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Патент USA US3080476

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March 5, 1963
K. H. DATE
3,080,467
ARC EXTINGUISHING CHAMBERS
Filed Jan'. 20, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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March 5, 1963
K. H. DATE
3,080,467
ARC EXTINGUISHING CHAMBERS
Filed Jan. 20, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
mulw‘nub_ldv
INVENTOR.
Razz/0 iz/ervy Date
BY
admit
?ttor'mf
United States Patent 0 ” ice
333% lid?
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Fla-rented Mar. 5, sees
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assess?
All-C
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Kassie Henri’ Bate, South ltlilwauhee, Wis“,
to
ltle?ranildison Gonipany, h’iilwauhee, Wise, a corpse
ration
lilelawarc
Filed .‘ian. 20, 19652, ear. No. 3,654
3 Claims. (61. seem-rec‘;
her 26, 1954 and assigned to the instant ‘.i'sslgnee. It will
be understood that the arc extinguishing chamber is im
mersed entirely beneath the circuit interrupter’s dielectric
oil.
The extinguishing chamber it; comprises a cylindrical
tube 11 composed of any suitable insulating material, such
as moulded resin, and in which a high current portion 12
and a low current portion 314 are arranged coaxially near
its lower end. A stationary contact 16 is disposed in tube
This invention rel .tes to circuit interrupters or “is liquid
immersed type and more particularly to are extinguishing 10 ll above the high current portion 12 and a movable con
tact rod 1%, engageable with fixed contact it», extends co~
chambers for such circuit interrupters.
axially through arc extinguishing portions 12 and 145 and
An object of this invention is to provide a new and
from the lower end of tube Ill. The are extinguishing
improved arc extinguishing chamber for interrupting both
high and low magnitude overcurrents.
chamber iii is suitably mounted in the circuit breaker by
tion of the invention taken in view of the accompanying
current interrupting portion 12 is composed of a plurality
of stacked, non-conducting ?brous plates. These include
Another object of the invention is to provide an arc 15 means or" an insulating bracket member 1“? and a trans
verse rnounting tube 2b. The current path through cham
extinguishing chamber with vents which provide adequate
ber ltl is from a conductive stud 21, which extends through
pressure relief area but do not permit elongation of the
the upper end of tube 11 and which is adapted to be con
arc.
’
nected to one of the circuit breaker’s terminals (not
~ It is a further object of the invention to provide an arc
shown), to the ?xed and movable contacts 16 and 18, and
20
extinguishing chamber in which the are core is vented
then through a conductive movable contact carrier arm
through a plurality of long narrow interconnected slots to
22, upon which the movable contact 18 is carried. In
provide a maximum of exhaust velocity.
order to prevent tube 11 from becoming charred ‘during
A still further object of the invention is to provide a
an interrupting operation, a ?bre arcing sleeve 24 is dis
novel means for indexing the insulating plates used to
posed on the inner surface thereof and around ?xed con
form are extinguishing chambers.
tact 16.
These and other objects and advantages of the inven~
Considering FIG. 4, it will be observed that the high
tion will become more apparent from the detailed descrip
drawings in which:
venting plates 3n’? having elongate, longitudinally extend
FIG. 1 is an elevational view, partly in section, of an 30
ing, U»shaped slots 32 cut in their front edges and reser
voir
plates 34 having longitudinally extending V -shaped
' FIG. 2 is a view taken along lines 2-2 of FIG. 1;
slots cut in its rear edges. Upper and lower end plates
7 FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along lines 3-§ of
37 and 33, respectively, are disposed at each end of por
FIG. 1; and
tion 12 and each has an aperture 39‘ for slidably receiving
"FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective view showing the
the movable contact 18.
individual plates which comprise the interrupting chant
Slots 32 and 36 are of su?cient length so that their
ber and the arrangement thereof; and
_
innermost
portions dd and 41, respectively, overlap to
FIG. 5 is a view taken along lines 5-5 of FIG. 4.
