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Патент USA US3079768

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March 5, 1963
Filed Feb. 25. 1960
4 Sheeté-Sheet 1
March 5, 1963
Filed Feb. 25. 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
March 5, 1963
Filed Feb. 23, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
A/wn 2. Va
5/037 .idr/w‘f
March 5., 1963
Filed Feb. 23, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
———1 45/230’?
United rates Patent
Patented Mar. 5, 1953
Alvin l2. Vogel, Los Angeles, Glen N. Garrett, Hermosa
Beach, and George R. Miils, San Pedro, (Haiti, assign
ors to Northrop Corporation, Beveriy Hills, Calif, a
corporation of California
Filed Feb. 23, 1966, Ser. No. 10,372
6 Claims. (Cl. 60-97)
scribed. By referring to FIGURE 1 it will be seen that
the axis 18 of the housing 16 and the longitudinal axis
19 of the aircraft 17 coincide; accordingly the sensor 11
constitutes the nose portion of the aircraft 17. The as
sembly 14 is further characterized in that a support mem
ber 21, an electronic package 22, pneumatic conduit as
sembly 23, electro-hydraulic valves 24 and 26, and other
miscellaneous equipment are mounted in the housing 16.
The sphere assembly 12 includes a spherical shell 27
This invention pertains to sensing devices and more 10 having an access opening 28 and a plurality of ports
29—33, inclusive, which extend through the wall of the
particularly to a self contained air ?ow direction sensor
shell 27. The assembly 12 is mounted for limited an
adapted to be mounted on an aircraft or like vehicle and
gular movement on the support member 21 at the for
functions to measure precisely and indicate electrically
ward end of the housing 16. In this respect the member
the angles of attack and slideslip of the vehicle on which
21 extends through the access opening 28 and is attached
the sensor is mounted.
A predetermined relation of high speed vehicles, for
ment is particularly true of a vehicle traveling at hyper
to the shell 27 in a manner presently described. The
angular movement of the assembly 12 is restricted so
that, as the shell is moved through a predetermined an
gular range, the opening 28 is limited in its movements
to positions within the housing 16 and is of a size allow
sonic speed during its reentry into the atmosphere. Dur
ing the reentry period it is imperative that the attitude
ing unrestricted movement of the shell 27 with respect
to the support member 21. The angular movement of
of a vehicle be such that its longitudinal axis has a pre
determined relation with respect to relative wind if the
aforementioned objectional features are to be minimized.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to pro
the sphere assembly is effected by pivotal movement
example aircraft, missiles, rockets, etc., with respect to
relative wind must be maintained if heating, bulfeting,
etc. of the vehicle are to be minimized. The above state
vide a ?uid ?ow sensor which, when mounted on an air
about one or both of two axes having a right angle re
lation with respect to each other, the respective pivotal
movements being limited by two pairs of stop means 25
and 35 (only one of each pair being shown in FIGURE
3). A cone lip ring and seal 20, located at the extreme
forward end of the housing 16, prevents the ?ow of stag
craft or like vehicle, provides means whereby the air
craft is most advantageously aligned with respect to rela
30 nation air through the cone-sphere joint and together
tive wind.
with the support member 21 provides the only structural
Another object is to provide a ?uid ?ow sensor which,
tie between the ?xed cone assembly 14 and movable
when mounted on an aircraft or like vehicle, is adapted
to precisely measure and indicate the angles of attack
sphere assembly 12.
In the embodiment shown, the aforementioned ports
and slideslip of the aircraft.
29—33 which extend radially through the wall portion of
Another object is to provide a ?uid ?ow sensor which,
the shell 27, are circular in cross-section and are identi?ed
when mounted on a piloted aircraft, provides the pilot
as a total fluid impact pressure sensing port 29, a ?rst pair
of the aircraft with pertinent information enabling the
of ?uid impact pressure sensing ports 31) and 32, and a
pilot to effect a proper reentry from near space after a
second pair of ?uid impact pressure sensing ports 31 and
ballistic trajectory.
