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Патент USA US3079867

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March 5, 1963
Filed Aug. 3, 1959
8 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Filed Aug. 3, 1959
8 Sheets-Sheet 8
United States Patent C "ice
Patented Man :5, 1963
Antonio Vitali, Milan, Italy, assignor to SA. Macchme
lmlustria Dulciaria Carle_'&_ Montanari, Milan, Italy, a
corporation of‘ Italy
Filed Aug. 3, 1959, Ser. No. 831,347
Claims priority, application Italy Apr. 11f,,1959.i
14' (Iiairns. (Cl. tan-P53):
A principal object which an installation constructed in
accordance with the present invention is intended to
achieve, is to- permit the automatic operation of the in
stallation to be interrupted by hand at- any moment when
it, may be found necessary to intervene immediately in
order to prevent something undesirable from occurring.
Another object at which the invention, aims is to make
certain, in every case, of the required succession of the
various steps needed; in" order to-obtain a' complete work
10 ing cycle; this may fail to occur if each of the operations
has to be performed under manual control‘.
Another object which the invention seeks to attain,
is to make it possible to have timely warning of any dam
age or irregularity that may occur during'the operation of
the press since‘ such disturbances may sometimes have
serious undesirable consequences, for instance if untimely
opening of the cylindrical chambers takes place, when they
are ?lled, instead of the; pressing step. In this case the
The present invention relatesv to an installation for the
automatic operation of hydraulic presses, in a predeter
mined‘ and continuous succession of working cycles.
Filter presses are already known which are combined
with a- hydraulic press, and comprise a series of_ cylindri
cal chambers, with ?ltering plates formed as pistons; each
plate, together with, a surrounding ring,v constitutes a, cy
hum mass, which’ often amounts to several'hundredgweight
l'indrical press or squeezing chamber; the chambers are
opened and. closed together, by relative displacement be
tween the surrounding rings and the ?ltering plates which
are formed as pistons; the chambers are opened by means
of stepped rods which are axially displaceable for the ex
pulsion of cakes of pressed cocoa beans, and are closed
and is at a temperature of about 100°, would be dis
charged, and the results would of course be serious.
These and other objects are achieved by the installa
tion, designed’ in accordance with the present invention,
forv the automatic operation. oi hydraulic presses of the
by‘ suitable springs pulling the surrounding rings’ back into 25 above mentioned type and other similar presses in order
to obtain a‘ predetermined and continuous succession of
the initial position.
working cycles. One embodiment of the installation is
It is also known that in presses of this type the feeding
characterised in that it comprises, in combination with a
of the‘ material to be pressed is eifected by pumpingthis
hydraulically ‘operated press having a plurality of cylin
material, which is in a more, or less ?uid state, at an ap
propriate initial pressure; the material is then pressed or 30 drical chambers with ?ltering plates in the form of pis
tons sliding within~ corresponding cylinders in the’ form
squeezed in the cylindrical chambers arranged in, a row,
of surrounding rings to press the ?uid substance, an
by the action. of the pressure exerted, by the hydraulically
agitator in which the substance is previously treated be
actuated main thrust plunger, on the ?rst piston of these
fore being introduced into a device for measuring the pre—
chambers and consequently on the other pistonsv of‘ the
chambers for pressing the ?uid substance, as a result of 35 deter-mined quantity of- substance to be introduced into the
chambers for pressing this substance, a measuring and pre
the decrease in the volume of these chambers; the liquid,
charging device into which the ?uid substance is introduced
expelled from the material is deliveredfrom these cham
hers into a collecting container disposed underneath,
after leaving the agitator, a pump, associated with a motor,
whereas the cakes of residual material‘ compressed in the
for withdrawing the treated material from the agitator and
ceive further material to be subjected‘ to pressing, thereby
stance from the measuring device and‘ introduces the
substance into a distributor distributing the substance to
the pressing chambers, a switch member disposed on a
control panel ot'the machine and adapted to be’ actuated
disc-shaped chambers are removed or caused to fall under 40 introducing the material into the measuring device which
is provided with av device for interrupting- the admission
their own weight whenv pressing has been completed;
of‘ the fluid‘ substance, withdrawn from the agitator, as
means are, provided whereby the. chambers of all the units
soon as the pre'd'etermined'quanti'ty to be contained-in
are all opened together; after discharge has taken place,
the measuring device has been reached, and with a de
the chambers are closed again byhmeans of known com
pression' springs, and again form cylindrical cavities to re 45 vice for stopping the pump which withdrawsthe ?uid sub
permitting; repetition of’the' Working cycle.
It is‘ also known that the output of such presses is di
rectly’proportional to the quantity of liquid extracted, i.e.
to predetermined minimum percentage of liquid left in
the’ residual material pressed into the form of cakes, and
secondly to the time requiredlfor completing each working
cycle during which‘ liquid is squeezed out and the residual
material is expelled after having ‘been pressed into the
form of disc-shaped cakes.
