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Патент USA US3080323

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United States Patent 0 "ice
tion‘ have higher'speci?c gravity than conventional white
oils of similar molecular weight range that contain large
proportions of aliphatic para?‘ins. The higher speci?c
gravity makes our oils superior for forming emulsions be
cause, as recognized in the art,-the closer the density of
Kenneth M. Beals and William A. Home‘, 0ai<rn0nt,-Pa.,
assignors to Gulf Research & Development Company,
Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Delaware
Patented Mar. 5,‘:1953
. .
an oil is to that of Water the more readily‘ it forms a stable
emulsion with water. To obtain satisfactory emulsions
No Drawing. Filed Nov. 24, 1959, Ser. No. 855,014
1 Claim. (Cl. 2438-168)
with conventional white oils having a high content of
open chain para?ins it has sometimes beenrnecessary to
include aromatics in’ the oil to raise the speci?c gravity or
to use an undesirably large amount of emulsifying agent.
However, aromatic are undesirable in cosmetic ‘and phar
maceutical products. Aromatics may be carcinogenic
and also are generally more reactive than ‘naphthenes and
oil fraction and to the novel'ligh't colored or colorless ‘oil
paraf?n's. Thus, because of the high speci?c gravity of _
compositions‘ consisting essentially of naphthenic hydro
the naphthenic oils of our‘ invention, they are'especially
carbons that are obtained thereby.
valuable for forming with Water stable emulsions to be
It is known in the art to prepare light colored or color
used as cosmetic or pharmaceutical lotions, ointments
less ‘lubricating oil fractions by severely acid treating a
or the like, that are essentially free of carcinogenic or re
straight run or partially re?ned lubricating oil fraction.
active aromatics.
The light'col'ored or white oil products of conventional
Even when physiological eifects are not a problem, ourv
treatments have a low or negligible content of aromatics;
oils are especially valuable in forming emulsion lubricants
They consist essentially of mixtures of paraffin and
because, being'naphthenic and’ thus of higher’ density
naphthenic hydrocarbons and have about the same
than para?inic' oils‘of the same molecular weight range,
This invention relates to a method for making high 10
purity, light colored petroleum oils and to the novel
products of the method. More particularly, it relates to_
a method comprising hydrocracking of a residual crude
molecular weight range or boiling range as the charge
We have now developed‘ a new method for producing
light colored or colorless lubricating oils of low viscosity‘
from heavy residual petroleum oil fractions. Our method
unexpectedly produces‘oils of novel‘ composition, speci?
they require smaller amounts of emulsifying agents or
other‘cont‘aminant's for‘forming'a stable‘ emulsion than
lower density paraf?nic oils. In comparison to oils that
are readily emul-si?able because of high density resulting
from aromatics content, our oils are less subject to chemi
cal deterioration. In 'fact, in all'of'the mentioned uses,
cally, oils that consist entirely or almost entirely of naph 30 stability against deterioration or‘ chemical change is a
valuable property of our naphthenic oils. This charac
synthetic, as evidenced by the fact that the end boiling
teristic is ‘especiall'yimpo'rtan't for'lubricants such as tex
point, or at least the 95 percent point, of the ‘novel product
tile machinery‘lubricantswhichv must not develop exces
is lower than the initial boiling point, or at least lower
colo'r'or acidity.
than the 5 percent point, of the charge stock. This in 35 sive
In general‘ the method of our invention, by which our
dicates that essentially every molecule‘ of the product
new products are made, comprises subjecting to severe
comes from‘a molecule of the‘ charge stock that has
hydrocracking' a heavy residual crude petroleum fraction
been chemically converted.
