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Патент USA US3080648

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. March 12, 1963
w. H. DUTT
3,080,637
NAPPING DEVICE FOR MODIFYING
THE SURFACE CHARACTERI
STIC
OF A FIBRQUS MATERIAL
Filed March 17, 1960
3 Sheets-She‘et 1
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March 12, 1963
NAPPING DEVICE F0
Filed March 1'7, 1960
w. H. DUTT
3,080,637
ODIFYING THE SURFA CE CHARACTERISTIC
A FIBRQUS MATERIAL
’ 3 Sheets-Sheet 2
March 12, 1963
-
w‘ H. DUTT
3,080,637
NAPPING DEVICE FOR MODIFYING THE SURFACE CHARACTERISTIC
Filed March 17, 1960
OF A FIBROUS MATERIAL
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
FIG. //
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INVENTOR.
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United States Patent 0 "
1
s use 637
NAPPING DEVICE m1». ivronruvmo 'rnn sun
FAGE CHARACTERISTHC or A smnous MATE
RIAL
William H. Butt, Troy. N.Y., assignor to Albany Felt
Companv. Albany, N.Y.. a corporation of New York
Filed Mar. 17, 1960. Ser. No. 15,729
3 Claims. (Cl. 26--3l)
C6
to
3,080,637
Patented Mar. 12, 1963
2
lected in accordance with the nap desired and the fabric
to be worked.
Another object of this invention is to provide a
device which can be duplicated so that all such devices
are identical having the same con?guration and napping
characteristics and which can replace the teasel napping
devices presently in use without altering the present equip
ment.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a
This invention relates generally to devices and mech 10 teasel napping device which will not plug with ?bers.
anisms for ?nishing ?brous material, and more particu
A device for modifying the surface characteristic of
larly to a device for modifying the surface characteristic
a ?brous material embodying the invention and the man
of a ?brous material.
ner of using the same is described herein with references
Devices used to modify the surface characteristics of ii
to the drawings, in which:
brous materials by raising the nap on the material are 15
FIG. 1 is an elevation of a napper cylinder having
referred to as napping devices. Many methods and nap
mounted thereon a series of devices for modifying the
ping structures have been devised for raising the cover
surface characteristic of a ?brous material which have
or nap on a woven fabric. Two basic methods are cur
been constructed in accordance with the teachings of this
rently in vogue. The ?rst utilizes a wire napper or nap
ping device and is employed by cotton and wool ?annel 20
manufacturers. Wire nappers when used develop a tear
ing action as they are drawn over the fabric or as the
invention;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a napper for use on
the napper cylinder shown in FIG. 1 formed of a natural
burr or teasel;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a napper for use on
the napper cylinder shown in FIG. 1 constructed in ac
fabric is drawn over them which reduces fabric strength.
The second method, used primarily in the manufacture
of paper-making felts, employs a natural burr or teasel 25 cordance with the teachings of this invention;
whose radially extending points perform the napping ac
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary partially sectional elevational
tion when drawn over the fabric or when the fabric is
view of the napper shown in FIG. 3 with portions there;
drawn over them. The nap in the second method is de
of shown in phantom;
veloped by raising or plucking ?bers rather than tearing.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view of a napping disc
The natural burr or teasel has many inherent defects 30 of the type used to form the napper shown in FIG. 3;
and various chemical treatments of the burr have been
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary plan view of the other side
used to improve it in an attempt to remove these defects.
of the napping disc shown in FIG. 5;
The device which is the subject of this invention is of
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along the line 7——7
the second type, and is used to raise the nap of a fabric
in the direction of the arrows as indicated in FIG. 5;
by plucking ?bers. Many attempts have been made to
FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken along the line 3-8 in
develop a napping device which would give the desirable
the direction of the arrows as indicated in FIG. 5;
results achievable with the teasel and which would avoid
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary plan view of a napping disc
the defects of this natural burr.
constructed in accordance with an alternate embodiment
For example, short pieces of ?ne wire have been uti
of the invention;
lized in an attempt to duplicate the result obtained by 40 FIG. 10 is a sectional view taken along the line 10—10
napping with a teasel. For the most part these attempts
in the direction of the arrows as indicated in FIG. 9; ‘
have been unsuccessful. The wire nappers now in use
FIG. 11 is a sectional view taken along the line 11-11
still have the defect of tearing the fabric and reducing its
in the direction of the arrows as indicated in FIG. 9;
strength, and the natural burr or teasel still has a short
FIG. 12 is a sectional view taken along the line 12—12
life and is subject to failure by drying out when located 45 in the direction of the arrows as indicated in FIG. 9;
near heating units in a manufacturing plant. In addi
FIG. 13 is a sectional view taken along the line 13——-13
tion, the natural burr or teasel when used necessitates the
in the direction of the arrows as indicated in FIG. 9.;
examination and grading of a large number of the nat
FIG. 14 is a sectional view taken along the line Ill-14}
ural burrs to enable a sufficient number of approximately
in the direction of the arrows as indicated in FIG. 9.