Applicant has also disclosed apparatus provided, with
a suitable pneumatically operating device for‘ charging or
admitting the'?'uid substance, which is to be pressed, into
50 to start the installation after the measuring device has
been charged, to obtain automatic or manual operation of’
the installation, a compressor for producing compressed
air required for the operation of the installation, a device
adaptedto cause discharge of compressed air taken from
55 the compressor to act on valves of a pneumatically op
erating device for controlling the admission of.‘ the mate
rial-to eachpressing chamber, which valves however are
also adapted to prevent the ?uid- substance from entering
the respective cylindrical pressing chamber, this discharge
the cylindricalpressing chambers; this device is adapted to
device, being arranged to'corne into. operation as soon as
ensure the required supply of the ?uid‘ substance to be
the measuring device has been completely charged, a
pump driven'by a motor and performing the function of
‘Lastly, applicant has also disclosed a press of this type,
posed'coaxially and’ interconnected, by a central'body com
withdrawing the material from the measuring device and
charging the material into the pressing chambers, which
?lter plate pistons of the multiple pressing chambers;
stance into the cylindrical‘pressing chambers, an elee
these thrust. plunger-s are so disposed, as to exert the thrust
in the sme direction but in opposite senses. on the pistons
tricallyv operating valve which is brought into operation,
after the measuring device has been emptied, ‘to cause
compressed air’to'be delivered'trom the compressor and
which has two series- of multiple pressing chambers. dis.
pump'is brought into, operation at the same moment at
prising two, _ cylinders each provided 'with a hydraulic 65 which the air is discharged‘ and acts‘ on the pneumatically
thrust plunger for a respective one. of they two‘ series of
operating valves which control the passage of: the sub
provided with ?lter plates and belonging to the respective
series of, multiple pressure chambers,
close the valves, controlling the admission of the substance
modated in the body of the control panel of the installa
into the cylindrical pressing chambers, at least two circuit
closing time switches performing the function of closing
the electrical circuit of two corresponding motors and
starting these motors to drive two corresponding pumps,
FIGURE 8 is a view, from the. left-hand side, of the
structure shown in FIGURE 7, showing the unit control
of which one is a high pressure pump and the other is a 5 ling the ?uids, and
low pressure pump (for the hydraulic ?uid required for
FIGURES 9 and 10 show the wholeof the electrical
the hydraulically actuated plunger driving the ?ltering plate
system of the devices disposed in the various electrical
pistons, and for the cylinders with pistons for opening the
circuitsfor automatic and for manual operation of the
pressure chambers) whereby the step of pressing the sub
stance previously admitted to the pressing chambers is 10
With reference to the accompanying drawings, A gen
erally indicates a press (FIGURES 2 to 6) comprising
initiated, a pressure ?uids distributor unit performing the
function of controlling the passage of the ?uid which acts
on the hydraulic thrust plunger or plungers driving the
two identical series of units a,, a2 and so on, with cylin
drical chambers a for pressing the ?uid substance.
pressing pistons ofthe various chambers, the discharge of
b indicates the body for feeding the ?uid through sup
this ?uid and delivery into the cylinders of the hydraulical 15 ply ducts 1 simultaneously to the two series of devices
ly operating device for opening the pressing chambers
(:1, an and so on with a pneumatically operating valve for
during the step of expelling the cakes of pressed residual
permitting or preventing entry of the ?uid substances into ‘
material when the pressing operation has been completed,
the cylindrical chambers of each unit a1, a2 and so on.
and a so-called timing device adapted to be adjusted so as
to come into operation at the predetermined time to close
d indicates the cylinders with hydraulic pistons 2.‘
(FIGURE 6) for driving the surrounding rings 3 through
the electrical circuit supplying current to relays provided
in the distributing unit to control the compressed air pro
duced by the compressor.
the intermediary of stepped rods 4, to open the chambers
an electrical contact adaptedto control the electrical cir
3 in the form of surrounding rings belonging to the re
spective series of multiple pressing chambers 11;, a2 and
a1, a2 and so on during the step of discharging the cakes
(not shown in the drawings).
With the object of reducing the speed of. the worldng
5 indicates the central body (FIGURES 5 and 6) of
stroke of the hydraulic plunger or plungers driving the 25 the press, which body is provided with two chambers 6
I pressing pistons, a gauge is arranged on the ducts of the,
vfor the hydraulically actuated plungers 7 driving pistons
two high and low pressure pumps and is provided with
8 with ?lter plates 9 sliding in the respective cylinders
cuit of the motor driving the low pressure pump, so as to
stop this pump when the installation is to operate with so,
the high pressure pump only, and this gauge is also pro
so on.
vided with a second adjustable electrical contact for con
trolling the high pressure pum , for the purpose of break
ing the supply circuit actuating this pump, as soon as a
central body 5 by respective pairs of bars 11 of which
the ends 11' are secured by corresponding threaded rings
10 indicates two heads or uprights connected to the
or nuts 12 and counter-rings or lock-nuts 13. 14 (FIG
predetermined pressure is reached.
