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Патент USA US3079904

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March 5, 1963
D. A. JOHNSTON '
3,079,896
ROTATING FLUID CYLINDERS
Filed Oct- 12, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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March 5, 1963
"3,079,896
D. A. JOHNSTON
ROTATING FLUID CYLINDERS
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed on. 12, 1960
H1
” - —1
INVENTOR.
'_ DWIGHTA.JOHNSTON
\g' é;
AT7'0?/V£Y '
a
llnited dtates
EQQ
Patented Mar. 5%, 1953
2
l
12 is an actuating rod 14 whose reciprocation effects ex
3,tl’7§,3%
pension and contraction of the mandrel 13. The left (in
the position of parts shown) end of arbor 12 may be
Dwig' t A. RGTATEN-G
.l'ohnston, Youngstown,
FLUKE) CY?
(Elsie, assigncr to ‘inter
national Basie Economy €orporation, New ‘York, Nil/1,
provided with a radially extending ?ange 15 to which a
matching ?ange ll? of a rotating fluid cylinder 17 is se
cured. Cylinder 17, see also FEGURE 2, comprises a
a corporation of New Yuri:
Filed @ct. 12, 1969, Ser. No. 62,182
9 Quinta. {61. 12l—33)
cylinder barrel 13 in which a piston 19 is reciprocable
etween axially spaced eads 2t}, 21. Secured to piston
19 and projecting through the right cylinder head 21 is a
The present invention relates to fluid cylinders, more
particularly to ?uid cylinders of the rotating type, and 10 piston rod 22 which is adapted to be secured to the actu
ating rod 14 in any suitable manner whereby reciproca
the principal object 05 the invention is to provide new
tion of the piston 19 eiiects reciprocation of the actuat
and improved cylinders of such character.
ing rod.
Rotating cylinders are widely used in industry where
Projecting from the left end of the cylinder 17 is a
ever a rotating member must be reciprocated in the direc
stationary,
?uid distributing shaft 23 to which are con
15
tion of its rotational axis. While these rotating cylinders
nected a pair of fluid transmission lines 24», 25. Such
are considerably more expensive than ordinary cylinders,
lines are in communication with a suitable source of ?uid
their use is neverthless practical since alternative construc
under pressure such as a hydraulic pump 25. Although
not shown, a suitable valve will direct ?ow of pressurized
ing. Because of the very large forces and speeds involved, 20 ?uid through line 24» to reciprocate rod 14% in one direc
tion or through line 25 to reciprocate rod 14 in the op
a suitable thrust hearing would require considerable space
posite direction. As will later more fully appear, the
and would be prohibitive in cost. Therefore, the use of
tions would require the use of a conventional-cylinder
connected to the rotating member through a thrust bear
rotating cylinders is practical despite their relatively high
cost and maintenance requirements.
In prior art rotating ?uid cylinder of the double acting
type; that is, of the type wherein the piston is urged in
both directions by iiuid under pressure, a passage is formed
entire cylinder structure 17, including the cylinder bar
rel, piston, piston rod and cylinder barrel heads, rotate
with the arbor 12. The only non-rotating part of the
cylinder is the fluid distributing shaft 23, which may be
connected to a bar 123 projecting upwardly from the base
of the stand H, and certain parts a?‘ixed thereto.
in tl e wall of the cylinder barrel for conducting ?uid to—
Referring now to FIGURE 2, the cylinder barrel it; is
ward and away from one side of the piston. Since the
passage weakens the cylinder barrel wall, the latter is 30 shown formed of a relatively thin-walled tube to the
right end or which is welded the ?ange 16. The latter is
frequently made thicker than would otherwise be neces
apertured at 27 to pass fastening bolts (not shown) by
sary merely to insure suf?cient strength at the place where
means of whiz: the cylinder barrel may be secured to the
the passage is formed. This unduly increases both the
previously mentioned ?ange lid of the arbor l2.
weight and cost of the assembly. Furthermore, since the
Disposed adjacent the right end of cylin‘er barrel 13
cylinder barrel is relatively thin, great difficulty is ex 35
is the cylinder head 21.
perienced in drilling the passage aforesaid since the drill
has a tendency to drift off its desired path and run out
through either the interior or exterior wall or" the cylinder
thus completely ruining the latter. The longer the cylin
der barrel, of course, the greater is the difficulty of prop
erly drilling the passage aforesaid.
