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Патент USA US3080597

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March 12, 1963
R. H. CARLSON
3,080,587
METHOD OF FORMING A CAP STUD
Filed March 25, 1959
FlG.6
INVEN TOR.
RAYMOND H. CARLSON
BY
BUCKHORN, CHEATHAM 8. BLORE
ATTORNEYS
a
d?d??d?
Patented Mar. 12, 1963
Z
3,080,587
METHQD 0F FURMENG A CAK’ STUD
Raymond H. Carlson, Rockford, ilk, assignor to Textron
Industries, End, Rockford, 111., a corporation of Dela
ware
Filed Mar. 23, M59. Ser. No. 801,036
5 Claims. (Q1. 10-10)
ufacture of cap studs in accordance with the invention.
Referring ?rst to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 of the drawings,
cap studs of the type with which the present invention is
concerned are indicated generally at 10‘ and comprise a
cup shaped cap including a cylindrical side wall portion
12 and an end wall 14. Coaxial with the side wall por
tion 12 is a shank 16' provided with threads 18 and which
shank is in cap studs formed by the method of the pres
ent invention integral with the end wall 14. The side
The present invention relates to a cap stud and to a
method of manufacturing the same.
10 wall portion 12 may be formed adjacent the open end of
the cap with a pair of oppositely projecting prongs or
The cap stud of the invention comprises a cup shaped
ears 15.
cap having a threaded shank secured to the end wall
In accordance with the method of the invention, there
thereof and positioned within the cap coaxially thereof.
is ?rst provided a cylindrical workpiece 20, such as is
Heretofore such studs have been made by assembling
separately manufactured cap and shank units. Such prior 15 shown in FIG. 4. This may be provided by any conven
tional means such as severing from wire or rod stock.
studs are inherently expensive to manufacture and have
The workpiece 28 preferably has a diameter substantially
other disadvantages.
equal to the diameter of the side wall portion 12 of the
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to
provide a cap stud of the type described which is an in
tegral unit made from a single piece of metal.
1 It is another object of the present invention to pro
vide a method for manufacturing cap studs of the type
described from a single piece of metal.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a cap
cap 10 and a volume slightly greater than the material
20 volume of the ?nished part. Referring to FIG. 5, the
workpiece 24} is ?rst subjected to an extrusion process to
extrude therefrom an elongate shank portion 16 leaving
a substantially no Worked head part 24. This extrusion
is preferably carried out in a die as, such as is shown in
FIG. 5, provided with a cavity having a straight side wall
stud having improved strength characteristics.
25
portion 28 for receiving the workpiece 2t} and which
Still another object is to provide an economical method
cavity converges at its inner end to de?ne a concave ma
of manufacturing cap studs of the type described.
terial contacting surface 34) leading to an extrusion ori
A further object is to provide a method for manu
free 32. Extrusion pressure is applied to the workpiece
facturing an integral cap stud of the type described where
20 by means of a punch 34 so as to extrude the shank
in the threads of the stud shank are rolled thereon.
30
15 through the ori?ce 32 and into a receiving cavity 36
Still other objects and advantages of the invention will
which preferably is of a diameter slightly greater than
become more apparent hereinafter.
that of the shank 16 as indicated in exaggerated fashion
In accordance with the iilustrated embodiment of the
in FIG. 5. A conventional knockout punch 38 may be
invention a cylindrical metal workpiece is ?rst extruded
provided to remove the workpiece from the die 26 after
to provide a substantially unworked head part and an
the extrusion of the shank 16.
elongate shank of predetermined length. The shank is
After removal from the die 26', the shank 16 is sub
then rolled to form threads thereon and the workpiece is
jected to a thread forming process. Preferably, the
mounted in an aperture within a die with the periphery
threads 18 are formed on the shank 16 by a rolling proc
and end wall of the head part ?rmly engaged by the die
and with the shank protruding toward the open end of 40 ess since, as it is well known to those skilled in the art,
rolling of the threads e?ects a work hardening of the
the die. A tubular extrusion punch is then advanced
vmetal and greatly strengthens the same.