35 URE 5) indicates an annular projection provided between
The installation for manualor automatic operation,
the cylindrical chambers 6 and forming abutments vfor
which is particularly suitable for hydraulic presses of the
the plungers 7, and also a common inlet chamber 15 into
above-mentioned type, will now be more fully described
which oil under pressure is admitted through a suitable
with reference to one embodiment chosen solely by way
ori?ce 16, for simultaneously actuating the two hydraulic
of example and illustrated in the accompanying drawings; 40 plungers'7.
in these drawings, the installation is used with a press of
Now, with particular reference to the installation de
the type having two symmetrical series each comprising a
signed in accordance with the present invention (FIGURE
plurality of pressing chambers; this type has been devised
1), D5 indicates a measuring or pre-charging device for
by the applicants who also seek protection for this instal
measuring the quantity of cocoa to be admitted to the
lation, and is more complicated than normal types of 45 pressing chambers of the press A operating automatically,
presses having a single series comprising a plurality of
when the working cycle has been started in this installa
The installation in question is illustrated in the accom
For this purpose, a pump Pd of the measuring device .
panying drawings, in which:
is actuated by an electric motor 17 directly connected to
FIGURES 1 and 1a, respectively, diagrammatically il 50 this pump, and takes material or cocoa mass from an
lustrate the whole of the installation, and the measuring
agitator Ag through a pipe 18 and delivers this material
device partly in vertical section and on a larger scale,
through piping 19 to ya cylinder 20 (FIGURE 1a); a'hol
FIGURE 2 is a front view, in elevation, of the press by
low piston 21 is axially slidably mounted in thevcylinder
itself, and shows the control panel disposed vbetween the
20 and consists essentially of a further cylinder into which
55 the substance is admitted and exerts a pressure so as to
two series each comprising a plurality of chambers,
I FIGURE 3 is a rear view, in elevation and on a larger
displace the piston 21 axially upwards.
' ,
scale, of the press shown in FIGURE 2, and shows only the
?rst and last chamber of each one of the two series each
in a guide 23 on the cylinder 20; this rod has an adjustable
comprising a plurality of chambers,
member 24 arranged to come into contact with a corre
A rod 22 rigid with the hollow piston 21 is slidable
FIGURE 4 is a top plan view of the whole of the struc 60 sponding switch member 25 rigid with the cylindrical wall
20 and adapted to break the circuit of the electric motor 17
ture shown in FIGURE 3,
and therefore to stop the action of the pump Pd, when
FIGURE 5 is a section on line 5-—5 of FIGURE 4,
the measuring device is ?lled with the quantity of sub-.
and shows the device for distributing the ?uid substance to
stance to be introduced, for pressing, into the respective
be admitted to the cylindrical pressing chambers, and also
the pneumatically operating valve devices for permitting
admission of the ?uid substance to those chambers,
FIGURE 6 is a top plan view of the structure shown
in FIGURE 3, partly in section to show the cylinders with
their respective hydraulic driving pistons with stepped
rods for opening the chambers at the end of the pressing
step in order to cause the cakes of residual pressed sub
stance to fall out,
- pressing chamber a.
When the measuring device Ds is completely charged,
the switch 25 stops the action of the pump Pd as mentioned
above, whereby the charging of the measuring device
stops. In the foregoing description it is assumed that
initially the press was not in operation i.e. that the treat
ment of the ?uid substance was about to begin; under
these circumstances, when the charging of the measuring
device stops after the predetermined capacity has been
FIGURE 7 is a detailed view, partly in elevation, of
reached, it is necessary to act on a member which is
the unit controlling the pressure ?uids, which is accom 75 disposed on the panel Qm (FIGURE 2) and is one of the.
control members and of which the nature will be further
explained hereinafter; this member is adapted to establish
inlet of the duct 31 which‘ is used for the discharge step,
automatic cyclic operation of the press.
leading to the central cavity 15 (FIGURE 5) and con
sequently the ?uid acts on the hydraulic plungcrs 7 drive
ing the pressing pistons 8 of the various chambers a.
In the particular instance in which the substance treated
Consequently, when the machine begins to operate auto
matically, and before the pump P0 is started for deliver
ing the material from the measuring device Ds to the
distributor b and from this distributor to the pressing
chambers of the machine, the compressed air in the de
vices 0, c1 and c2 and so on, which control the valves
admitting the material into the pressing chambers, is dis
charged; the discharge of this air is brought about by
means of an electrically operated valve Ev (FIGURE 8)
which controls the passage of the compressed air from
and in the meantime the ?uid passes through a duct 32
consists of cocoa in the ?uid state, it is desirable to re
duce the speed of the working stroke of the two hy
draulic driving plunger-s 7. For this purpose, an electri
cal contact W is provided in a gauge Mg; (FIGURES 2
and 10) disposed on the control panel Qm; this contact
controls the circuit of the motor m1 driving the low pres
sure pump P1, so as to stop this pump for the purpose of
making the installation operate with the high pressure
0 has a pneumatically operated valve for the charging of 15 pump P2 only.