The present invention completely eliminates the prob
lem of prior art, rotating cylinder manufacture by means
of a novel struetur whicr obviates the necessity of form
Any suitable means may be employed to ?xedly re
tain the head within the cylinder barrel and in the pres
ent embodiment, the interior or" the barrel has an annu
lar groove in which is seated a ring member 23. Al
though not shown, such ring member will preferably be
formed of a plurality of arcuate segments to facilitate
assembly and disassemb-ly. The right end of the head
has a reduced diameter portion 29 which closely ?ts with
in the ring member
to retain it in its barrel groove and
a shoulder 3t“; which abuts that side of the ring member
facing inwardly of the cylinder barrel. A retainer mem
ent from a study of the following description and the
ber 31 is secured to the right side of head 21 by means
drawings appended hereto.
of screw 32 and abuts the outwardly facing side of the
in the drawings accompanying this speci?cation and
forming a part of this vapplication there is shown, for 50 ring member 23 to thus clamp the head to the ring men.
ber. A set screw 33 may be threaded into the cylinder
purpose of illustration, embodiments which the invention
barrel wll with its reduced diameter end seated in a
may assume, and in these drawings:
recess in the head to positively lock the latter against
FIGURE 1 is a generally diagrammatic elevational view
rotation relative to the cylinder barrel. An 0 sealing
illustrating a common application of a rotating ?uid cyl
ring 34 is seated in an vannular groove in the head and
55 bears against the interior of the cylinder barrel to prevent
ind-er,
FEGURE 2‘ is an enlarged, longitudinal sectional view
ing a passage in the cylinder barrel wal .
Other advan
tages of the present invention will readily become appar
fluid leakage therebetween.
through a preferred embodiment of a ?uid cylinder
As earlier mentioned, head 21 is centrally aperture
structure of the present invention, and
to
pass the piston rod 22. Any suitable packing arrange
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary view similar to FIGURE
ment may be employed to prevent fluid leakage between
2 but of another embodiment of the invention.
60
the head 21 and the piston rod 22 and as herein disclosed,
With reference to FIGURE 1, there is shown a device
the head is rece sed to receive a sleeve 35 carrying pack~
it? of the type adapted to wind strip metal or like ma
ing 36 which effects a seal therebetween. The retainer
terial to coil form. Such ‘a de ice is also frequently em»
31 holds the sleeve within the head recess and an 0 seal
ployed to support a coil of material for unwinding. In
any event, the device illustrated comprises a stand 11 65 ing ring 37 e?ects a ?uid~tight seal between the sleeve
which rotatably supports an arbor l2. Secured to one
and the head.
end of arbor 12 is an expansible-contractable mandrel 13
As previously disclosed, the piston 19 is secured to the
of any well-known type. Drive means for rotating arbor
left (in the position of parts shown) end of the piston
12 or a braking device for limiting its rotation may be
rod 22. While any suitable arrangement could be em
disposed either within the stand 11 or closely adjacent 70 ployed to secure the piston and the rod together, it is
preferable in this embodiment to removably e?ect such
thereto.
Extending longitudinally of the hollow interior of arbor
3,079,895
securenient by clamping the piston against a ring mem
4
the valve member conduit 65.
Valve member 64 thus
ber 38, positioned in a groove in the piston rod, by means
of a cup-shaped retainer member 39 which is secured to
facts as a one-way, speed control valve.
the piston by'capscrews 49. Ring member 38 will pref
which closely receives the previously mentioned bar 123
for the purpose of locking-the ?uid distributing shaft 23
erably be similar to 28 in that it will be formed of a plu
rality of segments to facilitate its assembly with the
piston rod.
For a purpose to appear, an opening 41 extends axially
Formed in the ‘outer end ‘of body 61 is a slot 161
against rotation.