similar dimensions to be selected in order to equip a ma 50
One of the usual methods of modifying the surface
chine or cylinder which is to be used in the napping
characteristic of a ?brous material is to run the material
process.
over a large napper cylinder, generally referred to in the
~ Rather than attempt to improve on wire nappers or
trade as a “gig,” such as that indicated by the numeral
imitate teasels, this invention is concerned with a com
10 in FIG. 1 which is mounted upon a shaft 11 so‘ that
pletely new device for modifying the surface character 55 the cylinder can be rotated. A cylinder of this type is
istic of a ?brous material by napping, which can replace
usually equipped with a number of napping devices. indi~
the natural burr or teasel.
cated in FIG. 1 by the numeral 12 which are individually
The invention herein disclosed has as its principal ob
mounted on shafts such as 13 so that the individual nap—
ject the provision of a device for modifying the surface
pers 12 can be rotated with the shaft 13. Such nappers
characteristic of a ?brous material by napping which has 60 are generally mounted at angles with the axis of the cyl
all of the advantages of teasel nappers now in use and
inder napper as shown in FIG. 1, and usually there are
which will have additional advantages as well, including
a plurality of them suf?cient to completely cover the cyl
greater durability, uniformity, and longer life.
inder 10. The rows of nappers have the individual nap
Another object of this invention is to provide a
ping devices therein mounted at the same angle with the
device for modifying the surface characteristic of a ? 65 axis of the cylinder, however, adjacent rows are mounted
brous material by napping, the size and shape of which
at different angles in order to reduce undesirable forces
can be selected in accordance with the size and shape
on the fabric being worked and in order to avoid end
of the fabric to be worked.
thrust on the cylinder avis.
A further object of this invention is to provide a de
The invention herein lies in the structure of the speci?c‘
vice for modifying the surface characteristic of a ?brous 70 individual napper such as 12, and FIG. 2 shows a napper.‘
material by napping characteristics of which can be se
' commonly in use today formed of a natural burr or teasel.
3,080,637
4
female depressions of the type previously described situ
The structure shown in FIG. 2 consists of shaft 14 having
mounted thereon two naturally grown prickly herbs hav
ing bracts or opposite clasping tooth leaves. In FIG.
2 individual teasels are designated by the numerals 15
ated on the last disc can mechanically interlock with like
projections or depressions on clamp 35 to prevent rota
tion of the disc. Also if it is desired, a rubber retainer
or some other suitable friction member can be disposed
and 16 and are maintained upon shaft 14 by means of
between retaining clamp 35 and the ?rst disc in order to
gluing and clamp 17 which is welded to the shaft.
I propose to substitute for the device shown in FIG. 2
prevent the disc from rotating upon the shaft 18. The
rotation is prevented by the engagement of member 35
a new napping device of the type shown in FIGS. 3 and 4.
with the hub surface of the ?rst disc which is pressed
of interlocking pointed napping discs. Two of these 10 against member 35 by the remaining discs and retaining
In FIGS. 3 and 4 shaft 18 has mounted thereon a series
ring 36. This construction maintains the discs on shaft
18, and enables the pressure of the discs against the mem~
discs are designated by the numerals 19 and 20, respec
tively, in FIG. 4. These discs are identical, and in FIG.
ber 35 to be maintained.
Each of the discs in FIG. 3 is limited in relative rota
Each napping disc has a cylindrical hub portion 22 15 tion with respect to the remainder of the discs since each
of the discs has its male projections disposed in the fe
with a circular opening 23 formed therein to receive shaft
male depressions of an adjacent disc. The discs are pre
18. Hub 22 is formed on one surface thereof with male
vented from rotating as a group about shaft 18 because
projections 24 and 25 displaced 180 degrees from each
3 have each been designated generally by the numeral 21
to aid in describing the structure shown therein.
of the retaining engagement of the ?rst disc with retaining
other. The other surface of hub 22 is formed with fe
male depressions 26 and 27 which lie 180 degrees apart 20 member 35.
This assembly results in a disc group with each disc
having projecting radially outward from its center a num
and are slightly offset with respect to opposite corre
sponding male projections 24 and 25. In the drawings
the offset angle is 7 degrees. The male projections are
uniform and the female depressions are uniform, so that
the male projections 24 and 25 of any disc can be re
ber of hooked points. Each unit or disc is keyed to an
adjacent disc so that when the stack is formed each disc
25 has its hooked points offset with respect to the hooked
ceived by the female depressions 26 and 27 of any other
disc to interlock the discs and prevent relative rotation
thereof.
