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Патент USA US3080000

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March 5, 1963
H KUEHL
3,079,994 ,
HEAT TRANSFER PLATE CONSTRUCTION
'Filed Jan. 25. 1957
M@
ATTORNEYS
Unite
States Y.
3,G'19,§i94î
f.
EC@
Patented Mar. 5, 1953
1
Z
3,079,994
invention the channel pieces which are separated from
each other by the interruptions are disposed transversely
Heinrich Kiiehl, Stuttgart, Germany, assigner to Daimler
Benz Aktiengesellschaft, Stuttgart-Unterturkheim,
to the direction of ñow, then it is possible to achieve
with still greater certainty a disturbance of the tempera
ture proñle present at the end of cach individual channel
IEAT TRANSFER PLATE CONSTRUCTÍON
Germany
Filed Jan. 25, 1957, Ser. No. 636,278
Claims priority, application Germany Jan. 30, 1956
4 Claims. (Cl. 16S-_166)
piece and may thereby also decrease the distance of the
individual strips in the direction of flow.
According to a further feature of the present inven
tion, a special construction or enclosure may be provided
with plate heat exchangers in which the two media are at
The present invention relates to heat exchangers which 10
different pressures so as to absorb the pressure forces tend
consist of parallel plates, the intermediate spaces of which
ing to force apart the limit or boundary plates of the
are alternately traversed, preferably in cross- or counter
high pressure parts, for example, in the shape of par
ñow pattern, by the media which are to be heated or
ticularly strong terminal plates or terminal plates pro
cooled.
vided with ribs. In that manner, the channel walls
In the prior art heat exchangers consisting of a plurality
arranged between the boundary plates of the high pres
of plates are known in which corrugated sheet metal
members are arranged between the plates, so that channels
in the direction of flow are formed between the sheet
metal members and the plates through which the media
may flow.
The present invention aims at a particularly favorable
construction of such “plate” heat exchangers, i.e., heat
exchangers formed by a plurality of plates which enables
a construction of heat exchangers which are relatively
small and therewith relatively inexpensive, of light weight,
and space saving with simultaneous relatively high
sure portions are relieved to a large extent from the tensile
stresses ordinarily required thereof for keeping together
the boundary plates or may be relieved altogether from
such ensile stresses. This is particularly advantageous
in connection with a construction according to the present
invention having sheet metal members provided with in
terruptions, as in such a construction, by reason of the
interruptions, the connecting surfaces between the sheet
metal members and the plates are also interrupted and
25
such connections, for example, eifected by soldering or
eñiciency.
brazing, from an over-al1 point of view cannot absorb as
It is proposed, according to the present invention, that
the channel walls formed by the corrugated sheet metal
much tensile stress as with a connection with uninter
rupted sheet metal members.
Furthermore, in connection with heat exchangers for
members be provided with interruptions or discontinuities 30
media of different pressures, it is proposed in accordance
:in the direction of flow at least within those regions in
with the present invention that the shape of the corruga
which the channel walls do not abut against the plates.
tions of the sheet metal members for the medium at lower
In that manner, the hea-t transfer is considerably increased
pressure be provided with essentially rectilinear reinforce
as compared to heat exchangers having channels which
are uninterrupted or continuous. This is due to the fact 35 ments or supports from plate to plate and that the shape
of corrugations of the sheet metal member for the media
that the heat transfer is proportional to the tempera-ture
which are under higher pressure be provided with essen
gradients along the wall. This temperature gradient is
tially S-shaped, curved connections from plate to plate.
relatively steep at the beginning of the entrance or ad
In this manner, it is prevented to a large extent that the
mission of a flow into a channel as at ñrst all of the
streamlines have the same temperature. However, in the 40 spaces which are subjected to lower pressure are squeezed
together due to the forces produced thereby. On the
course of flow through the channel the streamlines lo
other hand, if a limited movement of the boundary plates
cated in proximity of the walls cool off or heat up until
should take place in this sense, i.e., in the direction of
an equilibrium condition is obtained in which the max
compressing the low pressure spaces by a ready increase
imum temperature difference with respect to the wall is
located in the center of the channel and decreases towards 45 in the distance of the plates from each other which
define the space for the higher pressure, then the corru
the sides relatively gradually. If the channel walls in
gated sheet metal members of the high pressure space
accordance with the present invention are interrupted
do not become detached from the boundary plates as
over and over again, then the flow with each interruption
they are sufficiently elastic as a result of the S~shaped
is repeatedly disturbed by the formation of turbulences,
curvature to follow this increase in distance.`
eddies or the like, i.e., the temperature is thereby again
For purposes of decreasing the losses in ñow, the chan
evened out over the entire cross section of flow so that
nel walls may be provided with rounded off end sides or
the temperature gradient in proximity to the wall during
with streamlined profiles as visualized in cross sections
the entrance into the next channel portion is again very
parallel to the plates. Furthermore, in those cases in
great.