.
Outer tubular member 57 extends through the bearing
housing 56 and through axially spaced ball bearings 66,
of-the piston rod from its left end andis intersected by
67 seated .in respective housing recesses. Nuts 68 :are
.a transverse passage-42 disposed at the right end of the 10 threaded on‘the end of the member'57 to retain the bear
piston. Such passage establishes communication be
ing housing, the bearings and the member 57 of the ?uid
tween the opening 41 and the cylinder barrel space inter
mediate the head Eland the piston 19. Also for a pur
distributing shaft 23 in assembled relation.
A seal s9 is
pressed into the bearing housing 56 to the'right of hear
ing 6.6 and its annular sea-ling lip bears against a sleeve 17%}
.pose to appear, clamp member 39 retains in theend of
piston rod 22 a sleeve member 43 carrying packing 44. 15 interposed between such bearing and the nuts'68 to pre- .
0 sealing rings 45, 46 respectively effect a ?uid tight
wvent escape ‘of ?uid from the cylinder barrel about the
seal between lsleevetmember 43 and the piston rod 22 and
exteriorof the tubular member .57. Anothersea'l 7.1 is
.between the latter and the piston 19.
carried by a cap member 72rito the left of .bearing'67 for
Returning again to the piston, its cylinder barrel en
engagement with the tubularmember57 to supplement
gaging surface is preferably provided with a soft metal 20 the seal 69. ,Passages v73 may beformedin the member
overlay'or the like 47 'which insures its smooth sliding
57 to .collect'?uid which .mayhave escaped beyond the
interengagernen-t with the cylinder barrel. .A ?uid-tight
seal??and to pas-ssuch ?uid to the?uidsourceby means
seal between the cylinder barrel and the pistonis v provided
ofasuitable conduit 74.
.by oppositely facing, U-shaped sealing rings 48 disposed
Inner tubular member .53 extends .beyond .therightend
.in respective grooves formed at respective ‘piston ends.
25 of outer member 571an'd into theopening 4110f thepiston
Turning nowto the left end of cylinder barrel 18,>the
rod. Note :that the packing 44 eifects a ?uid-tight seal
latter is closed by the previously mentioned head .20
about the exterior of the member '58. ‘Closely ?tting
which is adapted to be secured in position in a manner
similar to head 21 by being clamped againstaringrnem
within the right-hand end of .tubular member 57 are a
plurality of radially outwardlyextending(projections 75
ber'49 (similar to ring member 28) by an annular mem 30 carried by the tubular .member ‘58. Such projections
ber 50 secured toathe head .by capscrews 51. .0 sealing
.bridge'the annular space between the two tubular mem
rings :52, 53 respectivelyeifect a'?uid-tight seal between
.bers to insure rigiditytherebetweenlbut without unduly
:the Cylinder barrel Y18 and therhead 20 and between ‘the '
restricting ‘?uid ?ow through such . annular space.
.vlatterand annular member 50. A set screw54 may be
Assuming that the cylinder is assembled with thereél
carried by the cylinder barrel to prevent rotation between 35 device as seen in FIGURE .1 with the ?uid transmission
the latter-‘and the head 20. For reasons to appear, head
lines connected with a source of ?uid pressure and with
20 is centrally apertured at 55 and such aperture is of a
the mandrel actuating rod 14 threaded into the end of
size to pass the retainer 39 carried by the piston19.
.the piston rod 22 or otherwise connected thereto, op
In the present embodiment, a tubular bearing housing
eration will be as follows: If ?uid under pressure is
.projects from the annular member 50 outwardly of the 40 passed tothe cylinder through the ?uid transmission line
.cylinder barrel. While such housing could be formed
‘24, ?uid will ?ow intothe passage 62 through the hollow
integrally with the member 50, it is preferred to form
interior of the innermost tubular member 58 to the piston
Tthe housing‘separately therefrom ‘and to weld the parts
rod opening 41 and through the passage 42 to theinterior
together to provide an integral assembly.
of the cylinder barrel at theright end of the piston 19.