Although the characteristic features of the present in 4.0 33. The axis of the shell 27 which coincides with the
axis of the port 29 is hereinafter referred to as the refer
vention are particularly pointed out in the appended
claims, the inventionitself, also the manner in which it
may be carried out, will be better understood by refer
ring to the following description taken in connection with
the accompanying drawings forming a part of this ap
plication and in which:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of the ?uid ?ow
sensor as disclosed herein, parts thereof ‘being broken
away to better illustrate its construction.
FIGURE 2 is a front View of the ?uid ?ow sensor
of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a side elevational view on an enlarged
sale of the sphere and support assembly portions of
which are broken away to better illustrate the construc
tion thereof.
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged sectional view of the sphere
assembly taken as indicated by the line 4—4 in FIG
URE 3.
ence axis 34 of the sphere assembly 12. The ports 38-33
have a symmetrical arrangement about the axis 34 and
are further characterized in that the ports 36 and 32 on
the one hand and 31 and 33 on the other are respectively
positioned in planes having a perpendicular relation with
respect to each other. The respective included angles,
that is the forward or acute angles included between the
reference axis 34 and the axes of the ports 31} and 32,011
the one hand and the angles between the reference axis
and the axes of the ports 31 and 33 on the other, are
not restricted to any particular angle. However, the in
cluded angles between the axis 34 and the axes of ports
35) and 32 must be equal; likewise the included angles
between the axis 34 and the axes of the ports 31 and 33
must also be equal.
It will also be noted that the access
opening 23 is located approximately diametrically op
posite with respect to the port 29.
The aforementioned planes having a'perpendicular re
FIGURE 5 is a wiring diagram illustrating the various
electronic circuits for controlling the head of the ?uid 60 lation with respect to each other are hereinafter referred
to as c: and ,8 planes and are so designated in FIGURE 2.
?ow direction sensor of FIGURE 1.
Throughout the speci?cation pressure sensing ports lo
Referring to the drawings, FIGURES 1 and 2 show a
cated in the a plane, viz., the ports 30 and 32, also all
preferred embodiment of the ?uid ?ow direction sensor
components responsive to ?uid impact pressures sensed by
as disclosed herein. In these ?gures the sensor, identi
the ports 31? and 32 and the servo system controlling
?ed generally by the numeral 11, consists of a sphere
movement of the shell 27 in the a plane, will be referred
assembly 12 and a cone assembly 14.
The cone assembly 14 includes a housing 16 of frus
to as a ports, components and systems.
tro-conical con?guration, the large end of which is at
tached to and constitutes the forward portion of the
fuselage of an aircraft 17, missile, rocket, or like vehicle.
e sphere assembly 12 is mounted in the forward or
small end of the housing 16 in a manner presently de
pressure sensing ports 31 and 33 located in the 5 plane,
components responsive to ?uid pressures sensed by the
ports 31 and 33 and the servo system functioning to orient
the shell 27 in the /3 plane, are referred to as {3 ports,
components, systems, etc.
Likewise the
With the assemblies‘ "12 and ‘14 assembled, as described
?ow to the ‘actuator '38v substantially vas shown in FIG
URE 4.
above, the assembly 12 may be moved between a nulled
and a plurality of nonnulledrpositions. vThe .nulled posi
The passages 46 and 47 terminate in annular grooves ‘
tion qfthe sphere, assembly 1'2‘is de?ned as that position
ingwhich the axis of the'port'29 and the reference axis 34
iS,-,.?ligued vwithl'and‘oppos'esithe relative wind. ,
positions of the sphere assemblykohs'titufe aemmued
nlieferri'ngto FIGURES 3_
46' and 47’ formed in the, bore receiving the shaft 39.
Passages 462 and 4'71’- formed in the shaft 39 and passages
4-53 and 473 formed in the yoke-like member 41, provide
?uid‘ communicat'on between thegrooves 46' and Y47’ and
the B ‘actuator '42 as best see‘n'in' FIGURE‘ 4. Fluid,
which may leak’ past the pistons mounted in the? actuator
42, is returned to the sump'j'of the'a‘ actuator-33 through
4'it will be ‘seen that the
support member? is "nteehee'tee bulkhead 36, the lat
‘tereixtending across the ‘housing 716 perpendicular to the
axis ofthevconle assembly 14. 'Ihelinr'iei‘ endof the mem
a passage 482 formed in the yoke-like member 41 and
shaft 39. , From the sumpof the actuator38 leakage ?uid
is returned to a receiver (not shownlviaa passage'48'
ber issecurfedto'the bu1ld1ead'36,'extending in a direc
tionggenerally normaltolthei bulkhead 3,6,’ "andhas its'outer
and the. passage 4-8 provided'inthepsupportmember 21.
