. The pulses
vating air may exhaust freely. With this arrangement,
exhaust air is skewed with respect to the yarn tube axis, 60 permit Z twisted sections of the yarn to pass through
the twister without twist removal, with the result that S
thereby tending to promote instability of processing par
ticularly when tension on the yarn is very low.
Care
twisted sections appear in the yarn between the Z twist
sections that had escaped the twister action. The result
ful adjustment of the yarn axis positions entering and
ing yarn is called an alternating twist yarn. It has the
leaving the fluid twister to coincide with the axis of air
exhaust flow provides substantially much more stable 65 appearance of a highly twisted crepe yarn, and is very
and uniform operation and with fluid twisters, which are
capable of such high rates of twisting as compared t0
twist lively and very cohesive. The net twist in the yarn
is essentially zero, that is, there are as many'turns of S
mechanical twisting devices, stability of operation and
twist as there are Z twist.
The yarn product is illustrated
in FÍGURE 40 and the process in Table I, Example 54.
An alternating twist yarn is made Via a process similar
70
efficiency.
to the above except that instead of misaligning the jet the
Air at room temperature is preferred for twisting yarn
tension gate is vibrated at a rate of about 2O times per
in the fluid jet device of this invention but the air may
second. This causes a corresponding variation in'yarn
be heated or' refrigerated, if desired. Steam or solvo
uniformity of product are to be preferred over optimum
genicïga'ses may Valso be used provided that the plasti
cizing- action, if any, is'not harmful.- For certain twist 75
tension >and produces an alternating twist product. .
ì
- Alternating twist Continous filament yarn may be made
3,079,745
l0'
‘â
using the iiuid twister IGURE 22. in this case, the air
supply is alternated between opposing air inlets. This
gives a positive alternating twist action and a product in
which the S and Z portions of twist are very similar to
a snubbing point and then is plasticized as »the yarn pro
gresses down across the reverse face of the hot plate to
a fluid twister.
To produce highest quality stretch-yarns with the ap
each other in length and structure.
paratus of this invention, that is, to achieve maximum
The high speed yarn-twisting apparatus of HGURE 32
may be utilized very effectively and efficiently to produce
bulking or crimping, it is essential that the tension on
the yarn adjacent to and upstream of the twister be main
so-called “Helanca” or stretch-type yarn at exceedingly
tained below about 15 grams. Tension may be con
trolled by a tension gate or other suitable means but
high rates of production when feed rolls are used as the
tension feeding means 77 instead of a tension gate. The 10 these are diñicult to control and produce non-uniform
products. Preferably, tension is controlled directly by
feed rolls may be as shown at 142 of FlGURE 36. in
regulating the relative speeds of the feed rolls and windup
this apparatus, a textile denier yarn of less than about
2,000 denier is taken from supply package 75, passed
through pigtail 76 through feed rolls 77, and plasticized
rolls.
The yarn speed differential between feed and
wiudup rolls will be governed by the degree of bulking
by passing over a hot plate in zone 7S before entering 15 desi-red as well as the relative operating speed of the
fluid twister 79 and take-up rolls S13, 31. Tension up
process, that is, throughput of yarn in yards per minute.
stream of the twister is maintained below l5 grams by
Yarn speed differential between input and output with
regulating the relative speeds of the feed and take-up rolls.
respect to the ñuid twister may vary between about 5%
A tension gate may be used in place of feed rolls 77 but
to about 50%, and yarn speed through the iiuid twister
is much less desirable because of the non-uniform product
may vary from 50 to about 1,000 yards per minute or
produced and increased difficulties in control. Upon en
higher. For economical operation, yarn speed will or
tering the fluid twister, the yarn is continuously subjected
to a high rate of false-twisting.
This twist extends back
ward along the yarn to the feed roll 77 .
The yarn in this
dinarily be at least about 100 yards per minute and pref
erably at least about 400 yards per minute. Because
yarn tension is controlled directly by the speeds of the
feed and windup rolls, tension upstream of the twister
twisted state, upon passing over the hot plate, is plasticized
in the twisted condition. The heat plasticized twisted
is easily maintained constant below 15 grams while ten
yarn, upon leaving the presence of the hot plate and com~
sion downstream of the twister is also maintained con
etant.
ing into contact with exhaust fluid leaving the yarn en
trance port of the fluid twister, is quenched (deplasticized)
It is essential, in operating the apparatus of this inven
prior to entering the ñuid twister. ln order that the fluid 30 tion to produce a useful bulked yarn or stretch-type yarn,
twister provide this quenching eifect on the heated twisted
that back-twister yarn leaving the ñuid twister be taken
yarn, it is important that the temperature of the exhaust
up on a package suitable for baokwinding. Substantial
ñuids from the fluid twister be maintained at a tempera
yarn »tension must be employed downstream of the wind
ture 50° C. below the plasticized yarn temperature, pref
up rolls during the windup, and preferably the yarn ten
erably 100° C. below and ideally 150° C. or more below 35 sion at windup is in accordance with standard windup
the heat plasticized yarn temperature. Due to the false
practices in the art. Windup yarn tensions will ordi
twisting action of the fluid twister, the deplasticized twisted
narily be substantially greater than the upstream twist
yarn, immediately upon passing the point of greatest
ing tensions utilized and should be suflioient to produce a
torque in the liuid twister, is back-twisted to substantially
good back-windable package of yarn.
its original state of twist, thereby produc-ing a stretch 40
Air velocity in the iluid twister must be maintained
type yarn which is passed through nip rolls
and Si, over
constant and within critical limits if a uniform stretch
pin S2, and taken up as a back-windable package -33 prepa
yarn is desired. A minimum air velocity of at least 1/2
ratory to use.
sonic velocity is essential, and it is also extremely im
ln place of using a hot plate at zone 73, any suitable
portant that the air velocity in the fluid twister (immedi
heating means, such as a hot pin, infra-red light, steam 45 ately prior to impinging upon the yarn as mentioned
tube or cell, hot water, and the like, may be employed.
above) not exceed »that which causes the yarn to under
Pl-asticizing the yarn may also be achieved in the ab
go twist doubling (e.g., second-order twist) in which the
sence of heat as, for example, with solutions of chem
twisted yarn twists upon itself.
ical plasticizing agents or similar materials. Steam or
The apparatus of this invention is useful for treating
other plasticizing material used to treat the yarn can be
any natural or synthetic lilamentary material, particu
applied by use of a torque, or texturing jet similar to
larly filaments of polyamides, polyesters, and polymers
those described herein and also in US. Patent 2,783,609.
of acrylonitrile. Suitable polymers can be found among
‘vl/“nen plasticizing is effected with heat, the tempera
the fiber-forming polyamides and polyesters which are
ture of the heating medium must be regulated so that the
described in US. Patents 2,071,250; 2,071,253; 2,130,
average yarn temperature does not reach the melting 55 523; 2,130,948; 2,190,770; and 2,465,319. The pre
point of the yarn material. The heating medium tem
ferred group of polyamides comprises such polymers as
perature or source of hea-t may be above the melting point
poly(hexamethylene adiparnide), poly(hexa.methylene
of the yarn and the surface of the yarn may be above its
sebacamide), poly(epsilon caproamide), and the copoly
melting point so lon” as yarn speeds are such that aver
mers thereof. Among the polyesters that may be men
age yarn temperature (over a cross-sectional area of 60 tioned, besides poly(e-thylene terephthalate), are the
yarn) is maintained below the yarn melting point. rlem
peratures lower than the second-order transition tem
perature o-f the yarn material are usually not employed
because, under these conditions, any crimping of the fila
corresponding copolymers containing sebacic acid, adipic
acid, isophthalic acid as well as the polyesters contain
ing recurring units derived from glycols with more than
'two carbons in the chain, eg., diethylene glycol, butyl
ments is not permanent and utility of the product is re 65 ene glycol, decamethylene glycol and trans-bis-lA-(hy
duced. The preferred temperature is that which results
in plasticization without fusing or degradation.