To ensure correct operation of the high pressure pump
each pressing chamber.
P2, the gauge Ma comprises an indicator adjustable to
The circuit of the installation is made such that the
the limit pressure and provided with a member y adapted
pump PC, which charges the material into the pressing
to break the supply circuit of the motor m2 of the high
chambers, is started at substantially the same moment at
which the air is discharged from the piping 27 conveying 20 pressure pump P2, and thereby to stop the operation of
the press, when this pressure is reached.
this air to the valves (FIGURE 3) which control the
In this installation, the step of terminating the pressing
chambers for charging the pressing chambers.
operation can be effected in the following two ways.
It is desirable that the repetition of the working cycle
Firstly, the step can be effected through the inter
of the measuring device, or rather the closing of the elec
tric circuit which feeds the motor actuating the pump in 25 mediary of a timing device, that is to say the duration
of the pressing operation can be made dependent on a
troducing the substance into the measuring device, should
certain predetermined lapse of time, that is to say it
take place during the pressing step, so the operation of
can be a function of time; secondly and alternatively, it
recharging the measuring device, and the steps taking
place and ?nally leading to the discharge of the pressed
is possible to use, as a basis, the residual percentage of
cakes, will be suitably timed with respect to one another. 30 butter which is required to be left in the cakes of pressed
cocoa beans, that is to say the duration ofv the-pressing
This process of closing the circuit is effected by means
operation can be made a function of the percentage
of a member in the form of a rod (FIGURE 4) rigid
with a piston of the pressing chambers and provided with
weight of butter extracted.
an adjustable member similar to the member 24 described
As indicated hereinbefore, one way consists in provid
with reference to the measuring device D5, so as to cause
ing a so-called timing device t (FIGURE 9) known per
the working cycle of the measuring device to be repeated
so, which may be adjusted to the required time‘ and’ come
into operation at that time, and which performs’ the func
at the required time.
After the pump PC for charging the material into the
tion of coming into operation at a predetermined time
pressing chambers has extracted all the material con
so as to close the electrical circuit of the electrically
tained in the measuring device D5, the return of the hol 40 operated pneumatic valve Ve which is actuated by means
low piston 21 to the starting position causes a further
‘of relays r1 and. r2 (FIGURES 7 and 8).
stop member 24a, provided on the rod 22, to act on a
The relays r1 and r2 perform the function of permitting
resiliently mounted member 25a and thereby to break the
the passage of compressed air produced by the‘ compres
circuit of the pump Pc which empties the measuring device
sor Co which drives this. air through piping 33' and 34
Ds in order to charge the cylindrical pressing chambers.
into a chamber 35 controlled by the electrically operated
In the meantime, the electrically operated valve Ev
valve V8 and consequently causes the air to pass into’ a
(FIGURE 8) comes into operation; this valve controls
small double-action cylinder 36 which is' connected at
the piping 27 of the compressor Co, or rather, controls
38, through the intermediary of a rod' 37, to a. disc 39
the valves of the charging devices 01, c2 and so on which
which is rigidly connected, through a shaft 40,. with an
are provided for each chamber for pressing the ?uid sub 50 actuating member of the distributor casing Cd. The‘ dis
stance, in such a manner that air is admitted into the
tributor casing is adapted to permit passage‘ of the ?uid
compartments of the valves controlling the ori?ces through
into one or the other of two ducts, that" is to say, either
which the substance is admitted to each pressing chamber,
into the duct 28a which is used for actuating the hy—
and any further admission of the substance is prevented,
draulic plunger-s 7 (FIGURE 6) or- into the duct 41
‘that is to say the ori?ces for admitting the substance into
(FIGURE 7) which is used for admitting the‘ ?uid which
the pressing chamber are closed.
acts on the plungers 2‘ (FIGURE 6)‘ of the hydraulic
At this stage it is necessary to begin the pressing step,
cylinders d for displacing the surrounding rings; 3' during
that is to say, to advance the hydraulic plunger driving
the compressor Co to valves of the devices 0; each device
the pistons into the pressing chambers.
the step of discharging. the cakes of pressed‘ cocoa beans.
In this position, the valve Ve can act' so. as“ ‘to; bring
At this stage, two circuit~closing time switches 1'1 and 1'; 60
the discharge step, that is to say‘, in‘th'e‘ distributor
(FIGURE 10) are used; these switches perform the func
casing Cd the ?uid is diverted from the duct 28’ into the
tion of closing the electric circuit and starting the two
duct 41. which. is used for acting. on the apparatus for
motors m1 and 1112 of the low pressure pump P1 and of
the high pressure pump P2, respectively, and thereby be
ginning the step of pressing the substance previously in—
trodnced into. the pressing chambers.
