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Патент USA US3080189

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March 5, 1963 '
Filed 001;. so, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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March 5, 1963
Filed Oct. 30. 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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United States Patent
Patented Mar. 5, 1963
Robert Waldo, 2211 Santa Monica, San Antonio, Tex.
Filed Oct. 30, 1959, Ser. No. 84§,793
1 Claim. (Cl. ‘285-203)
tainer. Furthermore, the securing of the ?ange in place
around the container wall calls for only the small amount
of pressure needed to assure that a short neck formed
around the opening and the receiving seat therefor of the
?ange are properly mated and are properly joined by a
solder layer therebetween. Also the soldering heat is
localized so damage to coatings or exterior decorations
This invention relates to container wall closure com
is guarded against. The manner of preparing the con
binations and to methods for forming the same and is par
tainer wall for receiving the ?ange and the manner of
ticularly concerned with ?anges or sputs ‘for bordering 10 securing the ?ange in place thereon are simple and are
the openings in steel barrels and drums and combinations
carried out lby simple, effective equipment without calling
of the same with container walls and to methods of effect
for any particular skill on the part of the workmen.
ing such combinations.
It is, accordingly, an object of the invention to im
At present the ?anges, or ?ttings, for heavy gauge steel
prove upon ?an-ges vfor containers.
Another object is to improve upon the combinations
containers, such as 12 gauge barrels, are themselves of 15
heavy construction, usually castings or \forgings, and are
thereof with container walls.
applied to the container walls by welding. These ?ttings
Another object is to provide improvement in methods
for securing closure ?anges .tocontainer walls.
are expensive, their application is time consuming, calls
A further object is to provide closure ?anges and the
for expensive electrical equipment and for the services
of relatively skilled workmen. It is not practical, or 20 securing of the same to container walls wherein the gasket
seats and‘threads are the same after as before the securing
economical, to form and apply closure ?anges for light
weight containers, such as 16 or 18 gauge steel barrels
and drums, in such manner. The cost of the ?anges, or
has been effected.
?ttings, would be too high. The equipment needed and
placement of the closure ?anges of complete containers
A further object is to provide ‘for the removal and re
power consumed would be too great, and this manner of 25 without disturbing the containers themselves.
A still further object is to provide for the application
of closure ?anges to lined, or coated, containers without
interfering with linings, or coatings.
Further and more detailed objects will in part be ob
been devised which are applied to openings in container 30 vious and in part 1be pointed out as the description of the
invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying
walls by press operations. These normally do a good job,
application would not ?t in with the high production
speeds employed in manufacturing the great number of
these containers produced annually.
Accordingly, highly effective pressed steel ?anges have
but there are respects in which they leave something to
be desired, particularly in the present stage of develop—
ment of steel drums. One phase of this development has
been in providing protective and decorative coatings for 35
drawing proceeds.
,In that drawing:
FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the ?ange of the invention
per se.
the drum Wall exteriors which are applied to the sheets
before they are formed into the drums. Another has
been the interior coating of the drum sheets so that chemi
,FIG. 2 is a bottom plan view thereof.
manner of securing the same to light weight drums in a
The new ?ange of the invention is shown per se in
FIG. 3 is an elevation thereof partly in section.
FIG. 4 is a vertical section of a ?ange in accordance
cal and ‘food products can be Shipped in the drums with
with the invention assembled with a container wall neck,
with the mechanism in place ready to e?ect the securing
out coming into contact with the metal. Then, the recon
of the ?ange and container well together.
ditioning of drums involving the burning out of their
FIG. 5 is a similar view with the ?ange partly in eleva
interiors and taking out of dents, refurbishing the closures,
tion showing the securing as having been completed.
if necessary, and redecorating the exteriors has increased
very materially.
FIG. 6 is a part elevation, part sectional view of a com
All of these developments suggest the provision of a 45 plete closure in accordance ‘with the invention, with the
?ange assembled to the container and the plug and cap
?ange and method of applying the same which, though
seal in place.
the initial application may be made before the drum is
FIG. 7 ,is a fragmentary sectional view of a slightly
fabricated, enables replacement from the exterior should
modi?ed form of ?ange and container wall assembly prior
such replacement be necessary in the life of a drum.
50 to the effecting of the securing.
Furthermore, there has long been sought a ?ange and
FIGS. 1 and 3. Advantageously it is preferably made‘
quick economical manner without the application of heavy
of seamless steel ‘tubing with all of the operations being
press forces whose effect of distortion of gasket seats
performed on automatic multi station threading and mill
and threads must be compensated for in the ?ange as
ing machines.