over the shank and the end of the shank simultaneously
After the threads 18 are formed on the shank 16,
engaged with a foliower punch so as to force the shank
the workpiece is positioned in a holding and extrusion
and the annular portion thereabout endwardly of the
head part. Due to the con?nement of the head part 45 die 456, such as shown in FIG. 7, having a cylindrical
cavity 48 of a diameter snugiy to receive the unworked
within the die, the annular portion of the workpiece
head part 24 of the workpiece. A tubular punch 50 is
spaced outwardly of the tubular die will be forced to re
then advanced over the shank 16 of the workpiece. The
verse extrude over the tubular die to form a tubular wall.
punch 50 is provided with an inner diameter just su?i
"When the shank has been pressed inwardly to the desired
depth, the workpiece is removed from the holding die 50 cient to clear the crest of the shank threads 13 and
with an outer diameter which is less than that of the
and the extruded wall formed and severed to leave a cap
head part by a predetermined amount at its end por
side wall of desired length.
tion 52. The punch 59 is slightly relieved rearwrrd’y
For a more complete description of the invention, ref
erence is made to the following speci?cation and the ac
of its forward end 52 as indicated at 54 and which
companying drawings wherein:
55 relief is exaggerated in the drawings. Advanced simul
taneously with the punch 50 is a second or follower
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of a cap stud made in ac
punch 56 which is positioned within the cavity 58 of
cordance with the method of the invention;
the punch 50. The punch 56 is positioned to engage
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the stud;
FIG. 3 is an end view of the cap stud;
the end of the shank 16 at the moment the punch Sit
FIG. 4- is an elevation of a workpiece from which the 60 ‘engages the head part 24. The punches 5d, 56 are then
cap stud is manufactured in accordance with the method
advanced simultaneously to force the outer punch 50 and
of the invention;
the shank 1.6 a predetermined distance inwardly of the
FIG. 5 is a view showing a workpiece after the ?rst
head part 24. This causes the outer annular portion
forming stage and the die in which such formation oc
of the head part 24 to back extrude over the punch 50
curs;
65 to form a tubular extrusion or wall indicated at 58 in
FIG. 6 is a side elevation of the workpiece after the
FIG. 8. The relief 54 on the punch 50 minimizes the
next forming step;
frictional resistance as the extrusion wall 58 comes back
FIG. 7 is a view of the workpiece positioned in an
over the punch. The advancement of the punch 50 is
other die ready for the next succeeding work step;
ceased so as to leave the end wall 14 of desired thick
PEG. 8 is a view illustrating the ?nal extrusion step
70 ness. After this step, the punch Si) is withdrawn whi'e
in the process of the invention; and
the punch 56 is held stationary and ?nally, the punch
FIG. 9 is a view illustrating a ?nishing step in the man
spades?
3
4
56 is withdrawn and the workpiece knocked from the
die 46 by a knock-out punch 64.
The workpiece is next positioned in a second hold
3. The method of making a cap stud including a cup
shaped cap and a threaded shank integral with the end
Wall of said cap, said method comprising the steps of
ing die 76 having a cylindrical cavity 72 for receiving
providing a cylindrical workpiece, extruding a predeter
the body of the workpiece, the die having an annular
mined portion of said workpiece to provide a cylindrical
recess 74 in its face around the cavity 72.
shank portion of reduced diameter and a coaxial head
part, rolling threads on said shank, applying pressure in
the axial direction to said shank portion and to an an
The work
piece is then struck with a ?aring tool 76 to bend the
endmost part of the extruded wall 58 into the recess
74. Thereafter the bent over flashing may be trimmed
nular area of said head part spaced inwardly of the pe
to form the prongs or cars '15 and ?nally the outer 10 riphery thereof and immediately adjacent said shank por
tion while restraining said head part from lateral ex
pansion and from movement bodily in direction of said
surfaces of the body may be machined or polished as
desired.