The two. pumps P1 and P2 both deliver into one and
discharging the cakes.
1 _
In the meantime, the ?uid which is passing through‘the
duct 41 is delivered both to the cylinders d for discharg~
ing the cakes, through the ducts» 421 and 43 intercom
the same pipe 28 (FIGURES 7 and 8) leading to the
distributor casing Cd of. the pressure ?uid‘ unit G,
municating at 44, and also through; a duct 45‘ so‘ asv to
compartment 3% into which a duct 31 also leads.
3i} and the duct‘ 47, through‘ the’ collectin-giheadland~into
act on arod 46 (FIGURE 7) which rises‘ and displaces
The distributor casing Cd performs the function of per 70 the ball 29 which rises. from its seat 31 and permits the
mitting the ?uid to pass from the duct 28 to the duct 28a
oil contained in the cylinders of-the' hydraulic plungers 7
through the casing Cd. From the duct 28a the ?uid enters
to discharge through the‘ ori?ce‘ 16, which. communicates
the rapid discharge casing S2 and acts on a ball 29 in a
with these cylinders,- and to pass through the'comp'artment
Consequently, the fluid. compels the ball 29 to close the
Y49 and thence to return to be re-circulated by the low
and high pressure delivery pumps P1 and P2.
The step of discharging the cakes has now been
rings ‘3 totheir original position, .re-establi‘shing the cy
The installation is provided with a device which comes
return through the tubes 42 and 43m the duct, 41 and
thence to the casing Cd and thence to the tube 58 lead
ing to the head '48 and thence to the discharge duct 49.
lindrical pressing chambers a and at the same time com
pelling the oil which is in the cylinders d and which acts
on the pistons 2 actuating the surrounding rings 3, to
into operation, .during this discharge step, at the end of
the stroke of the surrounding rings 3 which have been
made to slide on their respective pistons 8, for the pur
pose of stopping the stroke of these rings at the limit of
this stroke (FIGURE 4).
A working cycle has thus been completed.
Moreover, in order to make certain that after the
step of discharging the cakes has been completed. no
" As has already been indicated hereinbefore, in this
further step of charging the cylindrical pressing cham
installation the step of terminating the pressing opera
bers a can take place unless these chambers are com
tion can be effected in two different ways, and it has
pletely closed, in order to make sure'that the com
also been indicated that the second way is based on the
partments in question are tightly sealed, a further device
residual percentage of butter which is required to be left 15 is provided which operates at the end of the stroke of
and which is required to be extracted. In conformity
the surrounding rings 3 (FIGURE 4); this device is for
with this second way, the installation is provided with a
instance provided on the ?rst surrounding ring immedi
balance 70 which is used for weighing the extracted butter,
ately adjacent to the head or upright 10 of the machine
that is to' say the butter which is progressively extracted
and operates at the end of the stroke; the device com
during the pressing operation. Balance 70 has a manually 20 prises a rod 59 having an adjustable member 69 similar
settable pointer 71 and a movable pointer 72 responding
to those described previously; the rod is rigid with the
to the weight of the butter discharged from receptacle 73
outermost surrounding ring 3a, and the member 60 as
through pipes 74 into container 76. Pointers 71 and 72
it advances comes into contact (when the corresponding
have electric contact means 71a, 72a cooperating with
chamber is completely closed) with a switch 61 pro
each other when pointer 72 coincides with pointer 71.
vided on the frame It} or other stationary part of the
Contact means 71a, 72a preferably include a photocell.
machine, and actuates this switch so as to close the pre
When a predetermined weight is reached this contact
viously open circuit of the electrically actuated valve Vé
means comes into operation whereby the previously de
(FIGURES 7 and 8) associated with the ?lling pump
scribed electrically operated pneumatic'valve Ve, actuated
Pc which delivers the substance previously measured in
by means of the relays r1 and r2, is brought into action 30 the measuring device DS and conveyed from that device
to the cylindrical pressing chambers a through th
vand causes the ?uid to be discharged as described with
respective charging devices c1, c2 and so on.
' reference to the ?rst way.
The second way of terminating the pressing'operation
In order to obtain a' complete cycle in the shortest
possible time, so that the operations can follow one an
has now been described and the description of the opera
tion of the press at the end of the discharge step will now 35 other without taking up any more time than is necessary
for completing each operation, that is to say, in order
to avoid a situation in which the press is ready and its
The two innermost surrounding rings 3 (FIGURE 4)
chambers are prepared for being ?lled but the material.
