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Патент USA US3080497

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March 5, 1963
.1.5. Muçœn
3,080,492
ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE MECHÀNISM
Filed Dec. _178, 1959
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____
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J. F. MULLER
'È’MCMM
A 7` TUR/VE V
United States Patent .Office
1
3,686,492
ELECTRÜMÀGNETIC BREVE MECHAl’tJiSh/i
fohn F. Muller, Summit, NJ., assigner to Beit Telephone
Laboratories, incorporated, New York, NE., a cor
poration of New York
Filed Dec. 18, 1959, Ser. No. äôtißilâ
3,080,492
Patented Mar. 5, 1963
2
A feature of the invention resides in providing a means
for varying the amount of travel of the armature so that
the amount of movement obtained with each energization
of the coil can be accurately preselected.
A complete understanding of the invention and of these
and other features and advantages thereof may be gained
15 Claims. (Cl. 31o-2l)
from consideration of the following detailed description
taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing
This relates to electromagnetic devices and particularly
wherein one embodiment of the invention is illustrated. It
to step-by-step drive mechanisms.
10 is to be expressly understood, however, that the drawing
It is often desirable in electromechanical systems t0
move a component small increments of distance in re
sponse to electrical pulses. One way of accomplishing the
is for the purposes of illustration and description and is
not to be construed as defining the limits of the invention.
in the drawing:
desired movement is by means of an electromagnetic
FIG. l is a perspective view of the electromagnetic
device that operates in conjunction with a tape to produce 15
step-by-step drive mechanism of this invention;
relative motion between the tape and itself, either the
FIG. 2 is a front elevation of the drive mechanism in
tape or the electromagnetic device being secured to the
a de-energized condition;
component to be moved. Heretofore, most mechanisms
FIG. 3 is a side elevation of FIG. 2;
of this type have utilized a reciprocating toothed or forked
FIG.
4 is a front elevation of a portion of the drive
element and a perforated tape. The toothed element 20
mechanism showing the first of the sequence of move
moves into the holes in the tape, advances the tape rela
ments upon the energization of the coil wherein the shunt
tive to the device or the device relative to the tape, moves
member moves against the armature, thereby bridging the
out of the holes in the tape, and returns to its original
low permeability gap therein and clamping the tape there
position. With this type of mechanism there is the prob
against;
lem of properly registering the toothed element in and 25
FIG. 5 is a front elevation of the drive mechanism
out of the holes in the tape. In addition, there is the limi
tation of being unable to change the amount of movement
`obtained with each energization of the mechanism without
having to change the stroke of the toothed element and
change the spacing between the holes in the tape.
An object of this invention is to provide an improved
electromagnetic step-by-step drive mechanism.
showing the second of the sequence of movements upon
the energization of the coil wherein the armature moves
against the core along a predetermined path; and
FÍG. 6 is a front elevation of a portion of the drive
mechanism showing the first of the sequence of move
ments upon the de-energization of the coil wherein the
Specifically, an object of this invention is to provide an
electromagnetic drive mechanism that operates in con
shunt member moves away from the armature, thereby
freeing the tape while the armature is still positioned
junction with a tape but utilizes no toothed or forked ele
ments and requires no perforation of the tape.
Another object of this invention is to provide an elec
Referring now to the drawings and particularly to
FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, the drive mechanism comprises a base
tromagnetic drive mechanism that with each energization
against the core.
l@ having arm portions 12 and 14 of a core 16 fastened
thereto and extending approximately perpendicularly
thereof moves itself through a small accurate distance
with respect to a tape or moves the tape through a small 40 therefrom. A body portion 18 of the core extends be
tween the arm portions a spaced distance from the base,
accurate distance with respect to itself.
and a coil 2t? is disposed about the body portion. The base
A further object of this invention is to provide an elec
is formed from a non-magnetic material, such as alumi
tromagnetic drive mechanism in which the distance moved
num, and the core is formed from a magnetic material
with each energization thereof may be easily changed.
having high permeability and low hysteresis loss, such as
A still further object of this invention is to provide an
electromagnetic drive mechanism that is comparatively 45 permalloy. The coil is wrapped with a suitable insulating
wrapping material, such as cellulose acetate.
inexpensive to manufacture, simple in construction and
Leaf springs 22 and 24 are respectively fastened to
operation, and reliable in performance.