form a continuous bore 43 through portion 12 and which
In general terms, the invention comprises an arc-ex
tinguishing unit for a circuit interrupter of the liquid di 40 is in register with the apertures 39 in end plates 3'? and
38. Also, because the length of plates
and 3d exceeds
electric type having a longitudinal bore and a plurality of
interrupting chamber according to the instant invention;
elongate venting passages extending la orally therefrom,
said passages being characterized by substantially linear
vsidewalls and whose widths are several times larger than
their height, whereby appreciable venting area is provided
without aflo-rding sui'licient height in the direction parallel
to said bore to permit the
to elongate through said
vents. In addition, the length of the venting passages is
preferably several times larger than its Width so that the
products of arcing will be relieved at a high velocity.
‘ The are extinguishing chamber may comprise, accord
ing to a more specific aspect of the invention, a plurality
of contiguously disposed insulating plates forming a stack
the diameter of tube ll, as seen in FIGS. 1 and 4, a lon
gitudinal opening 4-5 is provided in one side of tube 11 for
receiving one side of the high current portion 12. In ad
dition, because the length of slots 32 is greater than the
length of slots 35, ‘bore 43 is substantially coaxial with
tube 1% and movable contact 18.
The ?brous plates or" portion 12 are so arranged that
.s of reservoir plates 34 separate each of the venting
ates 3% except the lowermost two which are separated
- single reservoir plate 3st. in addition, the upper
the upper and lower end plates 37 and 38 respectively.
This arrangement provides a plurality of laterally ex
‘and having a longitudinal bore for con?ning the are over
a substantial portion of its length. Spaced apart ones or" 55 tending vents 44 formed by slots 32 and the surfaces of
plates 3-’!- and which connect one side of bore 43 to the
said plates are provided with an elongate venting slot cut
exterior of the chamber 1%. it can also be seen from
longitudinally through one end while the "remaining plates
ill-G. 1 that the thickness of each venting plate 30 is
have imperforate surfaces adjacent said venting slots to
substantially s iraller than the width of slots 32 and ap
form therewith a plurality of elongate venting passages
proximately one~half the thickness of the reservoir plates
60
extending laterally of said bore.
as so that the height of vents 4:14, in the axial direction,
According to a further aspect of the invention, a pres
is much smaller than their width and the spacing be
sure chamber is disposed below the interrupting unit and
tween the adjacent vents. By proportioning the cross
in communication therewith wherein the movable con
tact, which draws the arc, resides in said pressure cham
section of venting passages
in this manner, a relative
ly large total venting area can be attained while the slot
65
ber when it is in its fully opened position.
height is maintained at a minimum. This provides suf—
Referring no r to the drawings in greater detail FIG. 1
iicient venting area to adequately relieve the gaseous
shows the novel are extinguishing chamber according to
products of arcing while at the same time preventing
the instant invention which is designated by the general
reference numeral ill and which is adapted for use in an
oil immersed circuit interrupter such as the one described
in Patent No. 2,692,925 issued to C. Schindler on Gcto
the elongation of the are by its displacement into said
vents. In addition, the length of slots
plus the dis
tcance between them also helps to con?ne the arc in the
ore 43.
3
3,080,467
4
The reservoir plates 34 are so arranged that slots 35
ermost vents 44, through which most of these gases dis
extend from bore 43 toward the rear of tube It to pro
charge, are disposed closer together than the, remainder.
vide a plurality of oil reservoirs 46 on the opposite side
As seen in FIG. 5, the plates which form the high cur-
of bore 4,3 relative to vents 44. These reservoirs are de
rent portion 12 are indexed by means of a pair of em
bossed areas 70 and 71 which are formed at suitable lo
?ned by slots 36, the surfaces of plates 30 and the inner
surface of tube Ill.
cations on each.