by contacting the hydrocarbon charge with a catalyst com
The novel oil products of our‘process are colorless or
prising one 'or'm'or'e' sul?des of metals of group Via of the
light colored, low viscosity lubricating oils which have‘
tablev at‘ a‘ temperature from 700° to‘ 800° F., a
excellent viscosity index~*an'd high speci?c gravity relat
pressure above‘ 1,500~ pounds per square inch gauge, a hy
ing to-conven'tional highly re?ned‘ white oils. They con
drogen to hydrocarbon'feed ratio from 2,500 to 10,000
sist almost entirely of naphthenes, being free of or sub
standard cubic‘ feet per barrel of hydrocarbon and at a
stantially free of aliphatic para?ins and having no more
liquid-hourly space velocity from 01410 1.5 volumes per
than a low content of aromatics, e.g., less than 5 mol per
volume per hour. ' 'Ih'e'hyd'rocracked' product is distilled
cent. By distillation and other re?ning treatments that‘
to recover alight lubricating oilv of which the initial boil
characterize the preferred form of our process they‘ can
ing'point is"above‘400° F‘. and of ‘which the end point, or
be freed completely of aliphatic para?i'ns and arimatics
at least the'95 percent point,‘ is lower than the initial‘ boiling
and rendered colorless, tasteless and‘ odorless.
point, or at least‘ lower than the‘ 5 percent point, of the
thenic'hy'dr’oc'arbons. These oils are substantially entirely~
Because of their unique composition and‘numerous‘
poses. They are suitable'for pharmaceutical and cosmetic
hydrocracking charge, said oil containing less than about
5 mol percent‘a'liphatic paraffins' and less than about 5 mol
percent aromatics: In a preferred embodimentthe light
purposeswherein"the'oils are solvents or carrier media
for active pharamaceutical' or cosmetic ingredients. They '
su?iciently high'that'the‘oikis free of aliphatic paraf’rlns
valuable qualities,’ the oils of our invention areivaluable
for many uses and are uniquely adapted for certain pur- '
lubricating oil'is distilled‘ to‘ an“ initial boiling point that is
and the oil is clay contacted‘ ‘and acid-treated to obtain
are also useful assolveuts or carriers for insecticides,
an oil that is also colorless ‘and ‘free of aromatics. In
their colorless quality making themv free from harmful
another preferred embodiment, dewaxing'is used to obtain
staining effects. Being colorless or light colored, the'light
a product of ‘low pouripoint.
lubricating oils of the invention are'valuable as lubricants‘
for textile and food ,machinery because they will‘ not 60 The product of our invention'is the naphthenic light
lubricating'oil obtained by the above method which is free
stain-the textile or food products. In these lubricating
of or substantially-free 10f aliphatieparaf?ns, (i.e., con
uses our products are especially valuable because of their
high viscosity indices.
Being almost entirely naphthenic, the oils of our inven->
tains less than about 5 mol percent aliphatic parafiius),
contains less than 5 mol percent aromatics, has a'viscosity
index of at least 90, and preferably at least 100, and an
Table I shows that our product is an almost water-white,
ASTM Union color lighter than 1.
lubricating oil. It is a light lubricating oil, having a Say
The method and product of our invention are illustrated
bolt Universal viscosity at 100° F. in the range of 55 to
75 seconds, and speci?cally of 69.6 seconds in the ex
by the following example.
ample. It has a high viscosity index, i.e., above 90, and
speci?cally the product of the example had a viscosity
The charge stock was a deasphalted residual fraction of
index of 110.
Ordovician crude oil having the following characteristics:
The distillation indicates that the oil is
substantially entirely a synthetic, hydrocracked product
Over point (° F.) ______________________ ..
2% at (° F.) __________________________ __
since its 90% distillation point is substantially lower than
the 10% distillation point of the residual charge stock.
The analysis shows that the oil is completely free of paraf
?ns and has a very low content of aromatics, namely, 2.8
percent mono-nuclear aromatics and 0.3 percent naphtha
lenes. The inspection data show various valuable prcper~
ties that are characteristic of the high purity naphthenic
5% at(°F.) __________________________ __
product, the high speci?c gravity being especially notable.
10% at (° F.) _________________________ __ 993
12.5% at (° F.) _______________________ __ 1000
The yields of different fractions of Example 1 give an
indication of the relationship of our product of the
Gravity, °API ____________________________ -_
Viscosity, SUS, at 210° F. '_ __________________ __
154 10
Iodine number ____________________________ __.