At high yarn speeds high temperatures and/ or longer
droxymethyl)cyclohexane. Non-thermoplastic materials,
such as the natural übers-wool, silk, cotton, the syn
thetic protein iibers, regenerated cellulose and the like
exposure distances are necessary to provide temperatures
can also be highly crimped or bullied although they are
at the desired plastîcizing level. These higher yarn tem 70 not as elastic as the thermoplastic fibers. Both types of
peratures may be achieved by means of an auxiliary heat
materials can be made into elastic fabrics having im
ing device or pre- .ea-ter in the threadline, but a simple
proved bulk, covering power (opacity) and hand. The
means for achieving this same effect is to have the yarn
apparatus is useful for treating both staple and continu
pass twice over a single heated plate so that yarn is pre
ous filament yarns of all types having deniers less than
heated at it passes up along one face of the hot plate to 75 about 2,000 and preferably less .than about 800, and is
3,079,745
12
11
taken from a package 9&3, passed over pin 91, through
nip rolls 92, and then turned about draw pin 93 before
useful for staple yarns since it permits false-twisting of
staple yarns and back-twisting of single staple yarns
through the zero-twist point-feats not heretofore pos
passing around the larger circumference of a step-down
roll 94 which draws the yarn. Conventional canted sep
arator rolls 95 are used in conjunction with lthe step
down roll. The yarn is then passed through plasticizing
zone (preferably heated) 9‘6 prior to entering fluid twist
sible.
'Ihe apparatus of this invention is preferably used to
treat continuous filament yarn immediately after the proc
ess of cold-drawing. An economic procedure involves
incorporating a fluid twister alon-g a threadline immedi
ately after cold-drawing and prior to standard tension
yarn takeup as described subsequently in connection
with FIGURE 33. It is obvious, however, that the ap
paratus can be used in a separate operation, either prior
er 97.
Tension on the yarn upstream of the twister is
main-tained below l5 grams by means of step-down roll
94. Yarn coming from the fluid twister 97 is passed
around the smaller circumference of the step-down roll
94, whereas yarn feeding the fluid twister must first pass
around the larger circumference of the step-down roll.
to or after drawing or after some indeterminate storage
Thus, the yarn feeding to the ñuid twister is traveling
period.
Since retraction of stretch-yarns in the presence of 15 at a greater speed than the yarn leaving the ñuid twister
by an amount predetermined by the diameters of the
steam is a measure of wet recovery properties and varies
larger and smaller sections of the step-down .roll 94.
directly with the degree of stretchiness, the quality of
After leaving the step-down roll, the yarn is passed
through pigtail 98 and wound up a-s backwindable pack
stretch-yarns can be graded on the basis of percent re
traction, using the following formula-tion:
20 age 99 at standard tension.
(skein length before steaming) --
_(skein length after steaming)
_(skein length after steaming)
In FIGURE 33, as just de
scribed, the yarn is plasticized and twisted prior to chang
ing direction at guide 100. Alternatively, the plasticizer
Retraetion (percent)
X 100
and twister may be placed after guide 100 as shown in
dotted lines so that the yarn has a longer path of travel
25 between step-down roll 94 and the plasticizing zone.
This arrangement of heater and twister on the down leg
To'ldetermine percent retraction of a skein of yarn, the
of the yarn permits insertion of supplementary heaters
along the yarn path between the large section of roll 94
with a periphery of 112 cm. to give a total denier of
and guide 100.
1400. It is then suspended in front of a suitable scale
30
At 100 in FIGURE 33 there is shown a species of
and loaded with a weight of 1.82 grams to give 0.0013
upstream twist snubbing guide. A snubbing guide in the
g.p.d. A static eliminator is passed along the yarn bun
process for producing stretch-yarn should ideally provide
dle to prevent ballooning of the filaments, if necessary.
a positive grip on the threadline to prevent twist leakage
Atmospheric pressure steam is directed on the suspended
yarn bundle for about five seconds. High quality con 35 upstream of this point. The usual pinch rolls provide
skein is wound at substantially zero tension on a reel
this action very effectively.
tinuous filament nylon stretch ya-rns ordinarily have re
traction values calculated in accordance with the above
equation ofthe order of 85% to 560%. Such a shrink
because they tend to make yarn wraps difficult to remove.
age range is achieved with thermoplastic continuous fila
ment yarns.
Lower retraction values o-f such yarns are 40
useful if increased bulk with some stretchiness is ade
quate for the end use at hand. Such lower values will
also result if the yarns being treated are no-t thermo
plastic and/or are made from staple fibers.
In the production of uniform stretch-yarn, it is unde
sirable to package a twisted portion of yarn which has 45
resisted the jet untwisting action. These so-called “hard
spots” can be produced by fluctuations in tension or
twisting action of the jet, twist snubbin-g variations and/
or differences in the degree of yarn setting. Excessive
Itemperature in the setting zone and heavy non-uniform 50
-finish deposits also tend to produce “hard spots” in the
yarn by fusing the surface filaments together so that they
tend to resist url-twisting to a much greater extent than
unfused filaments. By “twist snubbing” is meant snub 55
bing a twisted yarn in a manner to prevent the twist from
passing the snubbing point.
Y Constant downstream twist snubbing is desirable to
produce uniform stretch or bulk yarn.
Torsional slip
page of an irregular character at the downstream snub
hing point allows some sections of yarn to escape the
jet untwisting action to some extent, producing variable
bulkiness or in severe cases “hard spots” previously men
tioned.
Such rolls are not con
venient, however, in the usual draw-twisting operation
60
Pairs of rolls, such as rolls 115 and 116 of FIGURE 34,
mounted cantilever fashion with a small angle between
their axes for wrap separation are preferred. Several
wraps are generally necessary to provide su-ñicient friction
for yarn speed and tension control. This type of system
is less effective as a twist snubbing device since the twist
is reduced gradually in its passage upstream of the first
contact point rather than abruptly as in the case of the
pinch roll. The twist snubbing in this case also-applies
a force to the threadline tending to displace it along
the roll axis, and in a direction depending on the direc
tion of twist. In effect, the yarn tends to roll or “walk”
across the face of the contacting surface under the inñu
ence of the twisting force. This interferes with proper
wrap separation and tends to introduce non-uniformities
by fluctuations in yarn-to-roll friction which cause the
snubbing action to vary. An auxiliary step on the step
down roll will control this “walking” The last wrap
of yarn about the feed roll prior to the yarns entering
the heater is taken about this step, and the twist direc
tion is arranged so that the torque causes the yarn to
move toward the face above the step. This face pre
vents the displacement of the last wrap which snubs the
twist sufficiently to eliminate the problem of Wrap sepa
ration in the remaining wraps.
Loosely meshing gears may be used as the guide 100
to provide “twist snubbing.” This arrangement has the
'Y A suitable yarn finish to control static, friction, and 65 advantage that it can apply the twist snubbing action to a
yarn running properties is desirable. The finish may also
serve to improve heat transfer among the filaments in
creasing the rate and/or the degree o-f setting. For a
uniform product it is desirable that the ñnish be applied
uniformly.
" FIGURE 33 illustrates a preferred string-up assembly
whereby a ñuid »twister of this invention may be utilized
Vto impartrtwist to a yarn bundle immediately after draw
ing the yarn and prior to packaging the drawn yarn.
In accordancewith this embodiment,v undrawn yarn is
number of threadlines simultaneously regardless of twist
direction. For simplicity, it is preferred that these gears
are driven by the yarn itself although any suitable auxil
iary driving arrangement may be employed. A simple
70 pulley or belt driven by the yarn feed roll provides a
reliable drive and is particularly useful for very light
Weight yarns. Another simple means is to impinge an
air jet on the gears to drive them. Exhaust air from the
fluid jets can be used for this purpose. Other arrange
ments may be used to grip the moving threadline either
smeg-i5
‘i3
intermittently or continuously so as to snub the twist at
a substantially fixed point. Those systems which impose
little tension change on the moving threadline and cause
a minimum of tension fluctuations are preferred for the
purposes of this invention.
It is important that `the yarn in the zone between the
iiuid vortex and the upstream snubbing point should
have minimum frictional Contact with plasticizing devices
such as hot plates, and the like. vIn any practical process,
this requires careful alignment of the jet, the hot plate
slot, and the upstream snubbing guides.
In a specific illustration of the operation of the string
up of FIGURE 33, undrawn poly(heXamethylene adip
amide) yarn is taken directly from the spin bobbin, passed
over a feed roll with a surface speed of 133 yards per
minute, over a draw pin, and around a draw roll, with
a surface speed of 440 yards per minute. The yarn is
drawn 3.3 times due to the difference in speed between
the feed roll and the draw roll. The yarn makes three
turns around a separator roll and the draw roll and then
"si«L
iiuid twister of this invention to twist a yarn bundle com
ing directly from a spinneret and prior to being drawn.