'carry two members 54) and 51 in the form of rods each
required for charging the chambers is not available, the
provided at its end, with an adjustable member 52 and 53
be continued.
respectively, which members are each adapted to act on 40 measuring device I), is ?lled with the required quantity
in the interval during the pressing step; for this purpose,
a switch 55 and 54 respectively, the switches being se
a device similar to the'previously described devices on
~cured to the stationary part of the machine, i.e. each to
the rods 5%} and 51 is provided for ensuring closure of
the rings 3 of the chambers 11; this device consists of an
a respective one of the cylinders of the hydraulic plungers
7 in such a manner that when the surrounding rings 3
have reached their limit position after opening the cham
adjustable member '62 (FIGURE 4) which is also
bers a for the extraction of the cakes the two switches
54 and 55 come into operation and act on an electrical
‘mounted on the rod 51 and which advances during the
circuit which is used for performing the following two
that is to say the thrust or driving plungers, and the
member 62 impinges against a switch 63 secured to the
frame of the machine; this switch 63 causes the circuit
of the electric motor 17 to be closed, which motor drives
working stroke of one of the main hydraulic plungers 7,
' 7(1) The action of the two pumps P1 and P2 deliver- '
ing fluid under pressure to the hydraulic pistons 7 cans
the pump Pd feeding the measuring device Ds whereby the
device is charged.
(2) The electrical circuit of the electrically operated
It may be desirable to interrupt the automatic oper
valve VB is closed; this valve, as stated previously, per
forms the function of returning the actuating member 55 ation of the machine in order to perform some adjustment
or other work that may be found necessary; for this
of the distributor Cd to the initial position, in which
ing the surrounding rings 3 to slide, is stopped.
communication between the ducts 28 and 28a is estab
lished in order to produce the ?ow of the ?uid which
acts on the hydraulic plungers 7 driving the pistons 8
of the pressing chambers.
Under these circumstances, the working cycle can
purpose, the installation is provided with a device which
immediately interrupts the operation of the machine at
the instant when manual intervention takes place, and
60 the machine may be controlled manually instead of
,recommence. In order to prevent damage from occur
ring if for any reason one of the two devices for limit
ing the stroke of the surrounding rings 3 when moved
for opening the chambers a and causing the cakes of
cocoa beans to fall out, should fail to function, the in_
'stallation is provided with a safety valve Vs (FIGURES
7 and 8) which is arranged on the duct 44, for the 'pur
' pose of discharging the pressure liquid through a tube
'56 leading into the collecting head 48 of the tube 49.
This device consists of a valve V51 interposed in the
piping 33 and 34 (FIGURES 7 and 8) of the compres
sor Co which supplies air to the electrically operated valve
'Ve which controls the small double~action cylinder 36,
in such a manner that the valve V51 when actuated by
hand firstly closes the duct 33, leading from this valve to
the compressor, in order to prevent loss of pressure in
the compressor itself, and secondly opens the duct 34,
or rather, places this duct 34 in communication with the
’ The springs 57 (FIGURE 6) were stressed during the
atmosphere, whereby the kinematic connection with the
step of discharging the cakes; when the discharge of the
cakes has been effected, the pressure which previously
acted on the surrounding .rings is no longer present, and
therefore the springs 57 now return the surrounding 75
disc 39 is released and the disc 39 can be actuated by
means of a hand wheel 64 keyed to the shaft 40 and
adapted to be actuated by hand, thereby permitting the
required control of the distributor casing Cd.
The installation also comprises an arrangement such
that all the conductors of circuits of the various relays
are connected to a single switch 65 which is actuated by
hand at the momentvwhen the automatic operation of
the installation is to be interrupted.
After the above description it is now possible to sum
marize the steps making up a complete production cycle.
(1) The device DS measuring the cocoa material is
crating circuit of the electromagnetically actuated plug
provided in the outlet of container 76 of the balance, so
as to permit the extracted butter to leave the container;
when the balance returns to zero, a second photocell 721;
will open the circuit of the electromagnetic plug to per.
mit this plug to close the butter outlet.
During each pressing step, the measuring device will
automatically be prepared by being charged with the cor
rect quantity of cocoa material in readiness for the next
?lled by hand (this is done only for the ?rst pressing
operation, and thereafter that device is ?lled automati 10 pressing step.
(3) The discharge step takes place when pressing is
cally) . At this point, automatic control is initiated simply
terminated in dependency on time or on weight; removal
by turning the switch. When automatic control is ini
tiated, air is removed from the charging units, that is to
say the ori?ces of the individual chambers are freed to
permit the cocoa material to pass from the measuring
device to the distributor and thence to the collecting
tubes and thence into the chambers. At the same moment,
the pump Pc takes the cocoa material from the measur
of pressure, and initiation of the discharge step, take place
under automatic control. This is e?ected by the casing
control unit, controlled by the double-acting pneumatic
piston which reverses the pressing or discharge position
through the intermediary of the solenoid-operated electric
valve incorporated directly in the small pneumatic cylinder
When pressing is completed, an electrical pulse derived
containers, and the charging step is thus completed.