In that manner, it is possible to obtain the relatively 55 which clogging up of the heat exchanger is feared by
reason of foreign bodies being carried by the flow
high heat transfer over the entire length of ñow through
medium, the present invention proposes to let the cross
the heat exchanger which is present only with a simple
sections of the flow channels of the individual channel
continuous uninterrupted tube or pipe only directly at
pieces deviate from each other, preferably in such a manthe entrance thereof.
A simple manufacture and construction including the 60 ner that the channel pieces located at the entrance of the
flowing medium into the heat exchanger have a larger
desired interruptions is possible if the corrugated sheet
cross sectional area.
metal members consist of many strips made of sheet
Accordingly, -it is an object of the present invention to
metal which are disposed transversely to the direction of
provide a heat exchanger which offers a very favorable
ñow and at a distance from each other. On the other
construction with the use of plates.
hand, it is also possible to manufacture a plate heat ex
changer in accordance with the present invention in such
a manner that the corrugated sheet metal members con
sist each of a uniform piece of sheet metal which is pro
vided with recesses or openings which correspond to the
desired interruptions.
In that manner, an accurate mu
tual position of the partial channels is assured.
If, in accordance with a further feature of the present
Another object of the present invention is to provide
an extremely eiiicient heat exchanger which is, neverthe
less, compact and sturdy, and has considerable space sav-v
ing characteristics.
_A primary object of the present invention resides in
the provision of a heat exchanger which increases the
eñiciency thereof to a very considerable extent.
aereas@
Y3
Another object of the present invention resides in the
4
As shown in FIGURE 1, each of the sheet metal strips
. provision of a heat exchanger which increases the heat
15 is formed so as vto have ñat portions 15a and 15by b'y
transfer capacity for a given size by simple and inex
means of which they are secured to the plates 10 and 11,
respectively. The flat portions 15a and 15b are joined
pensive means.
'
' Still another object of the present invention resides in
by essentially rectilinear portions 15a- and 15d thereby
the 'construction of av heat exchanger which is designed
to continuously disturb theñow'lines so as to’ even'out
giving the eiïect of undulated orqcorrugated sheetv metal
strips, The sheetmetal strips 1_6, l17_r and 18 are each
provided Vwith.corresponding portions 16a, 16b, 16C and
16d; 17a, 17b, 17C and 17d; and 1§q, 18_b,_18c_and 18d,
and rtherewith increase the eíective temperature gradient
throughout the system.
’
'
A still further object ofthe present invention is the
provision of a heat exchanger which is 'soconstructed as
10
,
`
'
’
propriately shaped recesses 19tl The sheet metalsmem
a m' _vimumheat transfer overY the entirelength of the
,.
'
designated by reference numeral YA31 'provided with ap
section'ïthr‘oughout the entire' ñow path thereby Vassuring,
case with most present day known heat exchangers.
'
FÍGURE 2 showsv a llatAv sheet metalmember generally`
to even out temperature distribution over the entire cross
flow of( the medium throughfthe heat exchanger; '
still further object of the present inventionis the
Y provision of 'a‘heat exchanger which, cont’r‘aryfto’known,v
devices, provides' ef?cient heatv transfer o_ver the entire
length thereof ‘insteador’ 'only at the Íentran'ce. as isfthey
respectively.
