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Патент USA US3080506

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March 5, 1963
D. E. COOPER
3,080,499
CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES
Filed May 31. 1960'
2 Sizeéts-Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
Donald E. Cooper
‘
BY
W
Agent
March 5, 1963
D. E. COOPER
3,080,499
CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES
Filed May 31. 1960
2 sriee'msneez 2
INVENTOR.
BY
Donald E.Cooper
Agent
United States Patent 0
3,080,499
Patented Mar. 5, 1963
1
2
3,080,499
metal vbody in which the flat sides illustrated at 712 in
CONSUMABLES ELECTRODES
Donald E. Qooper, Las Vegas, Nev., assignor to Titanium
Metals Corporation of America, New York, N.Y., a
corporation of Delaware
Filed May 31, 1960, Ser. No. 32,949
4-Clairns. (Cl. 313-357)
FIGS. 1 and 2 .now form one ?at side 20‘ with an arcuate
'
5
-
semi-circular cross section.
A suitable stub as described previously is shown at 16 at
tached to the top of this electrode also at the center of
its cross sectional area.
An assembly .of electrodes of the type illustrated in
FIGS. ‘1 and 2 is shown in FIGS. 5 and 6. A plurality
This invention relates to electrodes employed ina con
sumable electrode arc melting furnace.
of three electrodes are employed in each of which the
Direct current has heretofore most ‘generally been em 10 angle between sides '12 is 120 degrees, making the total
ployed as melting power in consumable electrode arc
360 degrees. The electrodes are arranged in spaced
melting furnaces. A consumable electrode which is
apart, flat side 12 to flat side 12 relationship, as will be
circular, or roughly circular, in cross section is progres
.apparent from FIG. 6. The spacing between individual
sively melted by heat of an are into a circular cross sec
electrodes in the assembly should be great enough to
tion cooled crucible. One pole of high amperage source
prevent arcing directly from electrode to electrode dur
of a direct electric current is connected to the electrode
ing melting. The three electrodes 10‘ are maintained in
to be melted and the other pole is connected .to the pool
this relationship by removably attaching their studs 16
of molten metal contalned in the crucible generally by
to support means which in the embodiment illustrated
electrical connection to the crucible itself. Multi-phase 20 comprise clamps 24 which attach them to the lower ends
alternating current would be advantageous to employin
of three support rods 26. These rods 26 are in turn
supported in ?xed spaced relationship by attachment of
such furnaces but use of electrodes of conventional circu
lar shape is not practical since the cross sectional area
their upper ?anges 28 to plate 34 as by bolts 32. Plate
of a multiplicity of such electrodes leaves a large amount
34 is fabricated of insulating material such as Bakelite
of free space when an assembly of such electrodes is fed 25 andis in turn supported by heaw steel plate 34 through
down into a circular crucible. To obtain the required
which rods 26 pass with insulating space clearance
volume of metal to ‘form an ingot in the crucible re
through holes 36. Plate 34 is attached to the end of
quires corresponding length of a plurality of such elec
‘ram 38 which is in part enclosed in the upper part of
furnace housing 40‘ and by which the assembly is driven
trodes which because of their cross section relationship
must be inordinately long.
30 upward or downward depending on requirements of the
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide
melting arc. Ram 38 will be actuated by suitable and
an improved electrode for melting in a consumable elec
conventional mechanism, .not shown, and its speed and
trode arc melting furnace. Another object of this inven
tion is to provide an assembly of ‘a plurality of electrodes
adapted for melting in a consumable electrode arc melt
available and well known to those skilled in the art.
ing furnace. Still another object of this invention is to
The electrode assembly will thus be lowered into a
provide an assembly of a plurality of electrodes adapted
circular cross section crucible 42 which is shown
for melting in a consumable electrode arc melting fur
mounted inside the bottom. part of a furnace housing as
nace in which the cross sectional area of such assembly
at 44, with the space between being employed as a cool
of electrodes will correspond without excessive free space 40 ing jacket by circulation of a cooling ?uid therethrough.
to the cross section of a circular crucible. These and
An arc will play between the bottom of electrodes 10
and metal 46 in crucible 42 to produce progressive melt
ing of electrodes 10.
FIG. 1 illustrates a side view of an electrode embody
ing features of this invention.
FIG. 2 illustrates a cross section of the electrode of
FIG. 1 taken along the line 2-2.
FEG. 3 illustrates an alternative embodiment of an
electrode embodying features of this invention.
FIG. 4 illustrates a cross section of the electrode of
FIG. 3 taken along the line 4-—4.
FIG. 5 illustrates a side view, partially broken out, of
an assembly of electrodes of the type illustrated in FIG.
that between the electrode ?at sides and the necessary
their arcuate sides and the crucible
In FIG. 7 is shown a cross section of the assembly
corresponding to FIG. 6 as would be seen when a pair
of electrodes according to FIGS. 3 and 4 are employed.