the ends of the base it) and extend approximately per
These and other objects of the invention are realized
pendicularly therefrom. The leaf springs are preferably
in an illustrative embodiment thereof wherein the drive
mechanism comprises a core, a coil disposed about the 50 made of a material vhaving a high degree of resiliency,
core, and an armature movable between a ñrst and `a sec
ond position along a predetermined path. Biasing means
normally maintains the armature in the first position while
high tensile strength, and good resistance to fatigue, such
as Phosphor bronze. Suspended between the leaf springs
is an armature assembly 26 comprising a first section 28,
a second section Si?, and spacers 32 and 34. The first sec
energization of the coil moves the armature to the second
tion
23 is fastened to the leaf spring 22 through the spacer
55
position. The armature has a low permeability gap there
52 while the second section 39 is fastened directly to the
in, and a magnetic shunt member is mounted on the
leaf spring 24. The spacer 34 joins the two sections and
armature adjacent to the gap. The shunt member is
holds
the facing ends thereof a spaced distance apart.
mounted so that it is normally spaced from the armature,
The two sections are made of a magnetic material having
but upon energization of the coil, the shunt member moves
against the armature to form a magnetic bridge for the 60 high permeability and low hysteresis loss, such as perm
alloy, and the spacers are made of a nonmagnetic
gap. Positioned between the shunt member and the
materia-l, such as aluminum. Thus the space between the
armature is a tape that extends along the path of move
facing ends of the sections forms a low permeability gap
ment of the armature. When the coil is energized, first
35 in the armature assembly.
the shunt member moves against the armature, clamping
the tape against the armature, and then the armature 65
moves along its predetermined path, moving the tape
therewith. When the coil is de-energized, first the shunt
The two sections 28 and 3th of the armature assembly
26 combine to form an L.-shaped member, a leg 36 of
wln'ch extends approximately parallel to the leaf springs
member moves from the armature, freeing the tape, and
then the biasing means returns the armature to its original
22 and 24 and a leg 38 of which extends approximately
relative motion between the armature and the tape.
movement of the assembly along a path that is approxi
perpendicular to the leaf springs. The leaf springs per
position. Each energization of the coil thereby produces 70 mit the armature assembly to move, and they guide the
mately parallel to the plane of the leg 36, maintaining
ansa-192
-
3
d
What is claimed is:
l. An electromagnetic drive mechanism comprising
the leg 33 a small distance from the arm portion 14 of
the core 16. In addition, the leaf springs bias the arma
an armature movable between a lirst and a second posi
ture assembly so that normally the leg 36 is a predeter
tion, said armature having a low permeability gap therein,
mined distance from the arm portion 12 of the core.
means for biasing said armature toward said first position,
The magnitude of the distance between the leg 36 and
a magnetic shunt member for bridging said low permea
the arm portion 12 is determined by a screw d@ mounted
bility
gap in said armature, said shunt member being of
in the leg 38. The bias of the leaf springs 22 and 24
larger size than said gap and overlying the gap and a
brings the screw to bear against the arm portion 14 of
surface of said armature adjacent to said ga , said shunt
the core, and so, by moving theV screw to the left as
member further being coupled to the `armature and mov
10
viewed in FIG. 2, the distance between the leg 36 and
ing therewith, means for biasing said shunt member to a
the arm portion 12 is decreased; and by moving the screw
position ‘a spaced distance from said armature surface, a
to the right, the distance between the leg 36 and the arm
driven` member extending between the shunt member and
portion 12 is increased. The distance between the leg
the armature, and a coil mounted in a magnetically ener
36- and the arm portion l2 is the distance movedv by the
relationship to said armature, said coil when. ener
electromagnetic drive mechanism with each energization 15 gizing
gized
sequentially
moving said shunt member against the
of the coil- Zit, and therefore the screwï is the means by
armature,
clamping
the driven member therebetween, and
which this distance can be varied. Although a simple
then moving the armature to said second position, and
screw is shown, a barrel type micrometer screw or any
other _type of positioning means could be used to provide
a more accurate- means of selecting the amount of move
said. coil when de-energized permitting said shunt biasing
20 means4 to return saidt shunt member to said spaced posi
tion, freeing said driven member, and then permitting said
ment of the drive lmechanism. The screw is advantageous
armature biasing means to. return said sar-mature to said'
ly made of a nonmagnetic material, such- as aluminum.
first
position.