ber S1 may bef used toconstr'uct anv arrangementcorre;A
15
spending to"ì the ,individual‘stripsfoí sheetï metalmembers,
15,'1'6i17or18 shown inQFIGUREhl. This may.. b_oÍdo
folding the sheet metal 'member 31 about lines 20,1,
20a, Ztìb, 26e, 20d, 20e, 201‘, 20g, 29h, et ceteraashown
20
"A stillg'further object of' the present inventionresides
in; the provisionof >such aheat exchanger which,fulfillsv
in dot-and-dash lines in'FIGUREQ, soJt'ha't, example#
the' portions located between 20c `and 20d, and betweenV
2tlgv and 20h correspondQtofthe flat portionslâàror 15b;v
alljt'he_aforementioned’obj'ects‘ina manner which lends>`
portionsthereof will constituteY the other corresponding.,
itself readily'V to inexpensive manufacture"
remises .thereof
The bending or, shapingE creationist the. Sheet. rtl/stal:
member 31 kmaybe done inïany1 suitable.manner._ Ittis;
"
‘
'i "
‘Another object of the , present invention isto provide
a constructioufor a heat'.- exchangerwhich readily resists-
25
any forces’du'e to differences infr pressure bc‘tweenjthe _
understood thatinsfead of providing.,conñsslratignsêuçh;
mediav within the heat exchanger.'
y‘Other objectsjof thepresent` invention reside in the,
provision of a heart exchanger which minimizes ilow losses '
as'vshown in FIGURE 1, the sheet >metal memberv may_„ ~
also vbe shapedin any other suitable manner. so _as to_pro-,_
30
byllthe construction of the end portions oflthe channelsr
and whichV also lessensthe dangerofclogging'up by the
presence of foreign particles which may be carried through
this_system by the_`media.
i
Vide, fory example, corrugations essentially in the _shape of;`VV
those designated _by referencenymeral -26_ in__FIGURE¿3.
FÍGURES shows-across section .through still another1
'embodiment of a plate heat exchanger in »arxgorclance` _with _
'
the present invention in which, in addition _to vthe heat ex?,
V'îhesefand other objects, features and advantages of. 35 change pilatesfltl-lßi two terminal securing plates 21-a1_1_d_
the present invention willV become morey obvious from the
following 'description when taken in connection with the`
accompanying drawingwhich shows, for purposes of il
lustration only, three> embodiments in accordance with
the _present invention, and wherein:v
FIGURE 1 is a perspective «View of a first embodi
mentgofwa heat exchanger in accordance with theÍ present,v
invention consisting of _plates and; constructed `according
to the cross current principle in which the corrugated
sheet metal members are subdivided into individual strips.
Z2 are> provided, The gas streams flow, in that. embodig j
ment according tothe counter-flow principle1 -as__. is indi-_
cated ¿by the symbols of the point and tail ofr an arrow
40
indicated in the drawing whereby the symbols523 indicate
the point of the arrow, i.e., the _How in the direction to-_
ward the viewerwhereas the sym-bol 24 indicates the’tail
of the arrow, i.e, the lion/__ in the.v direction away. fromY
the viewer. . The medium with the direction of ñowlâ ._
isk thereby to be at -much higher pressure than .that _ofV
direction of flow 24.V Accordingly, the shape of the sheet Y
' FIGURE _2 is a plan View of a unitary sheet metal plate
metal strips is formed correspondingly d_iñerent. _ It, Y
provided with appropriately shaped recesses in accordance
under theinñuence ofthe higher pressureinthe spaces _fon
with _the presentîinvention which may be` used, in the con,
struction of a heat exchangeraccording to therpresent i11
23A the spaces for’Z‘i-_are to be slightly compressed which, '
however, is to be VpreventedV to a large extent bythe recti,~
50 linear leg portions or supports 25, then the S-sbapedbent .