Turning for the moment away fromwthe housing 56 45 This will effect movement of the piston to the left since
‘and to the previously mentioned ?uid distributing shaft
the ?uid at the left end of the piston will escapethrough
13, the latter comprises a pair of concentric‘tubular mem
_the annularspace between the tubular members 57, .58
bers 57, 58 extending through the tubular bearing housing.
.through the‘passage 6t) and to the ?uid pressure source
The outermost tubular member 5'7 has a radially enlarged
.throughthe ?uid transmission line_25. Note that in this
.portion 59 disposed to the left of the tubular housing, 50 direction of ?uid ?ow, valve .64 will be vshifted away
such portion 59 having atransverse passage 60 intersect
from its seat so as not to restrictsuch?ow.
‘
;ing-its hollow interior. Passage 60 may be threaded-to
11f ?uid under pressure is admitted to the cylinder
receive the previously mentioned ?uid transmission .line
through the ?uid transmission line v25, ?uid will ?ow
'25.
through passage 60 and into the cylinder barrel at the
The left'end of enlarged portion 5,9'of tubular member
left end of the pistonthrough the annularspace between
:57 is closed'by a body 61 which, in the present embodi
the-tubular members 57, .58. This will e?’ect movement
ment, is Welded to the portion v55?. As illustrated, the
.of the piston to the right since the ?uid at the right end
left end. of the innermost tubular member is threaded into
of the piston will escape through the passage 42 into the
piston rod opening 41, through the hollow interior of
the body 61 and communicates with aitransverse passage
62 formed in the body. The lower end of passage 62 60 the innermost tubular member 58 to the passage 62 and
to the ?uid pressuresource through the ?uid transmission
may be threaded to receive the ?uid transmission line24.
line 24. Notethatin this direction o'f?uid ?ow, valve
‘The upper end of pass-age 62 may be closed by a plug 63
and reciprooable within such passage is a valve member ' '64- will be :shifted toward its seat thus restricting ?uid
.?owto the valve conduit 65. This, of course, will reduce
64, similar to that disclosed in Letters Patent 2,849,263,
‘having an internal conduit 65. Plug 63 has a hollow 65 the speed of movement of the‘piston.
While the ‘piston :19 .is herein shown in an interme
1‘lower end portion 163 which loosely receives the reduced
'-diate position, it willnorrnally be adjacent head 20 dur~
‘shank portion of the valve memberééi to guide the latter
ing rotationof'thereel device and of the cylinder. Dur
during its movement toward and away from its seat to
ing such rotation,~it will be understood that the cylinder
insure against cocking thereof. In the position of parts
barrel 18, ‘heads 20, 2.1,’ piston 19 and piston rod
shown, ‘?uid ?ow may freely take place in a ‘direction from 70
rotate
as ‘a unit upon the bearings 66,167 about the
passage 62 toward the cylinder since the valve member
:axis of the ?uid distributing shaft '23 which remains
"will‘be lifted from its seat; however, when ?uid ?ows
stationary, held by the bar 123.
~
'in'the oppositedirection, the valve member will be driven
The embodiment seen in FIGURE 3 is similar to that
itoward its seat landrthel?uid can then ?ow only through 75
heretofore : described and thus corresponding Parts are
3,079,898
5
identi?ed with the same reference characters as before
but with the su?ir “a” added; however, the construc
tion illustrated in FEGURE 3 is somewhat simpli?ed thus
reducing manufacturing costs.
, - eferring speci?cally to constructional di?erences, it
will be noted that the head 21a is welded to the right
6
extending through an opening in the other of said heads
whereby said annular space establishes communication
between a ?uid connection at the outer end of said outer
tube and the barrel space at the opposite side of said
piston, seal and bearing means between said outer tube
and the opening in said other head to provide for rota
tional movement of said other head relative to said outer
tube Without ?uid leakage, the outer end of said inner
hand end of the cylinder barrel 18a instead of being
removably secured in place as before. Retainer 31a
tube being connected to said- stationary body in fluid tight
is recessed into the outside face of the head Zia and is
manner and with its interior in communication with the
10
much smaller than retainer 31 since it need only retain
opening in said body, the inner end of said inner tube
sleeve 35a and packing 36a in place in the head.