The arms of a U-shaped spring member d2, most
2. The electromagnetic drive mechanism as in claimv l
clearly shown in FIG. l, are fastened to the leg 3S of the
the driven member is a tape.
armature assembly 26, and the closed end of the spring 25 wherein`
3. An electromagnetic drive mechanism comprising an
is fastened to a- shunt member 4d. ‘The spring positions
armature movable between a first and ya second position,
the shunt parallel to the leg 3S and adjacent to the low
said armature having a low permeability gap therein,
permeability gap 35 in the leg. Furthermore, the spring ,j means for biasing said armature toward. said first posi
allows the shunt to move normal to the leg and normally
tion, »a magnetic shunt member for bridging the low per
biases the` shunt a predetermined distance from the leg. 30 meability gap-in said armature, said shunt member being
The biasing force exerted by the spring is thev same as, or
of larger size than said gap` and overlying the gap and' a
smaller than, the biasing force exerted by the leaf springs
surface of said armature adjacent to the gap, means for
22 and 24, and the distance between the shunt 44 and the
biasing. said shunt member to a position a spaced distance
leg 38 is substantially smaller than the> distance between
from said armature surface, and a coil mounted in a mag
the armature leg 36 and the arm portion 14 of the core 35
16. The size of the shunt is such that the ends thereof
overlap the magnetic gap and are in juxtaposition with
netically energizing relationship to said armature, said
coil> when. energized sequentially moving said shunt mem
ber against said armature surface and then moving the
portions of the leg on both sides of the gap, andthe mass
armature to. said second position, and said coil when> de
of the shunt- is substantially smaller than the mass ofthe
energized permitting said shunt biasing mems and said
armature assembly. Positioned between the shunt and 40 armature biasing means to respectively .sequentially re
the armature leg 3i; is a tape 46 (shown in phantom) that
turn said- shunt member to said' spaced position and said
extends between the arms of the spring and along the
armature to said first position.
plane of the leg. The shunt is `rnade from a'magnetic
4‘. An electromagnetic drive mechanism comprising an
material having high permeability and low hysteresis loss,
armature
movable between a` first and a second posit-ion,
such as permalloy, and the spring is made from a ma
saidï armature having a low permeability gap therein,
terial having a high degree of resiliency, high tensile
means for biasing said armature toward said iirst position,
a magnetic shunt member for bridging the low permeabil
ity gapl in said armature, said shunt member being of
a` fair degree of tensile strength.
_
larger size than said> gap and- overlying the gap and a
In the operation of the drive mechanism, when the coil 50 surface of' said armature adjacent to the gap, means for
20 is energized, the shunt member 44 moves against the
biasing said shunt» member to a position a spaced- distance
'armature leg 38, as shown in FIG. 4, thereby clamping
from said‘ armature surface, and a coil mounted in a mag
the tape 46 between it and the leg, and then, as shown in
netically energizi'ngl relationship to said armature, said
FIG». 5, the armature leg 36 moves against the arm por
coil when energized sequentially moving said shunt mem
tion 12 of the core 16, moving the armature assembly 26 55
ber
against said armature surface and then moving the
and thereby the tape a predetermined distance to the
armature to said` second position, the movement of said
right. When the coil is de-energized, the spring member
shunt member being generally normal to the movement
42 moves the shunt away from the armature leg 38, as
of said armature.
shown in FIG. 6, freeing the tape, and then, as shown in
5. An electromagnetic drive mechanism comprising an
strength, and good resistance to fatigue, such as Phosphor
bronze. The tape may be made of any material having
FIG. 2, the leaf springs 22 and 24 move the armature 60 armature movable between a first and a second position,
assembly back to its original position. Repeated pulsing
said armature having a low permeability gap therein,
of the coil causes step-by-step relative motion between
means for biasing said' armature toward said first position,
the drive mechanism and the tape.
a magnetic shunt member for bridging the low permeabil
Although the armature shown moves along an approxi
ity
gap in said armature, said shunt member being of
65
mately rectilinear path, the guide means of the armature
larger size than said gap and overlying the gap and a sur
assembly could be modified to directthe armature along
face of said armature adjacent to the gap, means for
biasing said> shunt member to a position a spaced distance
any predetermined path. In addition, althoughV the drive
from said armature surface, anda coil mounted in a `mag
mechanism disclosed utilizes both, a core and an armature,
a solenoid type of arrangement, wherein a single member 70 netically energizing relationship to said armature, said
coil when energized sequentially moving said shunt mem
functions as both, could be used. These and other changes
ber against said armature surface rand then moving the
‘may be made in the design and arrangement of the various
elements of the electromagnetic drive mechanism without
departing from the spirit and scope of the accompanying
claims.
'
armature to said second position.