Other metals may, of course, be em
ployed when preferred, or to meet particular require
It is the province of the instant invention to overcome
the foregoing and other defects of the prior art construc
ments. Stainless steel, aluminum, brass, copper, or
tions. In the ?rst place, the invention provides for the
Monel, are non limiting examples of such metals. ,It
application of ?anges without deformation of their gasket 60 can, of course, be made in other ways as desired. Also,
though the ?ange as described and shown herein is pro—
seats or threads by any action of the container manu
facturer in applying the ?anges to container walls.
vided with continuous threads, it is to be understood that
Another important factor is that the ?anges of the 1n
discontinuous, or interrupted threads can be employed,
vention can be applied from the outside of the container
or even lugs in ‘place of thread, where the ,securement
of the plug is e?ected by cam action.
once the container is entireiy complete, instead of needing
to be applied to a container wall before the container
The interior of the ?ange, whose generally cylindrical,
walls are assembled together. As a coroilary to this, the
hollow body is indicated at 1, has the lower portion of
?ange of the invention may be removed from the container
and replaced by ‘another one if need be, so that should
the burning out of the container and reconditioning loosen
its hollow interior screw threaded as shown at 2, prefer
ably having at least three full threads, formed as Ameri
can Standard straight pipe threads, as commonly used in
the ?ange it can be reapplied, or another one can be 70 the closure art. Above the threaded portion the interior
applied in place of it, all from the outside of the con
of the ?ange is formed at 3 with a somewhat concaved
surface on a relatively long radius forming a seat for the
engagement of a plug gasket therewith as appears in FIG.
At the upper end of this seat the curve reverses into
a convex one, as seen at 4, to provide a rounded bead
5 at the outer end. The bead 5 extends around the top
end of the ?ange to the exterior thereof to a short ra
diused convexly curved portion 5a‘ which joins with a
radially inwardly extending generally ?at surface 5b,
the solder is the proper solder for the job. As to the flux
element 25, its amount can also, of course, be determined
for the assuring of a complete bond of the solder to the
adjoining metals. In certain instances ?ux may not be
at all necessary, this the ?ange manufacturer will know
and will position it in place or omit it as required.
When the [term “soldering” is employed here, it is also
understood to be inclusive of the term “brazing,” though
it is believed that even what is generally considered as
which may if desired be horizontal though as shown it is
provided with a slight downwardly incline for purposes 10 “soft solder” will provide a joint of adequate strength
in a construction as here set ‘forth. To illustrate, if the
which will appear hereinafter. The surface 5b termi
?-t between the collar 13 and the sides of the slot 11 is
nates in a concavely curved short radiused portion 50
.001" land the parts are properly soldered together em
which joins with the cylindrical external surface 6 around
the ?ange.
ploying soft solder, the shear strength of the joint is
The surface 6 serves for the reception of the skirt of 15 in the order of 9,000 pounds per square inch. The shear
strength would run up to as high as 125,000 pounds per
a capseal whose top overlies the ?ange and whose gasket
square inch for silver soldering or brazing. Even if there
bridges the space between the bead and the periphery
is a clearance of .004" instead of the .001" just men
of the plug head, as shown in FIG. 6 and to be further
tioned, the shear strength for soft solder is in the order of
describedv hereinafter. At the lower end of the cylin
drical surface 6 the conical surface 7 extends outwardly 20 6,000 pounds per squareinch and for the silver solder or
brazing material is in the order of 100,000 pounds per
to meet the enlarged cylindrical exterior surface 8.
square inch. With a neck 13, only 1A" high for use for
The lower portion, or base, of the ?ange is split into
in place ‘a ?ange according to the invention hav
two annular parts, 9 and 10, by the annular channel’ 11,
ing a 2" opening therethrough, the area of the contacting
which channel extends well up into the body 1 of the
?ange terminating at its base. ~ This channel is prefer
25 ‘surfaces between the groove 11 and the neck .13 would
be approximately 3.5 square inches. Thus, in the weak
ably cylindrical and is of a width to receive a cylindrical
est situation set forth above, the shear strength of the joint
neck 13 formed up around the opening 14 in the drum'
between this ?ange and the drum stock when properly
wall 15, as seen in FIGS. 4-6. These parts should form
secured would be approximately 21,000 pounds. This
a reasonably close ?t so that a solder-like material ?owed
30 is many times what is needed to make a joint capable
between them will make a strong, tight, joint.
of resisting any possibility of shearing in the application
Another feature of the ?ange to note is that its portion
or removal of a plug from the flange, at the same time the
10 inwardly of the channel 11 extends downward to its
joint would, of course, be leakproof.
bottom surface 16 below the surface 17 of the portion 9.