Color, Union, ASTM 13155-45 _______________ __
Distillation, vacuum corrected to 760 mm. Hg:
residuum charged to hydrocracking. In the hydrocrack
ing stage the yield of liquid product based on the hydro
‘This heavy oil was charged to a hydrocracking reactor
containing a ?xed bed of pelleted catalyst composed of
cracking residual charge stock was 104.6 volume percent.
nickel and tungsten sul?des in a mol ratio of 4:1. Reac
tion conditions included temperature of 745° to 775° F.,
pressure of 3,530 pounds per square inch gauge, hydrogen
rate of 5,000 standard cubic feet per barrel of hydrocar
bon and liquid-hourly space velocity of 0.5 volume of 25
hydrocarbon per volui .e of catalyst per hour.
The nor
mally liquid product from the hydrocracking operation
was subjected to atmospheric distillation to remove light
furnace oil, gasoline and lighter material. The remaining
product was distilled in a continuous vacuum column to
obtain a fraction boiling between furnace oil and 725° F.
(corrected to atmospheric pressure). This fraction was
re-run in a true-boiling point still to remove light ends and
After removal of light furnace oil and gasoline, the hydro
cracked product amounted to 72.3 volume percent of the
hydrocracking charge stock. Vacuum distillation of the
latter product produced our product as de?ned in Table
I in a yield of 10.8 volume percent of the vacuum tower
charge. In Example 1 there was also obtained from the
heavy residual hydrocracking charge stock a good yield
of furnace oil and of a highly naphthenic gasoline that is
an excellent reforming charge stock.
We have indicated that the starting material for our
process is an asphalt-free or deasphalted crude oil resid~
uum. The starting material can be any residuum ob
tained by vacuum or like distillation of any crude pe
The oil was treated with 35 troleum or residual fraction thereof which, after (lease
an oil was obtained having a viscosity at 100° F. of about
70 Saybolt Universal seconds.
fuller’s earth and ?ltered. Inspections of the product are
as follows:
Table I
Inspection data:
Gravity, ‘’ APT _______________________ __
phalting, has a viscosity at 210° F. of 90 to 200 Saybolt
Universal seconds. For instance, the residuum can be
prepared by vacuum distillation of a Pennsylvania, Mid
Continent, West Texas, Kuwait, etc., crude. Any con
Speci?c gravity ______________________ “0.8524
Viscosity, SUS:
40 vcntional deasphalting procedure can be used.
ably, the residuum is deasphalted by contact with a low
boiling hydrocarbon such as propane, propylene or butane
to precipitate asphalt which is then separated from the oil.
To hydrocrack the deasphalted residuum we employ a‘
solid catalyst which not only has high activity for satura-r
tion of aromatics but also high activity and selectivity for
100° F __________________________ .._
210° F __________________________ __
Viscosity index ______________________ __
Color, Union: ASTM D155-45 _________ _..
Flash point, 0.C., ° F.: ASTM D92-52 _____.
carbon-carbon bond scission. Such hydrocracking cata
that is introduced into the reactor to sul?de the catalyst.
Speci?c catalysts can consist of molybdenum sul?de, tung~
lysts are known in the art. They comprise the sul?des of
Fire point, 0.0., ‘’ F.: ASTM D92-52 ____ __
metals of group We of the periodic table mixed with a
Pour point, ° F.: ASTM D97-47 ________ __
50 sul?de of an iron group metal. The sul?de catalysts can
Refractory index, 70° C. ______________ _._ 1.4512
initially be in the oxide form and converted to sul?des in
Sulfur, percent _______________________ ....
the reaction zone by reaction with sulfur in the charge
Nitrogen, percent ____________________ __ 0.003
stock or with a sulfur compound such as hydrogen sul?de
Carbon residue, Conradson, percent: ASTM
_________________________ __
Copper strip test, 212° F., 3 hrs.: ASTM
D130-55T ________________________ __
Neutralization value, ASTM D974-54T: total
acid No. __________________________ __
Iodine No., mod. Hanus _______________ _._
Distillation, vacuum, corrected to 760 mm.