Filaments 11S issue from spinneret 111 and converge in
guide 11.2. Upon leaving the guide, the filaments are
divided into two groups and pass upon opposite sides of
pin 113. The filaments are twisted immediately upon
leaving pin 11.3 by means of iiuid twister 114 farther
downstream, the twist imparted by liuid twister 114i back
ing up to pin 113. No heating Zone is necessary with the
string-up of FIGURE 34 since the filaments are in a plas
ticized state upon passing pin 113. Twist imparted to
the yarn bundle upon leaving pin 113 is fixed in the yarn
either by cooling, evaporation, or otherwise, prior to en
tering iiuid twister 114 from whence it is passed around
rollers 115 and 116 and then to backwindable package 118
which is driven by drive roll 117.
in addition to improving crimping and elastic proper
tes of stable and continuous filament yarns, the apparatus
of this invention can be used for treating a single con
tinous -filament or staple roving and plyed roving or spun
yarn or, in fact, any ñlamentary strand material. While
passes over a twist-snubbing guide, over a hot plate,
the twist applied to a running threadline is false, the twist
through a pneumatic twister, and back to a small diam
applied to projected endsof staple fibers is a true twist
eter roll which is mounted concentrically and on a
and the whipping and twisting of these ends about the
common shaft with the draw roll. This latter small roll
has a surface speed which is 15% less than the draw 25 yarn bundle produce a very coherent product. When
treating staple- roving, a yarn can be spun at speeds much
roll. The yarn passes twice around this smaller roll and
higher than those obtainable on a conventional spinning
its separator roll. This smaller roll and separator roll
can be considered as a windup roll.
The difference in
frame; and by varying the processing elements, the
product can be Varied all the way from the conventional
-diameter or surface speed of the small and large con
centric rolls determines the overfeed to the pneumatic 30 spun yarn to a highly bulked stretch-type yarn.
As other variations of the treatment, two or more dif
twisting' process and hence determines the tension in the
ferent yarns, continuous filament or staple, may be proc
From the windup roll, the yarn travels
' processing zone.
to a standard pirn windup. The product produced is a
70-34 stretch nylon.
essed simultaneously at the same or different rates feed
speed and at the same or different tension levels with
The yarn path between the draw roll and the Windup 35 constant or pulsating feed rates, to give yarns of varying
roll can be considered as the stretch processing7 zone.
The hot plate 96 and twister 97 can be mounted as shown
in FIGURE 33 in which case the processing is designated
characteristics and/or novelty. One such yarn product
is analogous to the so-called thick-and-thin yarns with
as .‘-‘up” processing. Alternatively, the twister and hot
lengths containing high twist (crimped) connected by
lengths substantially untreated or unchanged (uncrimped)
plate can be mounted as shown by the dotted outline in
FIGURE 33 in which case the twisting process is desig
and/ or an alternating twist yarn. Particularly interesting
combinations can be prepared wherein the two different
nated as “down” processing. For high speed operation,
the “down” processing procedure is preferred since an
additional hot plate can be mounted on the up traveling
leg of the processing zone which will supplement the
heating effect of the hot plate immediately upstream of
the pneumatic twister.
A variation of the above operation is particularly useful
as applied to monofilament yarns of the type used in
ladies hosiery. Where monofilament yarns of round cross
section are used, the smooth cylindrical surface does not
offer as much purchase for the fluid vortex and, there
fore, twisting is less efficient than with multifllament
yarns, although acceptable products can be produced.
Multiñlament yarns with as few as two filaments per
- yarn bundle are twisted more effectively, but it is desir
able to have as few filaments as possible in hosiery yarn
- to achieve maximum shearness and freedom from snag
ging.
A process which appears to provide optimum
' results in View of these considerations applies the treat
. ment on the apparatus of FIGURE 33 to a temporarily
materials (eg, nylon and rayon) have dissimilar retrac
tion chararteristics. The differential retraction character
istics can be enhanced by using two different feed rates
or tension levels, thereby increasing the ultimate bulking
that will be achieved when the yarns or fabrics are given
their final process retraction. Finishing techniques, ie.,
shrinking, agitation or the like can improve or modify
the bulking characteristics particularly when two dis
similar yarns are used.
While the yarns made with the apparatus of this inven
tion are particularly useful in stretch-type knit fabrics,
they also provide useful effects in other fabric forms
such as tricot and woven goods. Woven fabrics, partic
ularly those made from yarns of non-round cross sec
tions, show desirable improvements in bulk and texture.
High luster or glitter frequently associated with yarns of
non-round cross sections is generally reduced by the sub
ject twist-setting process. Examination of such yarns
60 under suitable magnification shows that the filaments
are randomly rearranged with respect to one another so
as to break up the reliecting planes which tend to produce
glitter. Accompanying this effect is a random twist con
figuration along the individual filaments giving a length
the yarn bundle. This requires that the filaments are
separated at a point beyond the fluid vortex. Pins or 65 wise texture not normally associated with simple cross
section modifications.
guides located downstream of the iiuid twister can be used
Desirable crepe-like fabrics may also be made of yarns
to accomplish this separation. The resultant mono
of this invention. in this case the crepe figure may be
filarnent yarns have a corkscrew-like configuration which
composite yarn composed of two or more filaments with
separate final packaging provided for each ñlament in
provides additional stretchiness, bulk, and desirable
developed in fabric finishing by agitated relaxation treat
Similar results may be obtained 70 ments such as tumble scour provided the fabric construc
tion is sufficiently open to alloy yarn distortion under the
by applying the process to monoiiiaments of non-round
influence of their twist liveliness. In woven crepe fabric
cross section. ln this case the stretch developed in the
the crimp amplitude tends to be limited by the relatively
iinal knit garment stems largely from the yarn twist live
texture to the product.
liness and resulting stitch distortion.
FIGURE 34 illustrates one procedure for utilizing the
tight fabric construction as compared with knit fabrics.
Por this reason, it may be desirable to modify the yarn
3,079,745
15
in portions or” the yarn leaving the twister and the yarn
has the appearance illustrated in FIGURE _40. The
process and product are described in Example 55 of
stretch characteristics for stretch-yarns intended for weav
mg.
FIGURE 35 illustrates a ñuid twister apparatus of this
invention which may be utilized to produce a wide variety
of novel specialty yarns. In the schematic drawing of
FIGURE 35, roving is unwound from package 125 in
conventional manner and passed in sequence through a
trumpet guide 125, drafting rolls 127, and over applicator
roll 128 which is revolving in a bath of adhesive solution.
The roving is then plasticized in heater 130 and twisted
by tiuid twister 131 and subsequently wound on package
133 which is driven by drive roll 132. It is not essential
that adhesive be applied to the roving during the process
ing, and it is also not necessary that the roving be plas
ticized prior to twisting. Either or both of the adhesive
application and plasticizing may be omitted or may be
utilized, depending upon the particular product desired.
In the case where no adhesive is applied to the roving
and plasticizing is also omitted, the product produced by
the twisting action of the ñuid twister is a sheaf-yarn, such
as illustrated in FIGURE 39. The product is called a
vsheaf-yarn because it resembles sheaves of wheat or, more
exactly here, sheaves of staple yarn attached end to end
and tied at random intervals along its length by staple
lfibers twisted firmly about the circumference thereof. In
termediate the Vtightly bound portions of the yarn the
,
staple fibers are substantially parallel to one another.
In utilizing the apparatus of FIGURE 35 and processing
staple roving as above described but applying an adhesive
Table I.
Alternate twist continuous yarns are formed, using the
application (of sizing) roll or the heater separately; how
ever, the combined arrangement is preferred. With the
hot plate at 230° C., the bonding agent is dried but the
twist is removed by the fluid twister, thus yielding a zero
twist yarn made cohesive by the bonding material alone.
A poly(hexamethylene adipamide) continuous ñlament
-yarn is combined with viscose rayon stable fiber (1.5
~ d.p.f., 21/2”) using the equipment of FIGURE 35. Operat
ing conditions are shown in Example 53 of Table I. The
15 yarn is passed through the forward drafting rolls along
with the drafted Viscose rayon staple iiber yarn. The
filament yarn and staple yarn are immediately integrated
by the twist imparted by the fluid twister. The twisted
filament-staple yarn then is treated with polyvinyl alcohol
20 by the applicator roll and heated to 250° C. to set the
yarn, then passed through the twister to windup. VIn an
other example, adhesive is applied to both yarns prior to
passage through the drafting rolls to produce a coated
yarn having substantially greater bulk than in' the case of
25 yarn treated with adhesiveafter twisting.