By referring ‘to the ererementieeed"eepe?uteg e'ppnee,
orjforwalrd _e__1_'i'd.1oca ,d in, 'de’fthefshe'llf?. Ihe forward
tion it'lwill be ‘seen that the cylinders of ‘the actu
Q7 ;a,n_d,_allo s” twoe egeee-OFang'uIee-neeeem' motioh 'to
and '42 are cross-ported. ‘In other words ' I
be 'mp'art'ed fro/the latten. _
?uid?owing through the passage 501'conim‘un1cates simul
Fixedly s 'cured to'jthe ‘easiest of the hiefnbeii
is ‘a
block or actuator housin'g37.’ in._.whi_chf_an‘eactuator 38 is
,taneously, with a pair of chambers of thewtx e'e' ’: '
having diife'rent erosslsectional"areas; ‘the samev is,
pressurized ?uid ?owing v‘through the passage '55. ‘
mended... ‘The actuator {33 ‘drives a lateral ‘shaft’ 39 when
manner,‘ pressurized?uid ?owing‘th'rou'gh the passage "47
.is rotate m‘ounted'in housing 37?] An'e'ndl?ange 40 of
‘communicates simultaneously with'a pair :of ‘chambers of
.shaft, 5 seemed to‘ ayoke-like member's; smelter-ling
pg 37,, ‘softha‘t’me‘mber 281 'is'piv'oted about axis
the 18' actuator '42 having different ,‘eress-seeueeel;areas;
‘is also true of pressurized ?uid‘?owingl‘thfough‘the
“(coincident ’_w'ith._'.,the teeter-line, of shaft 32‘) by ,
passage 46. This ‘unique'featureof v, seemiegaefcyl\actionvofac ator
fShelli27 is. rotatebly mounted at
inde'r's “of the'actuator's 38 and 42',prov1des'a preldad be
,eheeep'enaeeeeet olt'eilike ‘member 41 to pivot‘about
tween the: pinions 44a and ‘44; ‘and the‘, connecting rods
"a normally vertical axis BéB perpendicularto faXisA-45A‘.
comprising components of ‘theactuato'rs 38 a‘r'id‘42. _Thus
backlashQWhiCh normally would occur between the’afo're
mentioned connecting rod‘s'and rhepiniohsetttaaneuzt,
Mounted'in an 'armpoirtiongofthe yoke-like member
vA1is,aftactuator 42 adapted to impart angular movement
.topa shaft'ili, The shaft 43 in'turn imparts angular move
.tjaentjte ‘the.eheuizr,abeutjthe B..—B ‘ax-is (FIGURE 4),
by meansofafdisk SSI'attached solidly to. theishaft 43 and
an,ecceiitricfprojection 45 providedon the outer portion
and‘ which ‘cannot be tolerated‘in a‘idevice‘ of this vtype, ‘is
effectively eliminated in the manner described in'th'e afore
. vThe actuators 38 and iilconstitute hydraulic actuators
the" rotor 52' moves with and "re?ects engular'jmevem‘efiit
of the shell, 27 about the axis Bee-B,’
s'ynchros 82 amiss will become‘ apparent ‘as‘thedisclosure
lmovernent to the Shafts 39 and 43 andpreclude the possi
bility of backlash occurring between the connecting rods
The a and B ‘servo systems are of identicalfconstfuction,
them system functioning to o'rient‘the shell 27in béfplanl‘efs
“while the, 18 system functions gto ‘_ orient the shell‘ inf?
planes. The 'a ‘system isrespon'sive toj'diifererice'sin?uid ,
.impact pressure sensed by the ports'Stl‘and 32' and'th'e
and pinioijs for reasons set forth in the aforementioned
vimpending application.