Over point (° F.) ________________ _.10% at (° F.) ___________________ __
___________________ .._
___________________ __
___________________ __
___________________ __
Hydrocarbon type analysis by high tempera
Non-condensed cyclo-alkanes ______ _._
Condensed cyclo-alkanes __________ __
Mono-nuclear aromatics __________ _..
Naphthalenes ____________________ __.
activity and selectivity for hydrocracking. Other satis
factory sul?de mixtures are cobalt sul?de-tungsten sul?de
and nickel sul?de-molybdenum sul?de mixtures. The
catalysts can be supported or unsupported.
696 65
The hydrocracking reaction conditions for our process
are of such severity as to produce an entirely synthetic
light lubricating oil product. The temperature can range
ture mass spectrometer, rnol percent:
Alkanes ________________________ __
sten sul?de or chromium sul?de mixed with a sul?de of
iron, cobalt and/ or nickel. A particularly desirable cata
lyst is a mixture of nickel sul?de and tungsten sul?de.
3.5 60 Such a catalyst containing from 1 to 4 mole of nickel per
mol of tungsten (calculated as metals) has especially high
from 700° to 800° F. and temperatures of 725° to 775°
F. are preferred. The pressure should be above 1,500
70 pounds per square inch gauge. There is no upper limit
on pressure but a pressure in the range of 2,000 to 4,000
pounds per square inch gauge is preferred because of the
excessive cost of equipment required for higher pressures.
A relatively low liquid-hourly space velocity is employed
sons to obtain severe hydrocracking. A suitable range,
for the space velocity is 0.4 to 1.5‘ volumes of liquid’
hydrocarbon per volume of catalyst per hour.
The hydrogen employed in the process can be pure
Acid Acid
cdnsumemwr. percent”, _________ .._,.._- 2,0.0
I _
White‘oil yield',vo1.percent ____ _. ________ __ 94,0,
hydrogen but hydrogen of lower purity such as a re
Sulffonate ‘yield, v01; percent; _____ ____,..___,--
former hydrogen stream containing about 80 mol percent
hydrogen works very well. If an impure hydrogen stream
is used, it is recommended that part ofthe recycle hydro;
gen be bled from the recyclestream or that a recyclehy
drogen clean-up procedure be used. The hydrogen-‘to 10
hydrocarbon ratio of the reactor charge, including recycle
and fresh hydrogen, should be from about 2,500 to 10,000
Table: II shows-that'sulfuric '- acid treatment‘v of 1 the ‘prod
standard cubic feet per barrel'of hydrocarbon charge.
uctof Table I-resulted in-a'white oil yield of 94' volume
The e?iuent from thehydrocracker is. normally‘ sub‘
percent with a rather low- acid? consumption. The prod-'4
jected to cooling and gas-liquid‘ separation to separate 15 uct is‘t’astele'ss, odorless, colorless: and-is substantially-en;
hydrogen and other light gases from the normally liquid
tirely naphthenic, the small content of aromatics‘hav‘ing'
hydrocarbons. The hydrogen-rich stream recovered in‘
been removed by the a‘cid'treatment; The cloudy and pour;
this manner can be recycled to the hydrocracking reaction.