By a variation of the apparatus of FIGURE 35 >indi
cated by the dotted lines in the drawing, it is a simple
procedure to add one or more additional yarn structures
to the roving prior to twisting.
For example, a yarn
ksolution to the roving prior to twisting but omitting any 30 package 134 containing either continuous or staple {ila
ments may be passed over pin 135 and joined with the
plasticizing of the roving prior to twisting, there is ob
tained an alternate twist staple yarn having an appearance
similar to the twisted yarn shown in FIGURE 40 with the
exception that FIGURE 40 is directed to an alternate twist
roving as it passes through nip rolls 136. As in the case
with the processing of roving alone as illustra-ted in FIG
URE 35, the joint processing of the multiplicity of fila
mentary structures may be accompanied by the applica
"continuous filament yarn. An alternate twist staple iiber
tion of an adhesive solution by applicator roller 128 and/
yarn has essentially the same coniiguration but with a
or plasticizing thereof by heat or other means at plasticizer
somewhat more fuzzy appearance due to the multiplicity
station 130. Alternatively, an adhesive solution may be
of Iiber ends protruding from the iiber bundle. When the
applied to the continuous or staple iilament prior to its
apparatus of FIGURE 35 is operated with a plasticizer,
for example, a heat plasticizer, but without application of 40 joining with the roving or application of adhesive to the
» roving or to the combination of roving and staple or con
adhesive, a parn product with somewhat greater bulk but
tinuous yarn may be omitted, as desired, to produce a
`somewhat less stability Vthan the yarn product is obtained
wide variety of novel yarn structures.
v .
with adhesive application. When adhesive application
FIGURE 36 illustrates an apparatus for producing other
alone is utilized in the absence of any plasticizing means,
it is essential that the adhesive be suñ‘iciently volatile so 45 novel yarns using a fluid twister of this invention. In
using this apparatus, a continuous or staple filament yarn
that it will be set (by polymerization or solvent volatiliza
is unwound from package 140, passed over pinA 141,
tion) during the interval between application of the ad
through nip rollers 142, and subjected to the rotary twist
hesive solution and entrance into the fluid twister. The air
ing action by fluid twister 143. The rotary action upon
discharge from the iiuid twister accelerates the setting of
solvent based adhesives.
50 the yarn is shown by dotted lines 150. In the speciñc
illustration shown, short lengths of a second iilamentary
Operation of the apparatus of FIGURE 35 is illus
trated by passing poly(hexamethylene adipamide) staple
ñlament yarn, issuing from the drafting rolls of a com
mercial spinning frame, through an air twister and then
to a windup roll with a surface speed of 23 y.p.m. The
material 144 are dropped from reservoir 145 upon the
carrier yarn as it is rotated and twisted with the result
that Áthe short lengths of iilamentary material are wound
tightly about the rotating (carrier) yarn and become
lirmly bound thereto to form slubs. Alternatively, the
yarn path from the drafting rolls, through the twister to a
slubs may be dropped on the carrier yarn downstream' of
guide, located just prior to the windup, is a straight line.
the ñuid twister but this procedure is less desirable -be
Yarn tension above the twister is 2 grams. Supply air
cause slubs are even more firmly bound to the carrying
-,pressure to the twister is 30 p.s.i.g.
A continuous staple yarn is formed by the above process, 60 yarn as the yarn carrying the slubs passes through iluid
twister 143. The slub yarn product is then passed through
which yarn is held together by random filament ends which
nip rollers 147 and wound on package roll 148 which vis
are wrapped tightly about the yarn axis. The yarn is illus
driven by drive roll 149. In operating in accordance with
trated in FIGURE 39. The process conditions are shown
this embodiment, the carrying yarn may be either staple or
:in Example 50 of Table I.
Viscose rayon staple filament yarn issuing from the 65 continuous íilament yarn, and the secondary yarn, which
is added to form slubs, may likewise be either staple or
drafting rolls 127 of a commercial spinning frame at 50
Y continuous iilament yarn.
y.p.m. is treated in the apparatus of FIGURE 35 whereby
Using the apparatus shown in FIGURE 36, poly
the yarn is passed over an applicator roll 128 and a
. (hexamethylene adipamide) yarn is taken from a pack
`heated plate 130 prior to entering the pneumatic twister.
"The applicator rolls apply a size (polyvinyl alcohol emul 70 age, passed through the feed rolls, through a Huid twister
operating on 40 pounds per square inch air to a windup
sion) to the twister yarn. The hot plate (280° C.) dries
roll, and iinally to a backwindable package. Windup
`the size and íixes the yarn in its twisted configuration.
jDue to the combination of size and heat, the twist is fixed
speed is 160 y.p.m. Tension in the threadline is main
-so tightly that some of the twist passes through the twister
-unaltered, with the result thatvopposite hand twist appears 75
tained at 10 grams.
i
Immediately upstream of the twister, pieces of staple
17
3,079,745
are fed to the rotating, twisting threadline from a hopper.
cated), a continuous staple yarn with real twist is formed
and is continuously withdrawn from the twister. This
On contacting the rotating, twisting threadline, the staple
yarn is wound on a suitable package and resembles con
fibers are immediately entrained into the threadline by
ventional spun staple of a 5/1 cc. Specialty yarns such
as slub yarns and covered yarns may be prepared in
such an arrangement by running a threadline through the
twister while adding staple fibers to the air stream.
As illustrative of one method of operating the appara
yarn (1.5 denier per filament, 3 inch viscose rayon staple)
the rapid rotating motion, and form randomly spaced
slubs along the threadline. An enlarged illustration of
the slubbed yarn is shown in FIGURE 37. The slub
yarn is novel in that the slub is held Vto the carrier yarn
tus of this invention, poly(hexamethylene adipamide)
with two directions of twist. One end of the slub is
twisted in the S direction, the other end is' twisted in 10 yarn of a type suitable for tire cord consisting of 240
filaments of approximately 6 denier per filament giving
the Z direction. The process conditions shown in Ex
a total yarn denier of 1680 is processed in the general
ample 57 of Table I produced the product illustrated in
arrangement shown in FIGURE 32. In this case, because
FIGURE 37.
of the relatively poor heat transfer through the heavy
Another type of slub yarn (crepe tail slub yarn), illus
trated in FIGURE 4l, is made by running a yarn through 15 yarn bundle, it is necessary to use several heating zones
the FIGURE 36 apparatus at a tension of only 3 grams.
The high twist imparted to the cold yarn at this low
interspersed with booster iiuid twisters which apply addi
tional torque tothe threadline to overcome air drag and
other forms of friction tending to reduce the twist level
tension causes the yarn to 4form branched slubs which
in the twist heating zone. .In the example at hand, three
pass through the twister. The stability of the branched
slubs can be improved by size applied before the twister. 20 conventional slot type heaters are used in sequence.
Between the first and second and second and third heat
These branched slubs can also be produced by plucking
ers (in the direction of threadline movement), booster
the threadline so as to create short rapid tension changes.
fluid twisters are used supplied with high pressure steam
A slub yarn comprising slubs of continuous filament
which gives additional plasticizing action. 'The third
on a continuous filament carrier yarn is prepared by
substituting a continuous filament package for the reser 25 heater is made several times the length of the other
heaters to remove moisture in `order to ensure complete
voir 145 in FIGURE 36. Running at a speed of 50
deplasticizing. The zone betweenA the last heater and
y.p.rn. and using a ñuid twister of the type shown in
the linal pneumatic twister is also longer than the other
FIGURES 13 and 14 which is operated at 30 pounds
similar zones. A transverse flow of air is used in this
per square inch air pressure, continuous filament yarn
to be used for slubbing is allowed to contact the rotating 30 region to assist threadline cooling. The product col
lected at the windup in this case shows ñlament curliness
carrier yarn threadline. The slubbing yarn is immedi
in which the radius of curvature is somewhat larger than
ately wrapped about the carrier yarn and forms slubs
that observed with the textile denier yarns but suiiicient
which consist of short sections of carrier yarn about
to be attractive in certain forms of upholstery and carpet
which numerous layers of the slubbing yarn are wrapped.