With reference to FIGS. 1, 3 and 4, it can be seen
In this manner, the plates can be
stacked without the necessity for pins or rods utilized in
that the high current portion 12 is mounted in tube 11
by a groove 5d formed on the interior thereofopposite
prior art devices. In the illustrated embodiment, these
areas are formed by partially stamping a pair of small
opening 45, and having substantially the same width, for 10 cylindrical sections from each plate so that the protrud
receiving the inner ends of plates 30 and 34. In addi
tion, an apertured stop plate 54 is disposed in the end of
transverse mounting tube 29 and held in abutment with
the upper and lower end plates 37 and 38 by a metallic
retaining ring 56 which is disposed in a suitably formed 15
groove Sid-on the interior of tube 20. The outer end of
each of the plates 30 and 34 is reduced to form a shoul
der 59 for abutment with the edges of the apertures in
stop plate 54.
ing portions of one plate will be received into the re
cessed portion of the plate immediately below it.
While only a single embodiment of the invention has
been shown and described, other modi?cations will be
suggested once the inventive concept is known. Accord
ingly, it is intended to cover in the appended claims all
modi?cations that fall within the true spirit of the in
vention.
I claim:
I
.
The low current interrupting portion 14- comprises a 20
1. In a circuit breaker of the oil-immersed type, an
substantially closed cylindrical chamber 55 located below
arc extinguishing unit, ?xed and movable contact means
portion 12 and separated therefrom by ‘a ?ber disc 60.
for establishing an are within said unit, said unit including
Portion 14 is de?ned by a disc 64?, a ?ber sleeve 61 dis
a substantially enclosed pressure chamber spaced from
posed. on the inner surface of tube 11, and at its lower
said stationary contact means, a plurality of contiguously
margin by a second ?ber disc 61. Discs 6t) and 62 each
disposed insulating plates forming a, stack, said staclr
have a coaxial aperture 63 for. slidably receiving mov
being disposed between said stationary contact means-and
able contact 13. Portion 14 is aiiixed in the tube lid by
said pressure chamber and de?ning a substantially enclosed
a retaining ring dddisposed below it in a suitably formed
arc chamber havinga longitudinal bore for con?ning the
groove 65 at the lower end of tube it}.
are over a substantial portion of its length, spaced apart
During the interruption of a large fault current, mov
ones of said plates having U-shaped, elongate venting,
able contact 18 is moved out of engagement with ?xed
slots cut in one end thereof and intersecting said bore,
contact 16, drawing an arc therebetween. The high en
said spaced apart ones of said plates also having an im»
ergy of the arc decomposes the dielectric ?uid in bore
perforate portion extending from the oppositeside of said
43 and the adjacent ?uid in reservoirs 46, to produce
bore, the opposite sides of said slots being substantially
ionized gases and vapor. As a result, the pressure within
portion 12 rises rapidly, and when it reaches a predeter
mined value, it is relieved through slots 44 at an ex
perforate surfaces adjacent said venting slots to form there
tremely high velocity. The height of slots 44 is kept at
laterally of said bore for interconnecting it with the ex
an extremely small value to insure that the arc is not
lengthened as the hot gases are relieved. This is ex
tremely important because are energy is a function of
arc length as well as are voltage, are current and dura
tion. On the other hand, the width of slots 44 is made
relatively large to provide su?icient venting area so that
the internal pressure does not rupture tube 11.
In addition, the length of the slots are su?iciently long
to insure that the gases are exhausted at an extremely
high velocity. This causes these gases to vaporize and
cool as they travel down the slot, thereby cooling the are
core and removing electrons and ions necessary for the
arc to restrike after the alternating current passes through
zero. This high velocity is aided by making the sidewalls
of vents 44 substantially parallel. Also, making the
sidewalls parallel reduces the possibility that erosion or"
the plates during arc interruption will appreciably change i
the area of the opening. It can be seen, therefor, that
the con?guration of slots 44 plays an important role in
the dissipation of are energy so that the arc will be
extinguished. Ef?cient results have been obtained where
the ratio of slot width to height is approximately six to
one and the ratio of length to width is approximately
three to one.