Another important feature of the invention, having in
The downward projection of the portion 10 enables the
mind the likelihood of the container wall 15 having been
workman to quickly position the ?ange on the container 35 coated
interiorly to provide a protective barrier between
wall neck so that they will mate together.
the metal of the drum wall and the contents, is the manner
Turning now to the securing of this ?ange in place on
in which the invention provides for the control of the ?ow
the container about the opening therethrough,‘ the illus
of the solder to limit it to the areas between the sides
tration in FIGS. 4 and 5 of the accompanying drawing
is that of the securing to the container wall being effected
before that wall is assembled with the other parts of the
container. It is, of course, to be understood that this
is not a limiting illustration, for as already pointed out,
and end of the slot 11 and the neck 13. Depending on
the normal range of fit between the ?ange and the neck,
the right amount of solder 24, and suitable flux as needed,
can be selected for melting by heat applied in accordance
with the invention so that the solder will merely flow into
securing and replacement of the ?anges of the invention 45 place ‘between the opposed surfaces and none of it will run
with respect to container walls can readily be effected
to the opening of the joint or out of the joint to drip into
after the container is otherwise completed. In the secur
a ?nished container.
ing illustrated a suitable member, as shown at 20 is em
An additional safeguard against this undesired flow is
ployed for supporting the container wall member 15 from‘
provided by the extension of the portion 10 of the ?ange
beneath. This member 20 is formed with an opening 21 50 downwa-ndly to a greater extent than the portion 9. With
therethrough, with the upper part thereof being recessed
the ‘solder calculated to stay within the height of the por
further at 22 to receive an electrical insulating ring 23
tion‘9 it will, of course, not run as far as the open end
preferably of ceramic material. Being ceramic this ring
of the longer passage between the portion 10 and the
also helps to localize the effective zone of the heat re
neck 13.
sulting from the induction.
‘ 55
The heating to melt the solder and the ?ange in place
'With the drum wall member 15 seated in place on the
on the neck is effected by induction. With the ?ange 1
support 20 with the opening 14 registered with the open
seated on the neck 13, as already pointed out, and with
ing 21, it is ready to have the ?ange 1 brought into posi
the container wall v15 mounted on a suitable support as
tion to be secured thereto. Prior to this stage, however,
shown, the head 5 of the ?ange is engaged by the surface
and subsequent to the completion of the ?ange, as shown 60 26 of Ia suitable pilot member .27 preferably formed of
in FIGS. 1-3, a ring of solder-like material 24 ‘followed
electric insulating ceramic material. The surface 26 is
by a ring of ?ux 25, as may be necessary, are pressed into
annular and is mated to the head 5 and its inner portion
place in the base of the channel 11. These, however,
4 so that as the member 27 pushes down on the ?ange, it
leave ample room in the channel for the reception of
does so in a straight, accurate manner.
the upper end of the neck 13.
The member 27 in turn is carried by a suitable press
Considering now the provision of the solder 24 and the
element including a housing 28 in whose upper part a
spring 29 is mounted. This spring acts between the upper
?ux25, these elements are sui?ciently snug in their ?t
surface 30 of the member 27 and the under surface 31 of
in the channel 11 that they will stay there during the
the housing 28. Actually, the laterally extending ?ange
shipment and handling of the ?ange. Thus they are ap
plied'along with the ?ange member, leaving nothing for 70 3.2 of the member 27 is engaged by the spring while the
main reduced portion 33 of the member 27 is slidable in
the drum manufacturer to do but to secure the ?ange in
the opening 34 in the bottom wall 35 of the housing 28.
place on the container wall opening. Preassembling the
The upper Wall 36 of the housing suitably extends into a
solder with the ?ange in this manner not only assures
mounting element 37 to be secured in place in a suitable
accurate control of the quantity of solder, but assures that
it is placed in the exact place where it is needed and that 75 press.