slidably ?tting within an axial opening in said piston and
At the left end of the cylinder barrel 15a, annular
establishing communication between said body opening
member 50 has been eliminated. Instead, tubular bearing
and the barrel space at said one piston side, and the outer
housing 56a is welded directly to the head to provide an
terminal
end of said outer tube being abutted against
integral assembly therewith, it being clear that the cen 15 and held to said stationary body in ?uid tight manner to
tral aperture in the head is reduced in size to closely
seal the outer end of said annular space.
receive the bearing housing. in this embodiment, head
2. The construction according to claim 1 wherein said
Zita is disposed inwardly of the ring member 4% and
other head is ring-shaped and has a closure removably
has a reduced diameter portion 75 which closely ?ts
connected thereto, said closure having an axial opening
within the ring member to retain it in its barrel groove
through which the inner ends of both tubes extend, said
and a shoulder 76 which abuts that side of the ring
stationary ?uid distributing construction being assembled
member facing inwardly of the cylinder barrel. A re
with said ‘closure for connection to and removal from
raining ring 77 may be drawn against the outside face
other head as a unit.
of head 2th! and against ring member 459a by means of
3. The construction according to claim 1 wherein a
25
capscrcws 51a to removably clamp the head to the ring
valve is disposed to control ?ow of ?uid through said
member to thus retain the head positioned at the end
inner tube, said valve providing for unrestricted ?ow of
of the cylinder barrel. An 0 sealing ring 73 is seated
?uid through said inner tube in a direction toward said
in a groove in the head 29a and engages the interior of
barrel space and providing for restricted ?ow of ?uid in
the cylinder barrel to prevent ?uid leakage therebetween.
the opposite direction.
Another distinction between the construction seen in
4. The construction according to claim 1 wherein said
FIGURE 2 and that seen in FIGURE 3 is that in the
latter, the left end of the piston rod 22a is enlarged and
is provided with external threads which cooperate with
internal threads formed in the piston 19a. The enlarged
portion of the piston rod is grooved as before to re
ceive a ring member 33a, the piston having an enlarged
bore portion 79 which closely ?ts over the ring member
to retain it in its groove and a shoulder which abuts
the ring member. With the ring member 33a disposed
in its piston rod groove, the piston will be threaded on
to the piston rod to abutment with the ring member.
Any suitable means may be employed to insure that the
head will not come unscrewed from the rod and in the
stationary body has a slot in its outer surface, and a sta
tionary member is disposed within said slot and is en
gageable with de?ning surfaces thereof to hold said body
against rotation with said barrel.
5. In a rotating, double acting ?uid cylinder construc
tion having a rotatable cylinder barrel closed by axially
spaced heads, a piston within and rotatable with said bar
rel and reciprocable between said heads, a piston rod uni~
tarily movable with said piston and projecting from one
side thereof and outwardly of said barrel through one of
said heads, the improvement comprising a stationary ?uid
distributing construction, including a stationary body
having an axial opening adapted to receive ?uid under
present embodiment, a small hole is drilled at the junc
pressure from a source, concentric inner and outer tubes
ture of the head with the rod and a pin $8 is driven 45 with an annular space therebetween, both tubes having
inner ends extending through an opening in the other of
therein.
Since retainer member 39a is not employed to retain
said heads whereby said annular space establishes com
the head assembled with the piston rod but is only used
munication between a ?uid connection at the outer end
to hold the sleeve member 43a and packing 44a posi
of said outer tube and the barrel space at the opposite side
tioned at the left-hand end of the piston rod, it may
or‘ said piston, seal and bearing means between said outer
be considerably reduced in size as shown and recessed
tube and the opening in said other head to provide for
into the piston rod end.