These, likewise, are spaced apart in ?at side to ?at side
1 as used in a consumable electrode arc melting furnace. 55 relationship to form an assembly which is advantageous
for use with a circular cross section crucible.
PEG. 6 illustrates a cross section of the electrode as
sembly of FIG. 5 taken along the line 6-—6.
Stub 16 is attached to the top of the electrode at the
center of its cross sectional area because it '
FIG. 7 illustrates a cross section of an assembly of
electrodes of the type illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 taken
along the same general plane as the illustration of 60 vertical uniformity of the
FIG. 6.
In operation, a suitable consumable electrode arc melt
Referring now particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2 the elec
ing furnace is readied for charging, as for instance by
trode 10 comprises an elongated metal body of sector
separating the lower part of the {furnace housing 44 con
taining the crucible 42, and the electrodes are attached
shaped cross section as will be seen more clearly from
FIG. 2. The electrode has ?at sides .12 and an arcuate 65 by stubs 16 to support rods 26 by means of clamps 24.
A small charge of starting metal may be placed in the
side 14. Preferably the electrode will have attached to
bottom of crucible ‘42 and then the lower part of furnace
its top and located centrally with respect to the cross
housing 44 is re-attached to the upper part 40. Electric
sectional area, a stub 16 which is useful for attaching the
power of three phase alternating current type, and ca
electrode to support means in an arc melting furnace.
Referring now to FIGS. 3 and 4, an alternative type 70 pable of delivering high amperage, from a source not
shown, is connected to each of the electrodes 10 through
of electrode 18 is shown which comprises an elongated
power leads 48. The electrode assembly is then lowered
r
3,080,499
g
into the crucible-by actuation of ram 38 until an arc is
struck between the electrodes and the starting metal.
The arc is maintained by suitable and conventional con
trol of actuation of the electrode assembly to progres
elongated metal body of sector shaped cross section hav
ing a stub attached to the top ofsaid body in the center
sively melt the metal of electrodes 10 into a solid ingot
of its cross sectional area. 7
in crucible 42, which is cooled during the melting opera
tion according to known principles.
2. An assembly of electrodes of metal adapted for
melting in a consumable electrode arc melting furnace
~
lt'wil-l be apparent that the number of the electrodes
in an assembly will depend on the type of current em
4
I claim:
1. A electrode of metal adapted ‘for melting in a con
sumable electrode arc melting furnace comprising; an
comprising; a plurality of elongated metal bodies each of
sector shaped cross section, the sum of the angles formed
ployed. For example, when using single phase current
10 by the ?at sides of each of said metal bodies totalling
two electrodes of the type illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4
360 degrees, said, metal bodies being attached at their
tops to electrode support means and maintained by said
electrode support means in spaced-apart, ?at side to ?at
will be used and the method of operation will lollow
that described above ‘for a three phase furnace.
While each of the support rods 26 may be individual
side relationship to each other.
'
ly vertically driven by conventional means, as will be 15
3. An assembly of electrodes of metal adapted for
apparent, the arrangement of the assembly in which the
melting in a consumable electrode arc melting furnace
plurality of electrodes are ?xed vertically with respect
to each other provides somewhat simpler construction.
employing three-phase electric'curirent for melting power
comprising; a trio of elongated metal bodies each of sec
It will be understood by those skilled in the art, that in
tor shaped cross section in each of which the ?at sides
20
a plural electrode arc furnace the arc is formed by cur
form an angle of about 120 degrees, said metal bodies
rent transfer from the bottom of one electrode to metal
being attached at their tops to electrode support means
in the crucible and thence to the bottom of another elec
and maintained by said electrode support means in
trode. Arcing to and ‘from each electrode follows suc
spaced-apart, ?at side to flat side relationship, each to
cessively as the current phases change. It one of the
the others.
electrodes should for some reason tend to melt o? to a 25
4. An assembly of electrodes of metal adapted for
shorter length than the others, or other, then the arc
melting in a consumable electrode arc melting furnace
distance between it and metal in the crucible will become
comprising; a plurality of elongated metal bodies each
longer, the voltage drop across this distance 'will become
having at least one flat side and a stub attached to the
higher and less current will pass. As a result the melt
top thereof in the center of its cross sectional area, said
ing rate for the shorter electrode lwill be reduced auto
metal bodies being maintained by said stubs attached to
matically until the other electrodes or electrode have
electrode support means to maintain said metal bodies in
been melted off the same length, and uniform arc gap
spiced-apart, ?at side to ?at side relationship with each
distances will be re-established.
'
The electrodes, according to this invention, may be 35
fabricated of any metal suitable for melting in a con
sumable electrode are melting furnace. Such metals in
clude titaniuml, zirconium, steel, stainless steel, nickel,
cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium and alloys of
these, as well as the sodcalled refractory metals and
super-alloys.
0t er.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
FOREIGN PATENTS
58,696
Norway
____________ __ Nov. 29, 1937
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