vention, and _
'
j
t
FIGURE 3 is across »sectional view through another
lsheet metal strips 26 do not tear ott from the heat ex
embodiment of aplateheat exchanger in accordance with
change plates lil-13 to which they are secured _in any,
the present invention for use with the counter flow princi
sui-table manner as by soldering orbrazing, as the S-shape _ _
ple in' which media- of different pressure are to be used. `
assures sufficient elasticity for a yielding in the.direction` _
VReferring now to the drawing wherein like reference -55 of tensiorn
numerals are used throughoutthe various views to desig
As shown in FIGURE 3, the walls of each strip~26 areY
so constructed as to include ñat parts and reversely»VV
nate'like parts, and more particularly to FIGURE 1,
curved portions, thercurv-a-ture _of one of these portions
reference numerals 1010 14 designate the plates which
merging with thel curvature of the other, These reversely
separate from'ea'ch other the spaces for the media which
are‘in mutual heat transfer relationship within the heat 60 curved vportions areI disposed intermediate of flat parts,
the latter _beingparallel toandsecured to respective pairs
exchanger and/which flow through the flow channels ac-I
cording to the cross-flow principle. An appropriately Vof Yadjacent heat exchange plates 10,-13; shown in this,
figure. These' reversely curved portions are thus free of
large‘number> ofvindividual sharp-edged undulated or
direct connectionf to these plates and provide the elas_-_
corrugated `individual sheet metal strips generally desig
nated by reference numerals 1S Yand '16' form the chan
ticity just referred to, since thei?shape enables them to
yield under the influence of the high pressure ñow 23;v
While VI have shown and described seyeral preferred
embodiments in accordance with thepresent invention,
nelstor the first medium ñowing from the right to the
left or vice versa, whereas individual sheet metal strips
generally designated 17 and 18 form the channels for
the second medium flowing at essentially'right angles to
the 'directionfofrlow of the first medium. The strips
is susceptible »ofmany changes and modifications Vin ac
ISL-18 areY formed from'separate`ñat sheet metal strips _
cordance with the present invention, and I intend to cover y
it is .understoodtthat _the same is ’not limited thereto but ;
hat/_inge width corresponding to the desired, predeter
all such changes and inodiñoations as encompassed ïby the
miiicdY length ‘of each channel portion and Vmay beshaped _
appended claims.
to'a’sisu'me the configuration shown inthe drawing in anyv
suitable manner. ’
'
I claim:
.
'
'
'
'
‘
_
Y
'
Y 1'.~> A plate type heat exchanger comprising »a Aplurality
8,079,994
5
ü
of plates comprising a ñrst set of adjacent plates defining
iirst spaces intermediate each pair of said adjacent plates,
said plurality of plates further comprising a second set of
adjacent plates defining second spaces in-termediate 'each
pair of said last-named plates, said plurality of plates in
intermediate said ñat portions and being 'effective-to re
lieve said tiat portions ytrom strains tending to separate
said flat por-tions from said first-named adjacent plates.
2. A plate-type heat -exchanger according to claim 1,
wherein said reversely- curved portions are free of direct
connection to said iirst set of `adjacent plates.
3. A pl-ate-type heat exchanger :according to claim 1,
wherein said second undulated sheet metal strips comprise
cluding at least one plate common to said first set and to
-said second set, said tirst spaces `being adapted for flow
therethrough of a high-pressure medi-um, said second
rectilinear leg portions extending between each pair of
spaces being adapted for flow therethrough of a low-pres
sure medium, said heat exchanger further comprising first 10 lsaid second set of adjacent plates.
4. A plate-type heat exchanger according to claim 1,
undulated sheet metal »strips in said ñrst spaces having
wherein said first-named plurality of channels and said
flat portions secured to said first-named adjacent plates
second-named plurality of channels -extend in the same
and forming a plurality of channels in the direction of
general direction.
ñow of said high pressure medium, said strips being spaced
-from each other in the said direction of ñow of said high 15
References Cited in the tile of this patent
pressure medium, said heat exchanger further comprising
second undulated sheet metal lstrips in said second spaces
secured to said `adjacent plates of said second set, said sec
ond undulated sheet metal strips -forming a plurality of
channels in the direction of ñow of said low pressure me 20
dium, said second undulated sheet metal strips being
spaced from each other in said direction of ñow of said
low pressure medium, said iirst set of adjacent plates
being subject to movement relativ-e to each other in re
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,360,123
Gerstung etal _________ _.- Oct. 10, 1944
2,429,508
2,571,631
2,595,457
2,656,158
2,912,749
Belaie?î ______________ __ Oct. 21,
Trumpler ____________ __ Oct. 16,
«Holm et al. ___________ __ May 6,
Hodson et al __________ __ Oct. 20,
Bauernfeind et al ...... __ Nov. 17,
FOREIGN PATENTS
sponse to pressure of said high pressure medium, said ñrst 25
undulated metal strips comprising means adapted for
yielding movement in lresponse to said movement of said
23,356
France _____- _________ __ June 14, 1921
506,396
631,300
882,208
Canada ______________ __ Oct. 12, 1954
Great Britain _________ __ Oct. 31, 1949
France ______________ __ Feb. 22, 1943
(Addition to No. 516,802)
iirst set of yadjacent plates, said means adapted for yield
ing movement comprising reversely curved portions of
said undulated strips, »said yreversely curved portions being
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1952
1953
1959
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