‘port'on ,Sl'cohstitutes ‘the stat'or'iofthe' B'synch'ro'83'while
‘are/quite 'similary'in design and construction to the
actuator disclosed and claimed in copending application
Serial No. 782,512, ?led December 23, 21958, now Patent
,Ne.‘2,946,320, issued _July'26,' ‘1960. _ Piston, rods (not
shown) 'e'xtendingbetween the,‘ pistons (not shown) of
iht'he actuators 738 and’ 42, mesh with pinions ‘44a and 44,
respectively, ‘and function. to impart true rotary or pivotal
‘by “and 5 synchros S‘Z'and giwfre'spectively. _Thefpor
tion 65 constitutes the, stator of the'a's‘ynch’r‘o 812"while
the v'r'otor ‘49 moves’with fan'd re?ects ‘angular "movement
“er the yoke '41 and shell 27 about the‘faXis'I'A-LA, . The
._Thus, the outer, shell 27 canbe angularly_pivoted'about
v"aids ‘B,—'B'b/y actuator,_42,_ and at the same time can be
,Constfluc'tion'of the sphere assembly‘ 1271's icoruplet'éd
‘dr'the‘aie'kss and ?tting into e'reeess in shell .27. I
7pivfoted about axis A_—A byactuator'?él.
. The'electrolhydraulic valvest24 and 26 control the ?ow
:of hydraulic ?uid to the actuators 38 and 42, respectively;
,8 system is responsive to ‘differences ‘in ?uid impact "pres
sure sensed 'by the ports31'a‘nd‘33. Accordingly, ‘only
the a system will‘be‘desc‘ribed ‘herein; however,.this'"de
iscription‘will also be equallyeapplicable to' the ‘B system.
‘accordingly the valve 24is hereinafter referred to as the
The major electrical and electronic components compris
vbivalve and the valve 2621s the evalve. Fluid ‘commu
inic'ationbetween the valves 24 and 26 and the actuators 55 ing them and B servo systems are ‘mounted in ‘the’e'lectron
.138 .and 42 ‘is provided by internal passages provided in
‘the bulkhead 36,v support member 21, actuator housing 37,
‘'shaft ‘39 and’yoke-likernember'41. For example, pres
u'surized hydraulic ?uid under the control of the 18 valve
26 is routed ‘through the passageways '46 and 47 to the
. ,8, actuatoreélz Pressurized fluid in the passageways“
'handA'Z maybe equal or unequal as a result of ?uid impact
.,pressures_‘sensed by the ports 31 and 33. In other vwords,
fie package22 (FIGURE 1).
The 1x servo ‘system 'is ‘schematically shown in'EIG
URE 5; referring to this ?gure it willbe seen that illegible
jcond'uits‘sd and 54‘exte'nd' from‘an'd‘transinit differential
?uid pressure frorn'the ‘ports 38 and 32 to the'lo'ppos'ite
sides of a capacitance type pressure transducer56'herein
after, referred to_ as an ‘error transducer. ' "A ?exible
conduit 57 and 'also‘a branch ‘line 58, the latter commun
icating with ?uid pressure'in'th'e'conduit "54, extend from
?uid pressures in the passages 46 and 47 will be equal on
65 and vtransmit differential ?uid pressure from‘the ports 29
Tone hand'and unequal on the other at‘such times as the
and 32 to'the'opposite sides ofa ‘capacitance type pres
sphere 'assembly‘12 is‘in’its' nulled or nonnulled position,
respectively. < Fluid at the same pressures, controlled by
' the e valve ‘24, ‘is routed through thepassageways 59
:sure transducer 59, hereinafter referred 'to as ‘a gain
ch'anging'tra‘risducer. ’ In this‘respect ‘it willbe' understood
‘that ?exible conduits, identi?ed by the numerals _61 and
V 'i'a'nd' 55 ‘to vthe jactuator_.38. Fluid Wh'ich‘inay leak past 70 62 (FIGURE 1) extend between the '13 ports 3'1'and 33
. the pistons" of the 'act'uators'38 and>42kis returned through
and a ‘pair of transducers (not shown) ,whichfunction
' ."thepasfsagei48.
,_ ‘The passagesi'stlfand‘sscomrnunicate with pessegeeso'
the" 55' formed ‘in ‘the ~ actuator housing, 37, the ‘latter
passages leading directly to and‘pro'viding'a path'f'or‘?uid
‘_" ,8similarly?