20 either from the timing device or from the balance excites
(2) When the discharging of the measuring device has
the electrically operated valve which controls the small
taken place, that is to say, when the piston of the meas
cylinder and causes the hand-wheel to rotate from the
uring device has descended to the end-of-stroke position,
pressing position to the discharge position.
the electromagnetically operated valve is actuated which
ing device and conveys this material into the individual
sends air from the compressor to the valves of the charg
ing device b to cause the ori?ces of the pressing chambers
to be closed.
At this moment, the liquid from the ?ve hundred and
?fty atmospheres pump, and also the liquid from the three
hundred atmospheres pump which had been stopped by
means of the contact on the gauge during the pressing
The two adjustable starting time-switches start the two
step but which was automatically restarted during the
pumps, of which one has a pressure of three hundred
kilogrammes per square centimetre and the other a maxi 30 discharge step, act on the extraction cylinders which
mum pressure of ?ve hundred and ?fty kilogrammes per
proceed to discharge the cakes, stop the two'pumps and
square centimetre.
The pump with a pressure of three
at the same time, by means of a pulse transmitted to the
hundred kilogrammes per square centimetre is switched
electrically operated valve of the cylinder mounted on
the control unit, change the position to that of the pre
olt by means of an electrical contact mounted in the
gauge itself. Furthermore, as indicated hereinbefore, the 35 ceding pressing step, thereby causing the extraction cyl
inders to discharge and producing hermetic closure of the
gauge also has a manually adjustable extra safety con
cylindrical chambers a.
tact which is normally adjusted to ?ve hundred and
(4) The step of closing the cylindrical pressure cham
seventy kilogrammes per square centimetre; this contact
bers takes place at a time when pressing is completely
‘would operate it the maximum-pressure safety valves of
the installation were to fail the function.
The press now continues to perform the required
pressing step,_being adjusted to operate for ten, ?fteen,
40 ?nished; consequently, at the moment at which the con
tainers close, air is removed from the discharge pistons
and the pump is started which withdraws the cocoa mate
rial contained in the measuring device previously ?lled
thirty or forty-?ve minutes, and this adjustment can be
during the preceding pressing operation, and the cycle is
set in the following ways:
(a) The adjustment may be made by time, by means 45 repeated as previously described.
The distributor casing is designed to permit rapid dis
"of‘the'timing device having a scale with a sixty-minute
charge of the oil, that is to say, the pressure of the pumps
maximum and divided into minutes. If for instance the
passes through the casing but does not return in the dis
device is set to ten minutes, when this time has elapsed
charge step, and passes directly from the central cylinder
the timing device itself brings about the discharge of the
press, that is to say the termination of the pressing op 50 to the rapid discharge unit and thence to the casing of
the pumps. This is for the purpose of avoiding unneces
sary passage of quantities of oil through the control unit.
After having caused this step to be performed, the
What I claim is:
timing device returns to zero and a further pressing opera
1. An installation for the automatic operation of a
tion will start when the press has been charged.
The timing device may be stopped by hand during the 55 hydraulic press in a continuous succession of working
cycles, comprising at least one ?lter press including cyl
pressing step, and when the installation is restarted the
inder means, plunger means in said cylinder means, a
timing device begins from the number of minutes which
plurality of coaxial telescopic press chambers having
it showed before the manual intervention.
Moreover, when the pressing operation is ?nished, that
?lter plates in the form of pistons operated by said plunger
is to say, when the set time has elapsed, the timing device 60 means, and ejector means for discharging material from
said press chambers, a measuring device, a motor and a
closes an operating circuit of an electromagnetically ac
?rst pump for pumping a substance from an agitator into
tuated plug inserted in a container collecting the butter
said measuring device, a device for interrupting the
emerging from the press, and thereby causes the butter
admission of the substance to said measuring device as
itself to be discharged at the same time.
(b) The press may be provided (for the purpose of 65 soon as a predetermined quantity of the substance is
contained in said measuring device, a second pump which
calculating the weight of the butter which emerges, as
withdraws the substance from said measuring device, a
previously indicated) with a balance 70 having a dial
distributor supplied by said second pump and distribut
with hundred-gram graduations and readable with an
ing the substance to said press chambers, a compressor,
accuracy of ?fty grammes, and having a range of one
hundred and thirty kilogrammes, and provided with a 70 a pneumatically operating device having valves for con
trolling the admission of the substance to said press
container 7 6 for collecting the butter.
chambers, a control device operable to cause discharge
As previously indicated, when the required weight is
of air from said compressor or to supply air to said
reached the photocell of contact means 71a, 72a directly
operating device and adapted to become operative as soon
controls the hydraulic means, causing the press to perform
as said measuring device has been fully charged by said
the discharge step, and at the same time closes the op
?rst pump, an electrically operated valve actuated by said
measuring device when the same has been emptied so
, as to cause compressed air from said compressor to close
operating said plunger means, said distributing unit having rapid discharge means for the rapid discharge of
the operating ?uid after completion of the pressing stroke
‘said valves of said pneumatically operating device, third
by said plunger means.