In the present embodiment two male projections and
points on the adjacent discs, so that the hooked points
contemplates that the number of these can be varied from
teristic of a speci?c ?brous material. Once the desired
surface characteristic for a speci?c ?brous material has
been realized, the device can be duplicated by duplica~
do not fall in a line, but form a spiral pattern.
The discs are of uniform diameter and the number of
points and the resiliency and angle of points can be
two female depressions are shown however, the invention 30 modi?ed in order to obtain the desired surface charac
one to two or more.
FIG. 4 illustrates the male projections 24 and 25 of
tion of discs having the same characteristics. The re
disc 20 received by the female depressions 26 and 27 of
disc 19. Both of these interlocked discs are mounted 35 siliency and yield point of the discs can be modi?ed in
order to obtain the characteristic desired, and the life
upon shaft 18 shown in phantom.
of the discs is determined primarily by the material used
An individual disc indicated by the numeral 21 is
to form the discs.
shown in FIGS. 5 and 6. The disc is formed with a
Therefore, for a particular operation a material can
series of pointed hook-like members which are integral
with the hub and as shown extend radially from a point 40 be selected to achieve a particular desired result, and
will have a calculable life span for use in the particular
in the center of the central opening formed therein. One
application. Additionally, a disc stack can be selected
skilled in the art could readily modify the design so that
which will not dry out when placed near heating units
the same result could be accomplished with non-radially
in a plant so that the users are not limited in the appli
‘extending or off-center members and remain within the in
45 cation. Further, the number of hook points desired can
ventive concept presented herein.
be altered at will, and once the characteristic desired has
Each of the radially extending hook members is indi
been achieved, the characteristic on the same type
cated by the numeral 28 in the drawings. There are also
?brous material can be duplicated since the condition
a series of smaller radially extending pointed members
of the device for modifying the surface characteristic of
indicated by the numeral 29 in the drawings. One of
these shorter members lies on either side of each longer 50 the ?brous material is ?xed and is not random. Addi
tionally, the individual cylinders can be disassembled if
member.
desired, and can be made of stacks of various lengths
In FIG. 5 the male projections 24 and 25 appear on
to accommodate various con?gurations of ?brous
the top surface of hub 22, whereas the female depres
materials.
sions 26 and 27 are seen on the bottom surface of the
I prefer to form the individual disc from plastic since
hub in FIG. 6. Observing FIG. 6, it is noted that the 55
the characteristics of plastic can be controlled to a great
female depression 27 lies on the center line of the long
degree including the resiliency and strength, and plastics
pointed member indicated by‘ the numeral 28' and the
female depression 26 lies between the long pointed mem
bers 28" and 28"’, so that when two of the discs are
interlocked with the male projections inserted within the
respective female depression, the teascl points form a
‘spiral based on the angle of offset.
Each of the pointed members as seen in FIGS. 7 and 8
are a light material and easy to Work with.
In the drawings thus far discussed, one selected con
?guration of disc has been shown. However, it should
be understood that the discs selected can have any num
ber of long pointed members and the angle at which the
pointed members project from the plane of the hub, and
the precise form of the turn back or hook end, can be
is formed of a triangular cross section and extends radi
ally from the hub at an angle to the plane of the hub 65 altered in accordance with the fabric to be napped and
with a portion of the end turned back toward the plane
of the hub to form a hook. In FIG. 4 the pointed turned
back end portions are designated by the numerals 30 and
31 for disc 19, and 32 and 33 for disc 20. The napping
disc so formed presents a concave surface on one side 70
and a convex surface on the other.
To assemble a napping device according to this inven
the napping characteristic desired. Likewise, the actual
material from which the discs are formed can be selected
in accordance with the napping characteristic desired
and the fabric to be mapped.
In FIGS. 9 through 14 an alternate form of disc is
illustrated and designated generally by the numeral 37.
This disc resembles closely the disc shown in the ?rst em
bodiment and designated therein by the numeral 21.
However, the con?guration of disc 37 is more readily
tion, individual discs are placed upon shaft 18 as shown
in FIG. 3 and retained at one end by retaining clamp
35 which is welded to shaft 18. Male projections or 75 adapted to forming from sheet stock in a one or two
5
step stamping operation. It is contemplated, therefore,
that the disc illustrated in FIGS. 9 through 14 be made
from spring metal and have a relatively ?at central por
tion 33 formed with opening 39 therein in order that
disc 37 can be mounted upon a shaft. Hook members
40 extend radially from central portion 38 with an angle
of approximately 15 degrees between their center lines.