' plane. asThe'conduits
‘the transducers’
‘513; 15,4,
56 and
' 57,'59
with‘ respect'to
the sphere Z'I'through'the vaccessopening'28. ‘inasmuch
‘as they‘are ?exible" andiar'e secured togethef‘asslidwn
aircraft 17. Accordingly by observing the indicating ap
in FEGURE 3, they do not restrict the angular move
paratus the pilot of the aircraft is able to change its
ment of the shell 27. Prior to their exit through the ac
course so that it will be headed directly into, or will a cess open’ng 28, in order that they may be held clear of
sume, a predetermined relation with respect to relative
moving components mounted in the shell 27, the con
duits are routed through a plate 63 (FIGURE 4) which GI wind. Alternately duplicate error signals provided by
the synchro 82 may be transmitted directly to control
is secured to the wall of the shell 27.
The error transducer 56 functions to convert the dif
surface actuators or reaction jets, in the case of a pilot
ferential pressures sensed by the 11 ports 39 and 32 to
less aircraft, to correct its attitude.
corresponding A.C. voltages of a magnitude and phase
proportional to the magnitude and direction of the ?uid
The gradient of the shell 27 pressure distribution (pres
sure measured by the transducer ss per degree of shell
impact pressure acting on the shell 27 caused by the mov
ing air. The transducer 56 is connected in a conven
tional electrical bridge circuit (not shown) which is ex
cited by a 400 c.p.s. reference voltage. The correspond
ing bridge error voltage, hereinafter referred to as the on
command signal, is then a function of the aforemen
tioned differential pressure. The phase of the voltage
indicates the sign of the error position of the shell 27
with respect to the direction of relative wind.
positional error) is directly proportional to dynamic
pressure, and gain compensation is therefore necessary
if gain is to be maintained constant at various speeds
of the aircraft 17. This gain compensation is accom
plished by varying the electrical gain as a function of
the reciprocal of the above referred to dynamic pressure.
The above mentioned gain compensation is accom
plished by a gain changing servo. Inasmuch as the gain
changing transducer 59 is pneumatically coupled to the
The aforementioned a command signals are transmitted 20 port 2? and the port 32, it will be apparent that the di
aphragm of the transducer 59 will be subject to differ
through a conductor of} to an isolation ampli?er 64., the
latter functioning to couple the high output impedance
of the error transducer 56 to the low impedance input
of a sensor loop gain compensator to be described pres
ently. The A.C. a command signals are then passed
through a gain changing potentiometer 66 and subsequent
ly are fed to a second ampli?er 67 functioning to raise
the voltage level to a value hich enough to min’mize the
effects of drift which the error signals subsequently ex
perience as the error signals pass through a demodulator
68 and a DC. ampli?er 71. The demodulator 68 con
verts the A.C. 0c command signals to DC. a. command
ential fluid pressure at all times regardless of the angular
position of the shell 27. This differential pressure is
precisely the quantity that varies with dynamic pressure
and can as a gain change in the outer loop, that is the
loop or circuit providing the command signals. Outer
loop gain is achieved by multiplying the a command sig
nals by l/q. This multiplication is effected by an in
strument servo 8d, the output shaft 84 of which is ro
tated by a servo motor 74 and mechanically ganged to
Potentiometers 65, 79 and Sll. Mechanically the multi
plication is performed by feeding signals originating with
The D.C. a command signals are integrated and
the transducer 59 to the instrument servo 80, passing
elevated in the DC. ampli?ers 7i and 72, respectively,
through an isolation ampli?er 76, A.C. ampli?ers 77 and
'73, and Potentiometers 79 and 81, in route. Accord
ingly it will be seen that wipers of the potentiometers
and subsequently are fed to the a hydroelectric servo
valve 24.
The hydraulic servo valve 24 is of a type disclosed in
U.S. Patent No. 2,767,689. The valve 24 controls the
‘flow of pressurized ?uid to the a actuator 33. Move
ments of the actuator 38 are transmitted to the shell 40
through the shaft 39 represented schematically in FlG
66, '79 and 31 will be moved, to either increase or de
crease error signals in the outer loop and, therefore, the
level of these latter signals will be maintained substan
tiaily constant.