points'of: the acid treated‘oil are entirely: satisfactory. for'
many'p‘urposes'but are rather high for some purposes;
The next step in the process, namely, dis-tillation of nor‘-v
The rather high values are probably the result of certain
mally liquid hydrocarbons of the hydrocracking e?iuent,
high meltingpoint naphthenic hydrocarbons being present
is of critical importance in ourv process. The liquid‘ef;
in‘theoil. The cloudand‘pour points canibei‘lowered by
?uent from the hydrocracking stage has a- full boiling
subjecting“ the oil to conventional dewaxing.‘ procedures;
range from gasoline to heavy lubricating oil and contains
para?in wax. The product'of our invention is recovered 25 For certain lubricatingspurposes for‘ which low. pour point
is desired the pour point can \also"be“reduce'd by adding
from this liquid by distillation. The gasoline and light
furnace oil can be distilled‘ off at atmospheric‘ pressure
but, in order to prevent decomposition of the heavier
fractions, our light'lub'ricating oil fraction is-recovered
by vacuum distillation. The product of‘ the invention is 30
recovered as a distillate fraction having an initial boiling
a small amount of any conventional pour point de-'
pressant such as “Acryloid 618” which is a" polymeth
In other operations in which the deasphalted Ordovician
residual fraction described in Example 1 was hydrocracked
point above 400° F. and a 95% point below 950° F., all
substantially in the manner of Example 1 we have used
temperatures being corrected to atmospheric pressure.
dewaxing in the product recovery procedure to obtain
Our preferred product, as shown in the example, is the
products of low pour point. In these runs the hydro
distillate fraction of the liquid hydrocracking e?iuent hav 35 cracking e?luent was subjected to gas separation and the
ing an initial boiling point above 450° F. and a 90%
liquid hydrocracking product was subjected to atmos
pheric distillation with steam stripping to remove light
point below 750° F.
furnace oil, gasoline and lighter products. The remaining
Although our procedure of severe hydrocracking of
selected stocks and selective distillation of the product 40 product was then subjected to solvent dewaxing with meth
y-l ethyl ketone and employing a rotary ?lter, the dewax
thereof will produce a novel and valuable light colored
ing conditions being such as to produce the desired pour
light lubricating oil without further treatment, we prefer,
point for the ultimate product. In Example 2 the de
as indicated in the example, to subject the light lubricating
waxed product was subjected to continuous vacuum dis
oil distillate to clay contacting. This can be carried out
in accordance with known procedure wherein the oil is 45 tillation and in Example 3 was subjected to precise, batch,
vacuum distillation, in each instance to recover a light
mixed with powdered ?lter clay such as fuller’s earth.
lubricating oil having substantially the composition of the
The oil-clay slurry is held at elevated temperature, e.g.,
products of the invention. The properties of the light
200° to 600° F. for several minutes and is then pumped
lubricating oil fractions obtained as products of these two
through a ?lter press to separate the clay from the oil. 50 runs are listed in Table III.
The main result of this procedure is further to decolorize
Table III
the oil, although even without the clay contacting step
our product is substantially colorless or of very light
Inspection Date
Example Example
As shown in Table I the product of our process, al 55
Gravity, °API __________________________________ ..
though free of paraiiins, may have a small content of
Speci?c Gravity.............. ._
0. 8428
. 5
aromatics, i.e., less than about 5 mol percent. To obtain
viscpgégy, SUSO 8 63
a completely naphthenic white oil that is completely color
_ _ . . . ..
58. 9
_ . _ . . _ . _ . _ -.
35. 0
35. 6
less, tasteless and odorless, we can subject the hydro
cracked light lubricating oil of the invention to conven
Viscosity Index ____________________________ ._
tional acid treating. A suitable acid treating procedure
involves contacting the oil in a series of batch treatments
with small amounts of sulfuric acid (e.g., 5 Weight percent
of the oil) using 20 percent oleum (104-105 percent
H2804) for each treating shot. After contaeting with
the acid the sulfonate sludge is settled, the oil is decanted
._. _ . . ._ _ _.. . .
_ _ . _.. .__
. . _ _ __ __.
Pour Points, ° F.; AS'I‘M D9747
Sulfur, percent ____________ _-
0. 04
Iodine No., Mod. Hauus____
Color, Union, ASTM D155-4
Carbon Residue, Conradson, percent : ASTM
Neutralization Value, ASTM D974~54Tz Total
Acid l\_To
Distillation, Vacuum, Corrected to 760 mm. Hg:
Over Point (°F.) ............................ ._
and the procedure is repeated several times. Preferably,
95% at (°F.) _________________________________ _the oil is then neutralized by washing with a solution of a 70 Hydrocarbon
Type Analysis by High Tempere
basic substance, e.g., sodium carbonate solution, The
washed neutral oil is air dried and is then ?ltered with
adsorbent clay. Our product of Table I has been sub
jected to sulfuric acid treatment substantially in the man
ner described with the following results.