The tension on the carrier yarn is maintained constant 35 yarn uses.
In the examples following, which illustrate operation
at between 10 and 25 grams, whereas the tension on the
of the apparatus of this invention, tension on the yarn
slubbing yarn is varied in a rapid and random fashion
upstream of the iiuid twister is controlled lby feeding
between- 0 and 25 grams. Wrapping occurs when the
means to provide a low tension above that at which twist
tension in the slubbing yarn drops below the tension
in the carrier yarn. Layered slubs occur when the ten 40 doubling occurs. Air velocity in the iluid twisted is at
least 1/2 sonic.
sion in the slubbing yarn approaches zero grams. The
The examples shown in Table I illustrate the operation
wrapping and carrying functions of each yarn may be
ofthe fluid-twisting devices of this invention and the prod
reversed by reversing the relative tension levels. Process
ucts which may be produced thereby. Table I indicates
conditions are shown in Example 56 of Table I. The
slub yarn product illustrated in FIGURE 38 is unique
for each example the yarn utilized, the conditions under
in that the slub consists of yarn wrapped about the car
which it was processed, the fluid twister utilized, the type
of string-up assembly employed, and the nature of the
rier yarn in the direction of twist that exists upstream
of the twister, whereas the unslubbed, but plyed sections
product produced along with its stretch characteristics
in terms of percent steam retraction where these data are
of the yarn are twisted in the twist direction that exists
50 pertinent. Air velocity in all examples where air is used
downstream of the twister.
The fluid twister is particularly adapted to making of
as a ñuid is at least 1/2 sonic velocity. The deplasticizing
slub yarns, since the twister yarn passage offers' little
(quenching) Vmedium in all examples is air except that
resistance to the passage of a slub, whereas mechanical
in Example 20 the deplasticizing medium is water, and
in Example 29 steam is utilized for quenching. The tem
twisters snub the yarn over pins, wheels, etc., which
would offer vsubstantial resistance to the passage of siubs, 55 perature ofthe quenching medium is room temperature
with the result that the threadline would be subject to
(26‘l C.) in all cases except Example 29 where steam at
frequent breakdowns.
100° C. is utilized for quenching. The fluid-twisting me
Using a nozzle of the type shown in FIGURES l and
dium in all examples is air, except that in Example 29
2 whose air port diameter is one-quarter of an inch and
the fluid medium is steam. In Examples 8 through 14
whose yarn passageway diameter is one-half an inch, it 60 air consumption amounts to 0.7 cubic foot per minute.
is- possible to spin a real twisted staple ñber. For ex
In all examples illustrating production of stretch-yarn,
ample, poly(hexamethylene adipamide) staple liber (2
the yarn is twisted at least 50 turns per inch, and in many
inches long, 11/2 denier per filament) is dropped into the
instances, over 60 turns per inch.
air supply to the nozzle ofA FIGURE 1.
A length of
The examples of Table Il illustrate preparation of low
yarn is inserted in the yarn passageway and withdrawn 65 denier stretch yarn of poly(hexamethylene adipamide)
at a rate of 20 yards per minute. The direction of with
suitable for ladies hose. Products of Examples 5S, 59,
drawal is opposite to the direction of the air port entry
and 6l are prepared using the coupled drawing-twisting
to the yarn passageway. The air supply pressure is 60
pounds per square inch. The air stream carrying its
entrained staple fibers causes a rapidly rotating vortex
in the yarn passageway and rotates the length of yarn
apparatus shown in FIGURE 33, and those of Examples
60', 62, 63, and 64 are prepared using the dual thread
initially placed in the yarn passageway at high speed.
The rotating yarn wraps thevstaple ñbers, carried by the
processing apparatus of FIGURE 35.
All yarns are con
tinuous filament yarns freshly drawn prior to twisting and
having an initial twist of about 0.1 turn per inch. Up
stream tension on the yarn is about 2 grams. The heat
air stream, about itself, and as the yarn is withdrawn
setting is accomplished by passing the yarn at speeds rang
from the yarn passage (in the direction previously índi 75 ing from 425 to 780 yards per minute through a slot V16
v3,079,215
T_S
2S
vinch x 1A inch'x 10 inches heated at 225° C. Air pres
has an air passage diameter of 0.025 inch and a yarn pas
sure is 95 psig. and twisting action is direct. The twister
sage diameter of 0.025 inch,
TABLE I
Example ..................... _-
1
2
ad ipa-
3
4
5
Yarn material ................ __
Polyáhîxamethylene
Same as 1 ..... -_
Same as 1 _________ ._
Same as 1 ....... __
Same as 1.
Denier
70
70
70
200
70.
Number filaments
34
34
34
12
34.
Source ........................ __
Shipping package _____________ __
Same as 1_______
Same as 1 _________ __
Same as 1 _______ __
Type of yarn ................. __
Continuous ................... __
Continuous_____
Continuous _______ __
Continuous ..... __
Continuous.
%7
¿é Z
l/é
mi e .
~
. Initial tWist_-
l/é Z
2Z
Same as 1.
.
Feed speed (ypm.)
10's`
158
645
11 ‘1
451.
Windup speed (y.p.m.)
85
12R
597
95
400.
Tension (gms).
2
4
1-2
2
2.
Process twist- _
S.
S
7
7.
Z_
Fluid twister ................. _.
Figs. 15 and 16 ________________ __
Figs. 15 and 16;.
Fig. 31 ____________ __
Fig. 31 __________ __
Figs. 9 and 10.
Heat-setting temp., ° C
250
270
325
260
325.
Type heater._____ ____________ __
Air pressure (psig.) _
Hot slot, Me” X 13" ........... __
60
Same as 1 _____ __ Hot slot| Mo" X 25”--.
60
65
~
TWiStîIlg ’Film1
Direcf
Direct
Turns per minute ............ __
215,000 ________________________ __
Percent steam retraction
12R
Product characterization ______ __
Air passage drain. (mçhes)--
_
Stretch yarn __________________ __
.0
__
Same as 1 ....... __ Same as 2.
65
90.
Reverse
Rever e
340,000 ________ __
1,200,000 ___________ __
240,000 .......... -_
900,000.
100
100
100
93.
Stretch yarn-_ __
Stretch yarn ______ -_
.06 _.
Example ....................... _.
Direct.
Stretch yarn .... _-
......... -_
6
.31 __
7
Same as 1 ....... __
.3
s
Same as 1 ....... __
_.
Stretch yarn
9
Same as 1 _____ __
.
.
10
Same as 1_____-_
11
Same as 1 ..... -_
Same as 1.
Denier
40
70
70
70
70
7 .
Number filaments
13
34
34
34
34
34.
Same as 1_______
Same as 1 _____ __
Source ______ _-
Same as 1 _______ __
Type of yarn..
ȓ
- 5 holes at .031 _________________ __ 5 holes et .031___ 12 holes et .063 ...... __ 12 holes et .063_--_ 1 hole at .025.
Yarn passage diam. (inches) __--.
Yarn material.-.
l
......... _-
Initial twist
Feed speed (y.p.m.) ........... -_
Same as 1 _______ -_
Same as 1------.
Same as 1.
Continuous__-____ Continuous_._-_-_
Continuous.. ___ Continuous_____ Continuous_--__ Continuous.
12 Z
%Z
le 7
l Z
‘_A
l/ê Z.
Tension gate ____ __ 115 ______________ __
Tension gate.___ Tension gate____ Tension gate._-- 341.
Windup speed (y.p.m.)
10o-50o
10o
40o
45o
‘nfl
309.
Tension (gms.) ................. _-
5 ________________ __
0.1--____
1.5-.
1.5---
1.2-.
1.5.
Process tjwist
Fluid twister .................. -_
Heat-setting temp., ° C
Z_
S
S
S
S
S.
Fig. 31 __________ _- Figs. 13 and 14-___ Figs. 9 and 10... Figs. 9 and 10.._ Figs. 9 and 10-.. Figs. 9 and 10.
240
260
325
325
525
325,
Type heater___-__ .............. _.
.Air pressure (psig.) _ _
Hot plate, 30”__-__ Same as 1 _______ __ Same as 1-.-.--. Same as 1 ..... __ Same as 1._.-_-- Same aS 1.
65
40
100
100
100
100.