To more fully understand the function of the sensor
URE 5 by the dot and dash line identi?ed by the nu
11, reference is made to the following description of its
Ineral 39. Thus the shell 27 is rotated in the or plane
directly into or more nearly into the direction of rela
tive wind.
The portion 55 of the a synchro 82 is shown sche
in describing the operation of the present device it
matically in FlGURE 5 as being mounted on and ro—
is assumed that the sensor ll is mounted on a conven
tating with the shaft 3?. This is not the case in actual
tional aircraft 17. So mounted, and at such times as the
practice as it will be seen by referring to FIGURE 4
aircraft is in level flight, the on ports 39 and 32 are lo
that the rotor 49 is actually rotated by the yoke 4-1; 50 cated in a vertical plane and the 5 ports 31 and 335 in a
horizontal plane. Under these conditions it will be ap
however, the results are the same. Accordingly, the in
parent that upon changes in the angle of attack of the
stantaneous position of the shell 27 is indicated by the
output of the or synchro 82. The synchro 82 is con
aircraft the a ports 36 and 32 will sense different ?uid
nected to feed electrical signals to a conventional sum
pressures and the same will be true of the 5 ports 31
ming circuit ‘iii. The corresponding voltage summation
and 33 upon changes in the angle of slideslip of the air
craft. in the event the a ports on one hand or the 13
provided by the summation circuit 73, hereinafter re
ferred to as the a error signal, reliects the angular posi
tion of the shell 27 with respect to its null position when
ports 31 and 33 on vthe other, or both, sense differences
in ?uid pressure, due to a change in the attitude of the
considered in the a plane. The A.C. synchro output volt
aforementioned aircraft, the on and [3 servo systems are
age is demodulated by the demodulator 73, compared 60 activated and function to orient the shell 27 so that the
with the command signals received from the ampli?er
71 at the summation point 75, and any difference is
again ampli?ed by the ampli?er 72 and passed to the
ports 31 and 33 will again sense equal or predetermined
fluid pressures and the sphere assembly will be returned
to its nulled position. in other words, the shell 27 will
be angularly moved so that the reference axis 34 again
servo valve 24. This latter signal results in movements
of the shell 27 in the a plane until the latter reaches its 65 points directly into relative wind.
null position, that is until the reference axis 34 is headed
The error signals, originating with either tie synchro
directly into relative wind. Simultaneously as the shell
82, 83, or both, may be transmitted directly to indicat
27 reaches its null position the error and command sig
ing apparatus (not shown) which are mounted on the
nals cancel each other and accordingly there is no fur
instrument panel of the aforementioned aircraft. The
ther movement of the shell 27 until such time as there 70 pilot of the aircraft may then utilize these signals to cor
is a change in position of the shell 27 with respect to
rect the attitude of the aircraft when no other usual
relative Wind.
means or reference is available, and where time is crit~
The cc error signals provided by the synchro 82, are
ical. Alternately the error signals may be transmitted
also transmitted to indicating apparatus (not shown)
which may be mounted on the instrument panel of the 75 to actuators associated with the control surfaces or thrust
shell on said support’ means being characterized in that
jets of the aircraft, as schematically shown in FIGURE
5, ,to automatically correct its attitude.
said’ reference axis extends generally in the direction of
, While in order to comply with the statute, the inven
tion has been described in language more or less speci?c
as to‘stru-ctural features, it is to be understood that the
flow of said ?uid stream andsaid access opening being
positioned downstream in said ?uid stream; a plurality
invention is not limited to the speci?c features shown,
but that the means and construction herein disclosed
tioned so that said ports are subjected to direct ?uid im
pacttpressures of said ?uid stream; actuator means in
of ports provided in a forward portion of said shell posi
cluding a pair of actuators adapted to impart movement
comprise a preferred form of putting the invention into
to said shell; said actuators and gimbal-like means being
e?'ect, and the invention is therefore claimed in any of
its forms or modi?cations within the legitimate and valid 10 attached to one end of said support means and being
scope of the appended claims.