........ -
ture Mass Spectrometer, M01 percent:
Alkanes ______________________ __
Non-condensed cyclosalkaues
Condensed cyclo-alkanes__
Mono-nuclear aromatics..Naphthalenes ............... __
3. 2
1. 3
08. 8
2. 2
25. 3
3. 1
0. 2
0. 2
The above table shows that conventional dewaxing
sidual petroleum crude oil fraction having a viscosity at
can be used to produce products of the invention of low
210° F. or at least 90 SUS with a hydrocracking cata
lyst comprising a sul?de of a group VIa metal and a
sul?de of an iron group metal in the presence of hydro
pour point, for example, —30‘’ F. in Example 2 and —5°
F. in Example 3. The products of these examples had
a small content of alkanes but can be rendered essentially
gen under severe hydrocracking conditions, said condi
free of alkanes if distilled to a somewhat higher initial
tions including a temperature from 700° to 800° F., a
boiling point or 10 percent point, the reason being that
pressure above 1,500 pounds per square inch gauge, a
the alkanes are in the light end of the product. The pre
hydrogen concentration from 2,500 to 10,000 standard
ferred products of our invention are essentially free of
cubic feet per barrel of hydrocarbon and a liquid-hourly
open chain para?ns, as in Example 1, but products such 10 space velocity from 0.4 to 1.5 volumes of liquid hydro
as Examples 2 and 3 which have a small content of al
carbon per volume of catalyst per hour, fractionally dis
kanes, e.g., less than about 5 mol percent, have many
of the valuable properties that characterize the products
of the invention. Thus, the products of Examples 2 and
3 have high speci?c gravity, high viscosity, index, light
color and are composed almost entirely of naphthenic
tilling the liquid hydrocarbon product from this hydro~
cracking operation, separating a distillate fraction which
consists essentially of naphthenic hydrocarbons and less
15 than 5 mol percent each of aliphatic and aromatic hy
hydrocarbons. They also have good stability. The
drocarbons, which fraction has a viscosity at 100° F. of
between about 55 and 75 SUS, which fraction has a vis
cosity index of at least 90, which fraction has an initial
product of Example 3 was maintained at 210° F. for 48
hours and no color change was observed. The product
boiling point above about 450° F., and which fraction has
did form a small precipitate when exposed to light for 20 a 90 percent boiling point below about 750° F. and
4 days, but a similar product which had been clay treated
subjecting said fraction to‘ acid and clay treatment.
did not change after 30 days exposure to light.
Obviously many modi?cations and variations of the in
Ivention as hereinbefore set forth may be made without
departing from the spirit and scope thereof and therefore 25
only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated
in the appended claim.
We claim:
A method for producing light colored medicinal min
eral oil which comprises contacting a deasphaltcd re
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Voorhies ____________ __ May 22,
Mikeska et al. ________ __ Apr. 14,
Lanning _____________ __ Aug. 11,
Hemminger et al _______ __ Apr. 26,
Beuther et a1. _________ __ Jan. 3,
Patent No, 3,080,313
March 5, 1963
Kenneth M, Beals et a1,
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 1, line 48, for "arima'tics" read —— aromatics M;
column 2, line 12, for "aromatic" read —— aromatics ——;
column 3, line 51, for "Refractory" read —— Refractive ——;
column 4, line 18, for ."of", third occurrence, read -—— to ——;
column 6, Table III, third column, line 2 thereof, for
“O,856,8" read —~~— 0,8463 ——; column 7, line 15, after "viscosity"
strike‘ out
the comma;
Signed and sealed this 8th day of October 1963.,
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