An induction heating ring 40 of an internal diameter to
suitably surround the ?ange 1 is carried by a plurality of
legs 41 extending downwardly from the side wall of the
housing 28 and secured thereto as seen at 42. These legs
41 are of electrical insulating material, of which Transite
is an example. The ring conductor 40, as is known in
the art of induction heating, is preferably in the form of a
by any variation in the ?ange inserting operation carried
out by the drum manufacturer. Furthermore, the cap
seals and securing of the same will be uniform, regardless
of the gauge of metal of the container to which the ?ange
is secured. Thus the crimping tools employed for ap
plying the capseals will all be the same for the same sized
opening, eliminating the need for different tools, where
hollow tube so that water can be ?owed through the in
the drum stock gauge is different.
terior 42 thereof to keep the ring cool. Also, of course,
For consideration of the structure for achieving the
the ring 40 would be suitably formed and with electrical 10 improvements just pointed out‘, attention is directed to
conductors secured thereto in position to complete the
the manner in which the head 5 of the ?ange is contoured
into the cylindrical inset surface 6. First, there is the
As is known in the art, the high frequency current for
small convex radius 5a where the bead turns into the
induction heating, can be provided by such means as a
almost horizontally directed, radially inwardly extending,
motor generator, a spark-gap converter, or a suitable elec
surface 5b beneath the bead. Then there is the small
tronic device. The selection of the apparatus for provid
concave radius 50 where the surface 5b turns into the
ing the current depends on such things as the weight of
‘cylindrical portion 6.
The capseal applied over the closure has a generally
material to be heated, the kind of material, the tempera
ture required, the output nature and the depth of the
disc-like top 56 whose periphery is rounded at ‘57 to en
area to be heated. When apparatus properly meeting the
gage the upper part of the bead 5. Below the bead the
requirements is provided it can be setup on a production
periphery 57 is formed at 570 into a portion contoured,
line and operated like any other machine using semi
by the action of a suitable sealing tool, to mate with and
skilled operators.
‘lie against the radius 5a, the surface 5b and radius 50.
Continuing with the securing action as seen in FIG. 4,
The lower portion of the skirt is seen as being crimped
when pressure has been applied to the ?ange by pressing 25 inwardly at 58 into tight engagement with the surface
down on the housing 28 so that the ceramic pilot 27 has
v6 and thus to be
the recess formed by that surface
seated the ?ange down properly on the neck 13, the posi
with ‘the lower surface 7 and the upper surface 5b. ‘It is
tion of the housing 28, or other means indicating that the
also to be noted that the lower end 59‘ of the skirt 58
ring 40 is properly positioned, will serve to automatically
comes down so close to the surface 7 that the possibility
cause the induction ring 40 to be energized. The high 30 of getting a tool under the end of the skirt to remove
frequency current ?owing through the ring 40 will melt
the capseal without destroying it is practically non
Cushioning to enable the capseal skirt to be drawn
pilot 27 forces the ?ange down into the seated position
in tightly around the curves 5a and 5c and against the
as seen in FIG. 5. Once the proper melting and ?owing 35 surfaces 5b and 6 is provided by the gasket 60 whose
of the solder has been effected the current is shut off but
principal function, however, is to bridge the space be
the pilot 27 continues to exert downward pressure on the
tween the bead 5 and the periphery of the plug head 52
?ange for a short time to allow the solder to solidify with
to further seal the opening. In certain instances, how
the solder 24 by inducing current therein as well as melt
ing the ?ux if necessary. This heating continues as the
out any movement. Then the member 28 is retracted,
ever, closing of a container opening can be effected with
carrying the induction ring 46 to a position above the 40 out the use of a plug and merely by the effective secur
?ange 1, whereupon the container wall with the ?ange
ing of a capseal over the ?ange. In any event the com
properly secured thereto can be removed and the cycle
pression of the gasket 60 more tightly than has hereto
fore been the case, is achieved by the drawing of the skirt
As can be seen in FIG. 5, the solder 24 has ?owed
portion 57a around the radius 5a inwardly along the
down the outer side of the neck 13 at 24a and down the 45 surface 5b and around the radius 50. The surface rela
inside thereof at 2412. On the outer side it stops at the
base of the neck 45 and on the inside at the position 56
tionship is such as to achieve what amounts to an inter
screw threaded side wall 51 is shown as secured in place
alluded to.
locking of the cap skirt with the recess receiving its por
approximately in line with the position 45. Also, of
tion '58. This importantly increases the holding power
course, the base 12 of the channel 11 and the end of the
of the capseal against disruption, or blowing off due to
neck 13 are joined by a solder layer 240. Heating of any
pressures built up with the container. Additionally, the
parts other than in the area to be soldered is minimized
sharp bends imparted to the seal at the short radiused
by the design and positioning of the ring 40, the control
curves 5a and 50 would prevent the seal being removed
of the current supplied thereto and the use of ceramic
and replace without detection. If such removal and re
member at ‘27 and 23. If the drum is already complete
placement were attempted the seal would fracture at the
55 sharp curves. Accordingly, the invention also provides
the support 20 can, of course, be dispensed with.