Twisting action
Turns per minute
Reverse
Direct
100
124
Stretch yarn ____ __
Stretch yarn ____ __
Direct
950,000".
l
Percent steam retraction
Product characterization _______ __
Air passage drain. (in_ches)
_
Yarn passage diam. (inchei _ ___..
Direct
1,080,000
Direct
1,150,000
7
Direct.
800,000.
53
l
144.
Stretch yarn____
Stretch yarn____
Stretch yarn__..
12 holes at .063...- 1 hole at .094 ____ __
.02 __
.02 __
.02 -_
.025.
.31 _ _
.025__
.025-.
.025’.-
.025.
- Example ............................ _-
Yarn material ....................... _-
.188-.
12
13
14
15
Stretch yarn.
16
17
Same as 1 _____ -_
Same as 1 _____ __
Same as 1 _____ __
Same as 1 _____ __
Same as 1...----
Same as 1.
Denier.-
70
70
70
70
A0
20.
Number filaments- .
Source ________ ._
34
Same. as l _____ __
34
Same as 1_-
_
Same as 1.
Type of yarn ........................ _-
Contlnuous____.
Continuou _
Initial twist
- Z
Continuous.
2
M_» Z.
Feed speed (320.111.)-
330
‘10Q
7n
141.
Tension (gms.)
2.5__
‘1
1.
Process tzwisf
SI
s
s.
Twisting actgfm
Direct
Windup speed (y.p.m.)
Tension gatc__-_ Tension gate.
`
Z
Direct
_
Direct
Reverse
Direct.
Turns per mlmltenu.- ______________ -_
770.000 ........ __
630,000-400,000___ __________________________________ __
Percent steam retraction
144
50-35
00
274.
~ '
Product characterizatlon ............ _- Stretch yann-.- Stretch yarn-___ Stretch yam-___ Stretch yarn____ stretch yarn____ Stretch yam
Air passage diam. (inches).
.0 _
.02 _
.0 __
1 hole at .031____ 12 holes at .063.. 5 holes at .031.
Yam passage diam. (inches)_-
>.025.
.025.-
“Emmnle
.025..
18
.
_.
.
19
_
.0
.
20
21
Yarn material .............................. __
Denier- __
Same as 1 ............... -_ Same as 1_
14
l5
Same as 1
70
Same as 1.
70_
Number filaments
2
1
34
34_
Source ..................................... _.
Type of yarn ............................... ._
Same as 1 ............... -_
Continuous _____________ -_
Same as 1 _________________ __
Continuous _______________ __
Seme as 1 _____________ __
Continuous ........... __
same as 1_
Continuous.
Initial tW1 st
Feed speed (y.p.m.)
Zorn
117
Zero
11 s
1/¿ 7.
1110
1/2 Z_
225,
Windup speed (y.p.m.) _.
Tension (girls.)
100
l
10o
1
14a
q
200_
6_
Fi s. 9 and 10.
Fi . 31-
Figs 9 and 10'
ui
vwis er _______________________________ __
igs. 9 and 1 ___________ ._
'
Heatsetting temp., ° C-
23s
240g
252g
Type heater ____ .__ __________________________ _-
Same as 6 ............... __
Same as 1 _________________ __
Same as 6 _____________ __
Air pressure _(p.s.i.g.)
Twisting actionTurns per minute
40
Direct
40
Direct
s
Reverse
:Igercâentt stìelam iêtracttsion-
» ro uc c arac riz_a -ion ___________________ _-
>Air passage dlarln. (inches).
Yarn passage diam. (inches) .... ..
qt
c yrete
h hlm
` amont yam--.
93
Stretch moncñlament yarn.. Stretch ñlament
.100_
Dimm;`
am..-
......... .- 1 hole at .063 ............ -_ 1 hole at .OC3 ______________ __ 12 holes at .os3__î__
.0
. __.
.0
__
,3
__
.
Crim ed
am
__ 1 hoiepat ,525,
`02 _
_
_
i
’
3,079,745
22'
TABLE î (continued)
Example _________________________ ._
22
23
Yarn material .................. _.-. Polymexamethylene adip-
24
Same as 22.-
25
Poly(ethylene-terephthalate)__ Same as» 24.
amide) undrawn.
Denier ________________________ _- _
252 (undrawn).._-_
70 ........................... ...Y
70.
Number filaments
34
34
34.
Source. _ _
Spin bob‘oin
Same as 22 .......... __
Same as 22.
Type of yarn ________ __
_
Continuous ______________ __
Y Continuous _________ -Y_
Initial twist
Zero
Zero
Feed speed (y.p.m.).
103 (draw roll speed).
98 (feed roll speed)--
Windup speed (y.p.m. _
77 (Windup roll speed _
350 (Windup roll spee
10 _
Tension (gms.)
1
6
4
Process twist
Y -
Y
Y
Y
100.
4»
Figs. 9 and 10..
Figs. 15 and 16 Y
230
-
114.
Z
Figs. 11 and 12.-Y
Zero.
117-
Z
Fluid twister _____________________ __
Y
.
240
S. _
Heat-setting temp., ° C-
240
Type heater ______________________ __
Air pressure (psig.)
Same as 1 _______________ _.
19
Radiant tube.48
Y
Same as 1--40 Y
Y
Twisting actionTurns per minute
Direct
220,000..
Direct
Direct
240,000.
Percent steam retraction--
116
Yarn passage diam. (inches)
Y
115
Product characterization _________ -_ 70-30 stretch yarn _______ __ Bulked yarn __________ -_
Air passage diam. (inches) ________ _. 10 holes at .031 __________ _- 5 holes at .031 _______ .Y._.
.0
__
.063..
'Remark
Y
Simultaneous
twisting
Continuous.
Zero
Y
...... -_ Figs. 9 and 10.
Y
240.y
____ -_
Same as l.
40.
Direct.
Y
YY
Y
115V.
_
_
_
__
__
Stretch filament yarn--1 hole at .063 ................ -_
Stretch filament yarn;
1 hole 'at .063.
.
.
;Y.
Y
Y Y -
3.
______________________________ _
and drawing.
Example ____________________ -_
26
27
28
29
30
31
Yarn material ............... __
Same as 24 ____ -_
Same as 24....--
Same as 24 ____ _-
Same as 24......
Poly(epsilon capro-
Denier
70
40
40
70
70
Number ñlaments.
Source ________ _.
34
Supply package-
27
Same as 26 ____ __
27Y
Same as 26 ____ __
34
Y Y Y Y
Same as 26.-..--
Type of yarn ________________ _Initial twist
Feed speed (y.p.m.)_._
Continuous.__-Zero
150
Continuous.-."
Zero
114
Continuons.-._. Continuous.
Zero
Zero
Y Y
12o
use
.
Fortisan (à regen
arn` e).
Y
Y -Y ‘Y
erated cellulose).
Y
9 .
34
Same as 26 ________ __
120.
Same as 26.
Continuous ..... .Y.-.
Continuous.
3 Z.
106.
_ us
Windup speed (52pm.)
128
1m
im
Tension (gms.)
Process twist
3.5--
1.3-S
1.5-.
7
Fluid twister--
Figs. 11 and l2.- Figs. 9 and l0-.. Figs. 9 audio-.. Fig. 27..;...Y._-. Fig. 27 ____________ _- Fig. 27
Heat-setting te
266
270
Y
Type heater.
Same as l. _
_
Air pressure
80
Twisting actio
___
Y
265
-
110
100
100.
'iY Y
Z
l~2
S
1-2.
S.
266v Y
240
200.
Direct ______ _- _
Turns per minute
240,000 ............ _. 240,000.
Percent steam retraction
87--.
106
154
~
95
Y v Y
Y
Product characterization ____ _- Stretch yarn_-.. Stretch yorin-.. Stretch yarn"tretch yarn---Air passage diam. (inches) _ _-- 10 holes at .031.. 1 hole at .063_._- 1 hole at .063_-_- 1 holeYat 063-..Yarn passage diam. (inches)_- .063-.063.0 _.
.0 _
F‘vamnle ___
32
33
34
Yarn material _________________________ -_ Polyacrylonitri1e_--.
Polyethylene ____ __ Vinyon N
Denier-__-_
66-
'
100
Source _________________________________ __
Y
Stretch yan1'.
. 1 hole at .063.
.063.
Y
Y
35
36
Raw silk
Viscose rayon.
130- Y
Same as 26 ________ __
Same as 26 ...... _-
Continuous ..... _-
Continuous ..... -_
Same as 26..