The integral cap stud 10 is obviously inherently strong.
pressure to cause the material of said head part to ex
trude in the area surrounding said annular area in the
direction opposite the direction of said pressure, con?n-
Moreover, the integral cap studs 16‘ are considerably
lighter in weight than studs of comparable strength and
ing said shank portion and the extruded annular por
size manufactured by other methods. This reduction
in weight obviously is of great advantage for many ap
plications, such as, for example, in aircraft. A further
tion against lateral expansion, and ceasing the applica-1
tion of said pressure at a predetermined point to leave
an end wall of predetermined thickness.
advantage resides in the economy of manufacture. A
4. The method of making a cap stud including a cup
most important advantage of'the process herein is that 20
shaped cap and a threaded shank integral with the end of
it permits the rolling of threads upon the shank 16 and
said cap, said method comprising the steps of providing
which is necessary to give the shank the desired strength
a cylindrical workpiece of a diameter substantially equal
characteristics.
to the outer diameter of said cap, extruding a predeter
Having illustrated and described a preferred embodi
ment of the invention, it should be apparent to those 25 mined portion of said workpiece to provide a shank por
tion and an unworked head part, forming threads on said
skilled in the art that the invention permits of modi
shank, thereafter positioning the workpiece in a die hav
?cation in arrangement and detail. I claim as my in
ing a cylindrical cavity of a diameter snugly to receive
vention all such modi?cations as come within the true
said head part with said threaded shank facing outwardly,
spirit and scope of the appended claims.
Iclaim:
30 said cavity having a length greater than that of said shank,
advancing over said shank a tubular punch of an outer
1. The method of making a cap stud including a cup
diameter less than said head part and an inner diameter
shaped cap and a threaded shank integral with the end
just su?iciently great to clear said threaded shank, and
Wall of said cap, said method comprising the steps of
forcing said punch a predetermined distance into said head
providing a workpiece including a cylindrical head part
and a cylindrical shank portion of reduced diameter, 35 part to cause the outer annular portion of said head part
to extrude over said punch.
forming threads on said shank, applying pressure in the
5. The method of making a cap stud including a cup
shaped cap and a threaded shank integral with the end
of said cap, said method comprising the steps of provid
the periphery thereof and immediately adjacent said
shank portion while restraining said head part from lat 4.0 ing a cylindrical workpiece of a diameter substantially
equal to the outer diameter of said cap, extruding a pre
eral expansion and from movement bodily in direction
determined portion of said workpiece to provide a shank
of said pressure to cause the material of said head part
portion and an unworked head part, forming threads on
to extrude in the area surrounding said annular area in
said shank by thread rolling the same, thereafter posi
the direction opposite the direction of said pressure, con
?ning said shank portion and the extruded annular por 45 tioning the workpiece in a die having a cylindrical cavity
of a diameter snugly to receive said head part with said
tion against lateral expansion, and ceasing the applica
threaded shank facing outwardly, said cavity having 'a
tion of said pressure at a predetermined point to leave
length greater than that of said shank, advancing over said
an end wall of predetermined thickness.
‘axial direction to the end of said shank portion and to
an ‘annular area of said head part spaced inwardly of
shank a tubular punch of an outer diameter less than said
2. The method of making a cap stud includinga cup V
shaped cap and a threaded shank integral with the end 50 head part and an inner diameter just su?'iciently great to
clear said theaded shank, and forcing said, punch a prede
wall of said cap, said method comprising the steps of
providing a cylindrical workpiece, extruding a predeter
mined portion of said workpiece to provide a cylindrical
shank portion of reduced diameter and a coaxial head
part, forming threads on said shank, applying pressure 55
in the axial direction to the end of said shank portion
and to an annular area of said head part spaced inwardly
termined-distance into said head part while simultaneous
1y applying endwise pressure to said shank to cause the
outer annular portion ‘of said head part to extrude over
said punch.
References (liter! in the file of this patent
of the periphery thereof and immediately adjacent said
UNITED STATES PATENTS
shank portion while restraining said head part from lat
eral expansion and from movement bodily in direction
of said pressure to cause the material of said head part
‘to extrude in the area surrounding said annular area in
the direction opposite the direction of said pressure, con
?ning said shank portion and the extruded annular por
tion against lateral expansion, and ceasing the applica
tion of said pressure at a predetermined point to leave
‘an end Wall of predetermined thickness.
65
1,035,020
2,161,419
2,199,809
Lanz ________________ .. Aug. 6, 1912
Kepperman ___________ __ June 6, 1939
Pigott ________________ .._ May 7, 1940
2,322,811
2,727,256
2,813,279
2,953,247
Ball _________________ __ June
Moore _______________ __ Dec.
Friedman ____________ __ Nov.
Walter ______________ __ Sept.
29,
20,
19,
20,
1943
1955
1957
1960
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