A complete closure in accordance with the invention
for more effective capsealing than previously achieved,
is illustrated in FIG. 6. Here a screw plug 50 ‘having a
as well as providing for the other advantages already
in the ?ange 1 with its threads engaged with the threads 2
A somewhat modi?ed form of the invention is illus
of the ?ange. Below its head 52 the plug is recessed at 60 trated in FIG. 7. Here, instead of the solder being car
53 to receive a gasket 54 which is held in place between
ried in the base of the channel 11, a separate channel 61
the under side of the head '52, the base of the recess 53*
is formed extending up into the enlarged portion 9 of
and the upper surface of the uppermost of the threads 51.
the ?ange for suf?cient distance to receive a solder ring
This gasket is suitably compressed against the gasket
‘62, and ?ux ring 63v is desired. Here the ?ange is again
seat 3 of the ?ange at which point the lower peripheral 65 seated in place by means of the slightly longer container
edge 55 of the plug head engages the inner surface 4 of
wall neck 13 engaging the channel 11, but the securing
the head 5 to prevent undue compression of the plug
is effected by pressing the ?ange down until the surface
gasket and to back it up by metal all around.
17 of the portion 9 engages the outer surface of the con
The capsealing of the closure of the invention can
tainer wall, whereupon the solder and ?ux are melted
be achieved with more effectiveness and with more uni 70 to make a joint with the container wall and, accordingly,
forrnity than has heretofore been the case. This is due
effect the securing together of the parts.
to the fact that the surfaces to be engaged by the cap
Though in the foregoing the preferred and one modi
seal skirt can be preformed in the forming of the ?ange
=?ed form of closure ?ange and combination and the
presently preferred manner of carrying out the method
so that, like the plug gasket seat 3‘, exactness and uni
formity can be achieved and are not subject to variation 75 have been disclosed, it is to be understood that such dis
closure is for illustrative ‘and not for limiting purposes,
of said channel, said inner portion overlying the interior
since one skilled in the art might well modify the struc
of said neck to at least the axial extent of said outer
tures or method without departing from the spirit and
portion, the bottom face of said outer portion of said
lower end at -a position spaced radially outwardly with
scope of the invention.
Speaking more generally, since certain changes in
carrying out the ‘above method and in the construction
set forth which embody the invention may be made with
out departing from its scope, it is intended that all matter
contained in the above description or shown in the ac
respect to said channel being formed with an annular
groove extending \therethrough up into the body of said
outer portion, said groove being independent of said
channel, 1a fusible adhesive material ?lling said groove,
engaging said container wall and securing said closure
oompanying drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative 10 ?ange in place on said neck, whereby said closure ?ange
can be applied to said container wall from the outside
and not in a limiting sense.
after said container is ‘otherwise completed and may be
Having described my invention, what I claim as new
removed and replaced without damaging said container.
and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
In container wall closure member combinations, a con
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
tainer wall formed with an opening therethrough and a 15
neck formed integrally from the stock of said container
wall ‘bordering said opening and extending directly up
wardly from said wall, a closure ?ange assembled with
said container wall and overlying said neck, said closure
?ange ‘being formed as a substantially tubular member, 20
the lower end of said closure ?ange Ibeing ‘formed with
an annular channel extending upwardly thereinto, said
neck being seated in said channel ‘and conforming sub
stantially to the contour of the same, said channel divid
ing said lower end of said ?ange into concentric inner
and outer portions, the radial extent of each of said in
ner and outer portions being materially greater than that
Murray _____________ .... Oct. 26, 1926
Murray _____________ .. Nov. 8, 1927
~Ironside _____________ __ Mar. 13, 1928
Curtis ______________ __ Nov. 29,
Bell ________________ __ Mar. 7,
Wackman ____________ __ May 13,
Proctor _____________ __ June 10,
Voglesong ___________ __ Sept. 7,
Anderson et al. _______ __ July 4,
Parish _____________ __ Aug. 28,
Karmazin ___________ __ Dec. 11,
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