mounted entirely within said shell; said actuator means
being responsive to cornmandsignals corresponding to
What is claimed is:
said ?uid impact pressures and functioning to pivot said
1. Apparatus adapted to sense ?uid impact pressures
shell to a position in which said reference axis hasfa
and functioningto assume a predetermined relation with
true parallel relation with respect to the direction of
respect to a‘?uid'stream when positioned therein com
?ow of said ?uid stream; transducer means responsive
prising: a spherical 'shell having a reference axis con
to said ?uid impact pressures functioning to convert said
‘stituting an axis of said spherical shell; wall portions
?uid impactv pressures into said command signals; con
of said‘ shell de?ning an opening providing access vto the
interiorl'ofsaid shell; support means mounting said shell
duit means transmitting said ?uid impact pressures from
in a ?uid stream for movement therein about‘a pair of v20 said ports to said transducer means; and means for modi
fying and transferring said command "signals to said ac
axes ‘of ‘said shell; the position ‘of said shell on said sup
tuator means in inverse proportion to total dynamic
p'ort‘me'ans being characterized in that said reference
axis has ‘a generally parallel relation'with respect to the
4. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3: further char- ~
‘direction of flow of said ?uid stream; said support means
acterize'd in that said actuators constitute hydraulic
‘including actuator means, the latter means including a
means, and wherein portions of said support and actua
"pair of zero-backlash actuators mounted withinsaid shell
tor means have internal passageways androtary ?uid
?on'g said respective shell axes ‘and being responsive to
connections for conducting hydraulic ?uid to and from
command signals to pivot ‘said shell to a position in which
‘said reference axis has a true parallel relaticn with re
said actuator means.
5. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3: further char
spect to the direction of ?ow of said fluid stream; a plu 30
acterized in that said plurality of ports constitute two
rality ‘of, ports provided ‘in a forward portion of ‘said
pairs of error per-ts and a total pressure port; said trans
"shell positioned at positions in which they are subjected
ducer means constituting a pair of error transducers and
to direct ?uid impact pressures of said ?uid stream; trans
a gain changing transducer; said total, pressure port being
ducer means responsive to said-?uid impact pressures to
circular in cross-section and ‘the axis thereof being co
axial with said reference axis; and said conduit means
constituting a ?rst set of conduits providing ?uid com
munication between one pair of said error ports and one
of said error transducers, a second set of conduitspro
_viding fluid communication between the other pair of I
which ‘said ports are subjected and functioning to con- '
ver't said fluid impact ‘pressures into said command sig
‘n'als; conduit means transmitting said fluid impact‘pres
‘sures from‘s‘aid ports to said transducer means; and
v‘means for ‘transmitting said ‘command signals to said are
2. Apparatus‘ as set forth ‘in claim 1: further char
acterized in that said ‘actuatorsconstitute hydraulic means,
said error ports and the other one of said error trans- :
tducers, and a third set of conduits providing fluid com
munication from said total pressure port and one of
said error ports to said gain changing transducer.
6. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5: further char
and including ?xed internal hydraulic passages in said
support means, a shaft ‘of one said actuator being rotat
able With respect to- a ?xed portion of said support
means, hydraulic passages in said shaft, and annular
‘means around said shaft providing ‘respective rotary ?uid
connections between said ?xed passages and said shaft
passages, whereby ‘all hydraulic operating lines and ports
within vsaid shell can be completely provided without
tubing means.
acterized in that said modifying and transferring means
include a pair of inner and a pair of outer servo loops,
said outer loops receiving and being responsive to 'sig
nals received from said error transducers and said inner
loops, receiving and being responsive to signals received
from said gain changing transducer, whereby the level
of signals from said outer loops is maintained constant
3. Apparatus adapted to sense ?uid impact pressures
regardless of the magnitude of signals received from
and functioning to assume a predetermined relation with
said error transducers.
respect to a ?uid stream when positioned therein com‘
‘prising: .a'sipherical shell having a reference axis con 55
stituting'an axis of 'said sphere; Wall portions of said
shell de?ning an opening providing access to the inte
Vrior of ‘said shell; elongated support means including
gimbal-like means'mounting said shell in a ?uid stream,
- for‘p'ivotal movement therein about a pair of axes hav
ing a normal "relation with respect to each other and
ivith vrespect to said reference axis; the attitude of said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Fink ________________ __ Mar. 7, 1944
Morris ______________ __ July 18, 1950
7 2,736,198
Kuhn _______________ __ Feb. 28, 1956
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