rotational movement of said head relative to said outer
in view of the foregoing it will be apparent to those
tube without ?uid leakage, the outer end of said inner
skilled in the art that I have accomplished at least the
tube being threaded into said axial opening in said body
55
principal object of my invention and it Will also be ap
to establish ?uid connection with its interior and said
parent to those skilled in the art that the embodiments
source, the inner end of said inner tube slidably ?tting
herein described may be variously changed and modi
within an axial opening in said piston and establishing ?ed, without departing from the spirit of the inven
communication between said axial body opening and the
tion, and that the invention is capable of uses and has
barrel space at said one piston side, and the outer termi
60
advantages not herein speci?cally described; hence it will
nal end of said outer tube being abutted against a side
be appreciated that the herein disclosed embodiments are
of said stationary body to close the outer end of said
illustrative only, and that my invention is not limited
annular space, a fused connection between said body and
said outer tube holding the two assembled.
thereto.
6. A rotating, double acting ?uid cylinder construction,
1 claim:
1. in a rotating, double acting ?uid cylinder construc 65 comprising a rotatable cylinder barrel closed by axially
tion having a rotatable cylinder barrel closed by axially
spaced heads, a piston within and rotatable with said
spaced heads, a piston within mid rotatable with said
barrel and reciprocable between said heads, a piston rod
barrel and reciprocable between said heads, a piston rod
unitariiy movable with said piston and projecting out
unitarily movable with said piston and projecting from
wardly of said barrel through one of said heads, the other
one side thereof and outwardly of said barrel through one 70 of said heads being ring-shaped, a closure for said other
of said heads, the improvement comprising a stationary
?uid distributing construction, including a stationary body
having an opening adapted to receive ?uid under pressure
from a source, concentric inner and outer tubes with an
head and removably connected thereto, said closure hav
ing an axial opening formed with axially spaced bearing
seats including opposite facing annular shoulders, con
centric inner and outer tubes with an annular space there
annular space therebetween, both tubes having inner ends 75
.between,;,both;of 1said tubes having inner-ends disposed
withintsaid closure .opening,,theinner tube being adapted
ttoestablish communication between ar?uid source and
.the;barrelspace on one sided said piston and said annu
£5
strict entrance ‘of - deleterious matter from a the outside a to
the other bearing.
8. iIhe-construction according to :claim ‘7 wherein -a
lubrication opening is provided in saidclosure between
lar :space'being adapted to establish communication be
said'bearings to lubricate both bearings.
tween a ?uid source and the barrel space on the other
.9. The construction-‘according to claim '6 wherein said
closure opening has an intermediate length ofismaller
diameter than its'end portions to provide said -_bearing
side of ‘said piston, a'pair of bearings between said outer
tube and said closureyeachvhaving an :innerraceportion
?tting aboutsaid outer tube 'andheld against axialrsepa
ration :by spaced ,abutments-on said outer tube, and each 10
ihearingihaving an outer race portion‘?tting-within re
'
seats and shoulders,
'
‘References Cited in'the ?le of this?patent
;spective ones vof said‘bearing'seats, at least'the outerrace
:gsortion of vsaid bearings abutting respective shoulders to
hold the hearings against movement toward each other,
'UNITED : STATES PATENTS
“577,489
Mills _v_v_ _____________ __ ‘Feb. 123F189‘?
the innermost end of said outer tube be'mg threaded to :15 _'2,415,l'8l
treceive aznut which constitutes the abutmentatthat end
_‘27,42O;626
of the outer tube and provides for ‘assembly and disas
2,577,858
zsembl-jy' of said outer tube andbearin‘gs with said closure
’2_,16574,347
--and also <provides for adjustment of said bearings.
2349;244
'7. The construction according to claim 6 wherein ?uid .20 2,849,263
seals are disposed about-.said-outerrtube and outwardly
Johnson _______ __l_..,______ Feb. '4, 1947
lofrsaizl'bearings to respectivelyrestrict ?uidleakagerfrom
maid, barrel to therbearing closesttosaid barrel and to re
‘Stevenson ____________ __“May 1-3, 1947
Sampson’ __________ __-_- Dec. 11, 19:51
Clark ________________ __ -Oct. 6, 1953
."Sarnpson _________ _->____‘Aug. 26, 1958
Johnston»? ___________ _- ‘Aug;26,il958
FOREIGN PATENTS
.
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