Continuous.
Type of yarn _________________________ _-
Continuous _______ __
Initial twist-.
0.3 Z.
Feed speed (y.p.m.).
116
110
44.
Windup speed (y.p.m.)
100
100
42.
1-2
2.
Z
Tension (gms. )_
l-2
Process twist-
S
Heut-setting temp., c C
220
Type heater ______________________ _
Same as 1.4o
Fluid twister-
Fig. 27-
Air pressure (p.s.i.g.).
Y
150.
Same as 26 ...... __
Y
. .
Y
S
Twisting action
Y
Turns per minute _____________________ _-
Y
240,000 ____________ _.
Percent steam retraction
Y
Product characterization ________ _-
Stretch yarn ______ _-
YY
Y
Y
240,000.Y-_-. ____ _.;
Y
S.
Fig. 27-
Figs. 1l and 12.
16 n
Samevas 1
180.
Hot tube )6" x 13".
4o
30
Y
Direct.
240,000 ____ _.Y ____ ._
240,000 .......... _-
110,000.
Bulked yarn-.Y.--_ Bulked yarn-._._~.
Crirnped yarnm..
Stretch yarn.
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
Air passage diam. (inches) _____________ -_ 1 hole at .063. ..... -_ 1 hole at .063 ____ -_ Y1 hole at .063__-_-- 1 hole at .063-_-.._ 10 holes at .031.
Yarn i
diam. (inches)
.
Example' ________________________ _-
Yarn material ___________________ ._
Denier
Number ñl'iments
-_
.063--
37
38
Cellulose acetate..
100
Y
.063-
39
Cellulose triacetate..
202
32
Y Y
80
Y
.063-
YY Y
Y
.0
40
41
(l) ............. -_ Fiberglass-_-----_ Same as 37.
s4
11n
100.
40.
15
32.
Source ___________________________ ._
Same as 26 ...... ._
Same as 26. _ Y Y
Same as 26.-
Same as 26.
Type oi yarn.
Initial twist- _ _
Continuous. ____ _.
Zero
ContinuonsZero
Continuous.
M» Z
_ Continuous
Same as 26.
Continuous.
Zero.
Feed speed (y.p.m.).
24
43
52
105
24.
Wlndup speed (y.p.m.)
Tension (gms.) _
22.5. _ _
l-2
42Y
4
22.5. _ _
1.3. _
100
l-2
22.5.
1.2.
Process twist..
Fluid twister-
Z
Fig. 27-
Heat-setting temp., ° C
200
7v
7
Fig. 27 ............ _. Fig. 27.
Y
95
Y
200
.
Fig. 27
S.:
F1gs.5 and 6.
ann
200.
.
Type heater ................. --.___-
Same as 36 ...... _.
Same as 36... ..... -_
Same as 36 .... ._ --____-.----------
Same as 35.
Air pressure (p.s.i.g.)_
40
16
24
40Y
15..
Twisting action
Direct
D11-pct
Direct.
Turns per minute.--
Product characterization ......... __
Direct
Y
Bulked yarn .... _-
Direct
Y
Y
Y
Stretch yarn ______ _.
940,000
Stretch yarn,-..
Crimped yarn...
.
.
Stretch yam.
Aix' passage diam. (inches) ....... _- 1 hole at .063 .... _. l hole at .063 ...... _. l hole at .063--
1 hole at. .063----~ l hole at .063.
Yarn passage diam. (inches)
.063 ........... -_
Remarks. _
.0
._
.063..
.
.063 ........... --.
.063.
..
.
Yarn -wet with 20+ acetone in
water. .belote entering heater.
3,079,745
24
23
TABLE I (continued)
Yarn material ................ -_
45
44
42
43
Same as 24 ........ -_
Same as 24 __________ _
Example ..................... _.
Same as 24 ............................ -_
Same es 24.
2%
2%
Denier
Number ñlamenfq
2/6
Source ...................... __'.
Same as 26 ........ -_
Same as 26- .-__. ..... _
Type of yarn ................. __
Initial twist '
âtaple 40/2 _c.c _____ _.
‘âO/l 0.o. staple yarn..
âame as 43 ............................ __
Feed speed (y.p.m.) .......... _
44
44
Windup speed (y.p.m.)_
Tension (gms.)
Tens ion gate
40'.
74
7
43
ñ
43
6
4o.
Process twist
Fluid twister
Z
Z
Fig. 27
Figs. 11 and 12 ...... __
Heat-setting temp., ° C ..... -__
'l‘wisting action.
Direct
Turns per minute ____________ _Product characterization ..... __
Air passage diam. (inches).-.-_'.
150 00 0 ............ __
Stret ch staple yarn
` with reduced fuzz.
_l Vhole at .063 ______ __
Yarn passage diam. (inches)..__ .063
Remarks
Same as 26 ............................ -_
Il
Same as 26.
âame as 43.
2o.
Z.
S
170
Type heater .................. -_
Air pressure (p.s.i.g.)
1.5 d .p. f.
Eggs. 11 and 12 ________________________ __ Figs. 11 and 12.
26.
9
Same as 42; ......... -_
Same as 42 ............................ -_
31')
Direct
20
Direct
Direct.
100,000---
100,000. _
100,000.
Same as 42.
Same as 42 ............................ __
Reduced fuzz staple yarn.
10 holes at .031.. .... _
10 holes et .031 ........................ __
10 holes at .031.
063
.053
50
063
Y
Process twist opposite to initial yarn
twist. Yarn is twisted through 'zero
_
point.
Yarn material
Denier
47
46
Example .......................... _
48
Same es 1.
(last-in
40.--
Number ‘Hlamenfe
1.5.
i
Bobbin.
Type oi yam
Staple roving.
Simile
Sffmlp
Simile
1l()
110
10 5
105
Initial twist- _
Feed speed (y.p.m.)
Windup speed (y.p.m.)
100
100
100
1-2
1-2
1-2
100
1-2
Process twist
S
S
S
S
Fluid twister ___________ __ ......... -_
Fig. 27
Fig. 27
Fig. 27
Fig. 27 ........ _
Heat-setting temp., ° C
isn
120
180
190
Tension (gms).
Type heater
Air pressure (psig.)
23.
2.
Z.
Figs. 11 and 12.
None.
30
40
40
40
40
240,000 ........ -_
240,000______--_.
240,000 ........ -_
240,000 ........ __
Twisting aotinn
Turns per minute ................. _
Product characterization
Air passage diam. (inches)
Yarn passage diam. (inches) ....... _
Crimped yam___ Crimped yarn--. Crimped yarn-.. Crimped yarn.-. Sheai’ yarn.
1 hole at .063-___ 1 hole at .063____ l0 holes at .031.
lohole at 063---
.063.
Drafted staple ñbers led to a fluid
Remax-ke
twister
are
converted
into
a
continuous yarn, see Fig. 35.
Yarn material ....................... __
Source .............................. -_
Type of yarn ........................ _
Initial twist
Feed speed (y.p.m.) ................ __
Windup speed (y.p.1n.)
Tension (gms.)
Same as 1.
Same 3S 1--7n
Same?as 1 ....................... _
7n
Denier
53
52
51
y_.‘lJxalnple ............................ __
70-34 filament.
34
1.50, 2%" staple.
Same as 26 .......... __
Same as 26.
Filament and staple.
Co171tinuous ñl _______ _
¿è
Tension gate
40
9.
7.7.
e;
2.
Z.
Figs. 13 and 14.
S
Process twist
Fig. :u
Fluid twister. __
250
Heat-setting temp., ° C
Same as 6.
30.
Type heater- -
65
Air pressure (p.s.i.g.) _
Twisting action
Product characterization ............ __
Yarn Passage diam. (inches)
Remarks ............................ __
Bulked yarn 2----
Semi staple yarn ................ _
Air Passage diam. (inches) .......... __ lâäioles at .063 ................... -_
_
Staple covered yarn.
1 hole at .063 ___-- 1 h o le at .094
.188.
Staple and continuous filament yarn com
Note: Cutting edge placed upstream of twister
bined using the setup shown in Fig. 35.
breaks filaments which are then wrapped
into the threadline.
55
54
Same 8S 24.
Yarn material ........................... _
Denier- _
Number ñlamenfs
70
34
Source ................................... -_
Same as 26
Type of yarn ............................ _
Continuous
Initial twist.