6. An electromagnetic drive mechanism compris-ing
an armature movable between a ñrst and a second posi~
5
3,080,492
tion, said armature having a low permeability gap therein,
means for biasing said armature toward said first position,
a magnetic shunt member for bridging the low permea
bility gap in said armature, 4said shunt member being of
6
said bridging means against the armature, clamping the
driven member therebetween, and then moving the arma»
ture to said second position, and said coil when de-ener~
gized permitting said biasing means Iacting upon said
larger size than said gap -and overlying the gap and a
surface of said armature adjacent to the gap, means for Ul bridging means to move said bridging means away from
said armature, freeing said driven member, and then per
biasing said shunt member to va position a spaced distance
mitting said armature biasing means to return said arma
from said Iarmature surface, and a coil mounted in a
ture to said íirst position.
magnetically energizing relationship to said armature, said
l0. An electromagnetic drive mechanism as in claim
coil when energized moving said armature to said second
9 wherein the bridging means is secured to the armature
position and moving said shunt member toward said 10 and
moves therewith.
armature surface, the movement of said shunt member
1l. An electromagnetic drive mechanism comprising
being generally normal to the movement of said armature.
a core, a coil mounted in «a magnetically energizing rela
7. An electromagnetic drive mechanism comprising an
tionship to said core, an Aarmature positioned to generally
armature movable between a tirst and a second position,
said arm-ature having a low permeability gap therein, 15 define in combination iwith said core a magnetic circuit
structure, said armature being movable between a lirst
means for biasing said armature toward said rirst position,
and a second position and said armature having a low per
means for bridging said low permeability gap in said
meability gap therein, means for biasing said armature
toward said iirst position, a magnetic shunt member for
with said gap, means for directing the movement of said
bridging means along a path that is generally normal to 20 bridging the low permeability gap «in said amature, said
shunt member being of larger size than said gap and
the path of movement of said armature :and for biasing
overlying the gap and a surface of said armature adjacent
said bridging means to a position a spaced distance from
armature, said bridging means being in juxtaposition
said armature, and la coil mounted in magnetically ener
to the gap, means for biasing said shunt member to a
armature, said bridging means being in juxtaposition with
position, freeing said driven member, and then permitting
position a spaced distance from said armature surface,
gizing relationship to said armature, said coil when ener
gized moving said armature to said second position and 25 and a driven member extending between said shunt mem
bei` and said armature, said coil when energized sequen
moving said bridging means against said armature.
tially moving said shunt member against said armature,
8. An electromagnetic drive mechanism comprising an
clamping said driven member therebetween, and then
armature movable between a Íirst and a second position,
moving said armature to said second position, and said
said armature having a low permeability gap therein,
coil when de-energized permitting said shunt biasing
means for `biasing said armature toward said ñrst posi~
means to return lsaid shunt member .to said spaced
tion, means for bridging said low permeability gap in said
said armature biasing means to return said armature to
said gap, means for directing the movement of said bridg
said first position.
ing means 'along a path that is generally normal to the 35
12. An electromagnetic drive mechanism as in claim 11
path of movement of said armature and for biasing said
further including means for varying the distance moved
bridging means away from said gap, a driven member
by the armature when the coil is energized.
extending between said bridging means and said arma
13. An electromagnetic drive mechanism as in claim 12
ture, ‘and a coil mounted in magnetically energizing rel-a
wherein
the distance moved by said armature is substantionship to said armature, said coil when energized se 40
tially greater than the distance moved by the shunt
quentially moving said bridging means against the «arma
member.
ture, clamping the driven member therebetween, and then
14. An electromagnetic drive mechanism «as in claim 13
moving the armature to said second position, and said
wherein the shunt member has la mass substantially less
coil Awhen de-energized permitting said biasing means act
than the mass of the arma-ture.
ing upon said bridging means to move said bridging 45
l5. An electromagnetic drive mechanism as in claim 14
means away from said armature, freeing said driven mem
wherein
the biasing force exerted by lthe armature biasing
ber, and then permitting said armature biasing means to
means Sis equal to or greater than the biasing force ex
return said armature to said iirst position.
erted by the shunt biasing means.
9. An electromagnetic drive mechanism comprising an
armature movable between a first and a second position,
References Cited in the file of this patent
said armature having a low permeability gap therein,
UNITED STATES PATENTS
means for biasing said armature toward said lirst posi
2,491,643
Burks _______________ _.- Dec. 20, 1949
tion, means for bridging said low permeability gap in said
armature, said bridging means being in juxtaposition
with said gap, means for biasing said bridging means away
from said armature, .a driven member extending between
said bridging means and said armature, and a coil
2,617,050
2,656,474
2,885,606
Weinfurt ____________ __ Nov. 4, 1952
Rahden _______________ _. Oct. 20, 1953
Clements _____________ -_ May 5, 1959
360,274
1,178,275
Italy ______________ __\_- June 15, 1938
France _____________ _.. Dec. 8, 1958
FOREIGN PATENTS
mounted in magnetically energizing relationship to said
armature, said coil when energized sequentially moving
60
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