and fourth pumps including electric motors, at least two
circuit-closing time switches for closing the electric cir
ing a valve in said other distributing casing for controlling
8. An installation as set forth in claim 7 and includ
the operating ?uid when the same is under pressure, said
cuits of said two electric motors so that at the beginning
valve having a position blocking said rapid discharge
of the plunger movement both said electric motors, and
means and-being controlled by operating ?uid discharged
‘at the end of the plunger movement only said electric
motor of said fourth pump are operative, said third pump 10 from said cylinder means by said plunger means when‘ 7
said ejector means are operative.
being a low pressure pump and said fourth pump being
9. An installation as set forth in claim 7 and includ
a high pressure pump, a distributing unit supplied by
ing a distributor member in said one distributor casing
said third and fourth pumps with an operating ?uid and
for controlling the passage of the operating ?uid to said
controlling supply and discharge of the operating ?uid
to said cylinder means of said press, an electric circuit 15 other distributor casing and to said plunger means.
10. An installation as claimed in claim 9 wherein
including relays provided in said distributing unit and
said distributor member is manually operated.
other relays controlling said pumps, and a timing device
11. An installation as set forth in claim 9 and includ
including switches in said circuit.
ing an operating device for operating said distributor
2. An installation as claimed in claim 1 including a
gauge operatively connected to said high and low pres 20 member.
12. An installation as set forth in claim 11 wherein
sure pumps and including an electrical contact for con
said operating device is controlled by, said timing device.
trolling the electrical circuit of said motor of said low
13. An installation as set forth in claim 11 and includ
pressure pump to stop this pump when the installation
ing a balance for weighing the ?ltered substance and
is to operate with said high pressure pump only, and a
. ~ ~
second electrical contact for controlling the said high 25 controlling said operating device.
14. An installation for the automatic. operation of a
pressure pump and connected into the circuit of said
hydraulic press in a continuous succession of working
motor of said high pressure pump to break said circuit
cycles, comprising at least one ?lter press including cyl
when a selected working pressure is reached.
inder means, plunger means in said cylinder means, and
3. An installation as claimed in claim 1 wherein said
measuring device comprises'two hollow bodies telescop 30 a plurality of press chambers having ?lter plates operated
ically connected to each other, one of said bodies being
stationary and the other body being movable in accord
ance with the variations in volume of the substance in
by said plunger means; a measuringdevice; a ?rst pump
for pumping a substance into said measuring device; a
device for interrupting the admission of the substance
to said measuring device as soon as a predetermined
troduced into said measuring device, the movable body
of the measuring device being provided with a rod hav 35 ‘quantity of the substance is contained in said measuring
ing a stop member, a switch actuated by said stop mem
her when all the substance has been Withdrawn from
device; a second pump for withdrawing a substance from
control device comprises an adjustable member mounted
chambers; a control device for actuating said-operating ,
device and adapted to become operative as soon as said
vsaid measuring device; a distributor supplied by said
second pump and distributing thesubstance to said press
said measuring device, said switch starting said motor
chambers, an operating device having valves for con
of said ?rst pump when actuated by said stop member.
4. An installation as claimed in'claim 3 in which said 40 trolling the admission of the substance‘to said press
on said rod for movement with said hollow body, a
‘corresponding member secured to the stationary body
of said measuring device, and including switch'means
operated by said adjustable member for breaking the
circuit of said motor driving said second pump.
5. An installation as set forth in claim 3 and includ
ing a device ?xedly connected to one of said ?lter plates
of said press and being operative during the pressing
measuring device has been fully charged by said ?rst
pump; a means for closing said valves of said operating
device and being actuated by said measuring device when
the same has been emptied; a low pressure pump; a high
pressure pump; two electric motors for driving said third
and fourth pumps; at least two switches for closing the
electric circuits of ‘said two electric motors so that at the
movement of said plunger means, said last-mentioned 50 beginning of the plunger movement both ‘said electric
motors, and at the end of the plunger movement only
device including switch means connected into the circuit
said electric motor of said high pressure pump are oper
of said motor which drives said ?rst pump to recharge
ative; a distributing unit supplied by said third and fourth
said measuring device so that the same is recharged when
pumps with an operating fluid and controlling supply and
said ?lter plate is displaced.
6. An installation as claimed in claim 5 in which said 55 discharge of the operating ?uid to said cylinder means
of said press; and means controlling said distributor unit.’
?rst-mentioned device includes an electrically operated
valve means.
7. An installation as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
pressure ?uid distributing unit comprises two distributor
casings, one of said distributor casings being connected 60
to said press for operating said ejector means and the
other distributor casing being connected to said press for
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Reitz_ ______________ __ July 21, 1936
Carver’ ______________ __ Aug. 9, 1955
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