Feed speed (y.p.m.)
Windup speed (y.p.m.)
Tension (gms.)
'
Z
Process twist
Fluid twister ............................ -_
Heat-setting te
Type heater. _
_
Figs. 15 and 16
270
Same as 1
Air pressure (p. .
3o
Twistjng notion
Product characterization-
Direct
Air Passage diam. (inches)
v5 holes at .031
Y.047
Yarn Passage diam
Remarks... ...... _.
he
Crepe-1ike cohesive yarn ____ __
Jet misaligned with respect to yarn travel direction,
operates in e pulsating manner.
Viscose rayon.
1.5
’
Bobbin.
Staple.
5.
5.
10.
Z.
Figs. l5 and 16.
280.
Same as 6.
30.
Direct.
Alternating twist staple yarn.
10 holes at .031.
.053.
.
Size applied to threedline, while in twisted
condition upstream of heater.
3,079,745
TABLE I (continued)
Example ........................ _-
56
57
Carrier
Slub
Yarn material ___________________ _- Same as 1....
Same as T
Denier
70
40.
Ivo. filaments..Source
Seine as 2H
Type of _Vav'n
Initial twist- _
Continuous
Z
Windup speed (y.p.m.)
50
TensionV (Buis.) .................. -_
l0-25--..-...Y-
Carrier
Same as l
1.5. 3".
34
Pim.. .
_
Bobbin.
Cnnti?imn
MZ
Staple.
Tension gate.
160.
0-25--
Proc-ess twist.
20
_
Fluid twister ____________________ ._
Viscose.
_
_-
Feed speed (y.p.m.)
Slub
Heat-setting temp. DC
l
Type heater
Air pressure (p.s.i.g.)
Wisting action
Product characteri ation
Air passage diam. (inches)
None
30
Direct
Slub yarn
1 hole at 040
Yarn passage diam. (inches)
.063..
.
S ____ _-
Figs. 13 and l4 .............................. -_
i
S.
Figs. 15 and 16.
_
l
None.
40.
Direct.
Slub yarn.
C
Remarks ........................ -_ Tension on 40-13 yam varied randomly. Slub
produced at low tension (approx. 0).
Staple fibers are brought into contact with twisting continuous
filaments in Fig. VI. Product shown in Fig. VII.
l Poly(ethylene pipcrizing N,N’-dicarboxylate).
2 A fluid jet for expanding yarn as described in application Serial No. 443,313 by A. L. Breen was placed downstream of the duid twister to produce
e special bulked yarn.
TABLE II
Example ..................... ._
58
59
60
Denier.
is
is
Number ?ilament<
1
2
Type of false twist ........... _- Unidirect. S or ZN.. Unidirect. both ûl. S or Z.
61
15
2
15.
4.
Balanced one nl. S and l ñl. Z-- Unidirect. all fil. Sor Z.
Feed speed, y.p.m ___________ _.
425-780 ____________ __
425-780
425-780
425.
Windup speed, y.p m
399-731
399-731
899-731
399.
S or 7
S and Z
S or Z.
Percent steam retraction- _
135-450
2-12
157-390.
Product characterization.
Stretch bi-fil .............. -_
Stretch bi-ñi .................. ._
Stretch multi-iii.
Process twi t
Example ______________________ __
62
63
64
Denier
15
30
Number filamenre
4
10
Type oifalse twist ____________ -_
Balanced 2 lil. S and 2 fil. Z ...... ._
Balanced 5 nl. S and 5 ñl. Z ____ ._
Balanced 7 íil. S and 7 ñl. Z.
Feed speed, y.p.ru.
425-780
425
425.
Windup speed, y.p m
399-731
399 1
399.1
Process twist-Percent steam retraction
S and Z
15G-380
Product characterization ______ -_
Stretch multi-fil .................... -_
’
40.
14.
S and Z ____________________________ __
9'í-24i
S and Z.
7-165.
Stretch multi-lil ____________________ _.
Stretch mu1ti~ñl.
l Not measured.
Example 65
The yarn products produced by twisting yarn in a duid
A heated fluid can be used in the ñuîd twister of this
twister in accordance to this invention are structurally
invention with either continuous filament or staple yarn.
unique qnd novel besldes being charactenzed by Superior
Thus,
there is obtained a combined plasticizing and heatsetting action while in the overtwistcd condition. Using
umflolmltylaî C_O‘mpareî toüînîr .aïtgams Preìîìredt wäh
50 Die? amca Wlslers‘
n
e WIS e yam pr. uc s
'
a simple torque jet as shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 a
dividualiilaments and groups of ñlamerits are twisted even
7
l
I
single ply, 18 cotton count, l5 Z twist spun yarn corn-
Épart from any „bu'ndlç twist that may _be present' Thls
posed of 3 inch, 2.5 denier Polyœexameîhylene adipa_
rnide) íibers is false-twisted to about 30 turns per inch.
intra-filament twisting is thought to provide the yarn prod
“CÍS’ 'Pal‘ïlculafly î'he SÍI‘eÍCh~Yaï11S, Wlth that lm_llsal um*
Air is supplied at 90 p.s.i. to give a flow at near sonic 55 fOl'mIÍY and COheSlVeIleSS Whlch these Yams manifest
velocity of 0.5 ft.3 of cfree air per ininute. 'Ihe nozzle
was heated to 24U-2:0
Example 67
C. to plasticize and crimp-set the
yarn while in the false-twisted condition.
_
.
.
Many of the
_ The Procedure of Example 2 1S Camefi out. “5mg a con'
free über ends were wrapped around the yarn bundle to
m1110115 ñlamellf QOINhEXaI'ncthi/lene adipamide) yarn but
give a slieaf-yarn with improved pill resistance as well as 60 the fate 0f ÍWISUHS iS Vafled by Varying the îeIlSlOIl 0n
bulk.
the yarn Vas it passes through the iluid twister. They prod
Example 66
uct is an alternate-twist stretch~yarn having in combina~
Example 65 was repeated using Superheated Steam ,at
tion the characteristics and properties of both alternate
200° C. and 50 psi. in place of the air and heating of
Íwlst Yams and Stretch'yams'
the nozzle. The yarn was a single ply, 40 cotton count, 65
Example 68
l5 S twist spun yarn composed of 11/2 inch, 2 denier
poly(ethylene terephthalate) über. Yarn speed was 200
yards per minute and yarn tension was adjusted so that
Th
.
d
fE
1 1.
. d t .
e proce ure o Kamp e 1S came. Ou.usmg a con'
tmuous mamenf: Olyçhexalnethylene adlpamldelyîlm but
the processing was carried out at constant length At
the rate of twisting 1s Varied by alternately twisting the
this ltension level most of the iluid energy was utilized in 70 yam m the
and Z dlrectlons usmg the ñuld 'twlster of
wrapping the free über ends around the yarn bundle to
FIGURE 22 m the apparatus of FIGURE 32» There are
give a Sheaf yam This yam when Woven into fabric had
60 twist reversals per minute and a tension compensating
much improved pill resistance, as compared to starting
device is used to take up tension during the twist rever
yarn. The hand of the fabric had a pronounced crispSals. The product is an alternate-twist stretch-yarn having
ness as well.
75 both the characteristics `and properties -of both alternate
3,079,745
28
27
twist yarns and stretch~yarns. The product has Va steam
retraction of 30%.
Since many diiîerent embodiments of the invention may
,be made without departing from the spirit and scope there- p
of, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited
_by the specific illustrations except to the extent defined
in the following claim.
We claim:
In yarn ltreating apparatus including means for ’twisting>
yarn and means for passing yarn through the twisting 10
means under low tension, the fluid twister for twisting
yarn which comprises ~a yarn passageway tube having a,V
diameter of 0.002 to 0,125 inch and a length of 2 to 15
times the diameter, a plurality of ñuid conduits through
the tube >wall intercepting the passageway with the conduit
axes oñset with respect to the axis of the passageway and
in opposed relationship to each other, each of said con
duits having a diameter of about 1/2 to 2 times the diam
eter of said passageway at the point of interception, and
means for introducing ñuid alternately into said conduits
to be directed about the inner periphery of the yarn pas
sageway in alternate directions.
’
,
References Cited in the ñle of thîspatent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
984,195
2,515,299
Cooper ______________ __ Feb. 14, 1911
Foster et al. __________ _.. July 18, 1950
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