When the device is called upon to interrupt a rela
tively low current overload, the pressure developed in
portion 12 is not sufficient to deionize the are core prior
to the time that the end of movable contact 13 reaches
its fully opened position, wherein its upper end is dis
posed within' chamber 55. However, when the movable
parallel, the remaining plates in said stack having im~
with a plurality of elongate venting passages extending
terior of said unit, said remaining plates being perforate
on the opposite side of said bore for providing a plurality
of oil reservoirs, the widths of said slots being substantially
smaller than their lengths and several times larger than
the thickness of said venting plates, whereby appreciable
venting area is provided while the dimension of said pas
sages in the direction parallel to said bore is limited, one
of said plates de?ning the margin between said pressure
chamber and said are chamber and being substantially
imperforate except for an opening in register with said bore
for communicating with said vents, those venting passages
immediately adjacent said pressure chamber being more
closely spaced to each other than those venting passages
more remote from said pressure chamber, the end ofsaid
movable contact residing in said pressure chamber when
the same is in its fully opened position.
2. In a circuit breaker of the oil immersed type, an
arc-extinguishing unit, means including a movable con—
tact for establishing an are within said unit, said unit
including a plurality of ‘contiguously disposed insulating
plates forming a stack for de?ning a substantially en
closed arc chamber, said plates having perforations which
provide a longitudinal bore for con?ning the arc for a
substantial portion of its length, spaced apart ones of said
plates having U-shaped, elongate venting slots cut in one
end thereof and intersecting said perforations, the oppo
site sides of said slots being substantially parallel, those
plates between said spaced-apart plates having imperforate
surfaces adjacent said venting slots to form therewith a
plurality of elongate venting passages extending laterally
contact 18 reaches this position, a long dielectric gap is
of said bore for interconnecting it with the exterior of said
provided between it and stationary contact 16. In addi 70 unit, the widths of said slots being substantially smaller
7 tion, as the dielectric ?uid vaporizes in chamber 55, the
pressure will build up to a point where it will discharge
rapidly out of the lower ones of vents 44, thereby eifec~
tively deionizing the arc in the manner discussed with
respect to a high current fault. For this reason the low’
than their length and several times larger than the thick
ness of said venting plates whereby appreciable venting
area is provided while limiting the dimension of said
passages in the direction parallel to said bore, said unit
including a pressure-chamber disposed below said plates
3,080,467
5
and having an opening in register with said bore for com
munication with said vents, the end of said movable contact
residing within said pressure chamber when the same is in
its fully opened position, those venting passages adjacent
said pressure chamber having a closer spacing than those
passages more remote therefrom, said pressure chamber
having a pair of axial openings for receiving said movable
contact and being otherwise imperforate.
3. The device set forth in claim 2 wherein each of said
plates having a plurality of embossed portions providing 10
an elevation on one surface of the plate and a depression
on the other surface thereof, the elevation on each of said
plates being in register with the depression on the adjacent
plate whereby said plates may be indexed without the
use of additional members.
6
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,981,404
2,416,185
2,488,131
2,647,973
2,714,645
2,717,294
2,874,338
Whitney et a1 __________ __ Nov. 20, 1934
78,851
532,128
Sweden _______________ __ Nov. 7, 1933
Great Britain __________ __ Jan. 17, 1941
France ________________ __ May 6, 1957
Leeds ________________ __ Feb. 18, 1947
Leeds _______________ __ Nov. 15, 1949
Umphrey _____________ __ Aug. 4, 1953
Salzer ________________ __ Aug. 2, 1955
Balentine _____________ __ Sept. 6, 1955
Pease ________________ __ Feb. 17, 1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
1,145,488
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