This angle, of course, can be varied to suit the partic
6
lindrical hub of said disk, a ?rst surface of said hub, a
second surface of said hub, a cylindrical opening formed
through said hub from said ?rst surface to said second
surface, a longitudinal axis of said cylindrical opening,
a plurality of arms of said disk each of which is attached
at one end to said hub in cantilever manner and extends
away from said hub forming ‘an acute angle with the
projection of said axis from said ?rst surface, a triangular
ular application.
cross section of each of said arms with the apex thereof
A sectional view of one of the radially extending 10 centrally located on the side of said second surface and
members 40 is shown in FIG. 10 and the section there
a hat edge of said triangular cross section on the side of
of designated 1by the letter “A” forms an angle with the
said ?rst surface, 1a plurality of second arms of said
plane of central section 38, although section “A” is itself
disk each of which is attached at one end to said hub in
?at and has a rectangular cross section as shown in FIG.
cantilever manner, a second triangular cross section of
11. The portion of member 46 designated by the letter 15 each of said second arms with the apex thereof centrally
“B” in FIG. 10 is creased at the line 411 to form a V-cross
located on the side of said ?rst surface, a ?at edge of said
second triangular cross section on the side of said second
surface, each of said second arms being shorter than
A disc so formed would have in ?at section “A” an
said ?rst arms and terminating in :a point between adja
easily bendable portion and in crease section “B” a rigid 20 cent ?rst arms with said ?at edge contacting adjacent ?rst
portion. This would results in a disc with a stiff point
arms and having gradually increased length and an in
and a ?exible base which have been found to be desirable
crease in cross sectional area as said hub is approached
characteristics.
whereby ‘the combination of said ?rst and second cross
A plurality of discs of the type shown in FIG. 9 would
sections undergoes an increase as said hub is approached,
be assembled in the same manner as discs of the type 25 a male projection formed on said ?rst surface, a female
shown in the ?rst embodiment. Although no male and
recess formed in said second surface, said male projection
female coupling members are shown on central portion
being of a diameter slightly less than the diameter of
38 of disc 37, it is contemplated that a suitable coupling
said female recess, a shaft having a regular cylindrical
means will be necessary and among others, the coupling
peripheral surface extending through the cylindrical open
structure shown in the ?rst embodiment may be readily 30 ing of said hub and mounting said disk, a plurality of ad
utilized if desired. One skilled in the art might desire
ditional disks identical to said ?rst disk and mounted
to key the individual discs to the shaft in a particular ap
on said shaft in like manner with the ‘female recess of
plication.
each disk receiving the male projection of ‘an adjacent
As in the previous-1y described embodiment, discs of
disk and means limiting rotation of each of the end disks
the type shown in FIG. 9 are assembled into a stack with 35 with respect to said shaft.
section of varying magnitude as illustrated in views
FIGS. 12 through 14 throughout section “B.”
the points of each disc offset with respect to the points
2. ‘A device for modifying the surface characteristic
of adjacent discs. The offset can be accomplished in
the same way it is accomplished in the ?rst embodiment
of a ?brous material in accordance with claim 1 in which
the means limiting rotation of each of the end discs of
or other suitable means may be used.
said plurality with respect to said shaft consists of a stop
Napping devices constructed in accordance with this in 40 member rigidly attached to said shaft, a frictional surface
vention can be used to replace napping devices now in
of said stop member extending ‘from said shaft, a fric
operation, such as the type shown in FIG. 2, and they
tional portion of an end disc adjacent said frictional sur
can be mounted upon cylinders as shown in FIG. 1 at
face and a second stop member rigidly attached to said
varying angles and of varying lengths so that there will
shaft and maintaining said frictional surface and said fric
be little or no valleys and high points formed in the
surface characteristic of the ?brous material.
In use, the material to be napped would be drawn
across the roller shown in FIG. 1, and as the cylinders
[begin to rotate, an action is achieved with is not a scrap
tional portion adjacent.
:3. A device for modifying the surface characteristic
of a fibrous material in ‘accordance with claim 1 in which
the portion of each of said ?rst arms adjacent said second
arms is relatively stiff with respect to the remaining por—
ing action since the prongs of the discs penetrate the
material whose surface characteristic is being modi?ed
and accomplish a plucking action which raises the nap
tion thereof.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
and results in a desired surface characteristic.
Thus, among others, the several objects in the inven
tion as speci?cally aforenoted, are achieved. Obviously,
numerous changes in construction and rearrangement of
464,353
parts might ‘be resorted to without departing from the
spirit of the invention as de?ned by the claims.
I claim:
1. A device for modifying the surface characteristic
of a ?brous material including in combination a disk
formed of a non metallic plastic, a substantially rigid cy
Focht .._\ _____________ .._ Dec. 1, 1891
553,402
Gonlding et al. _______ __ Jan. 21, 1896
2,697,265
Corsan ______________ __ Dec. 21, 1954
692,187
Germany ____________ _- June 14, 1940
FOREIGN PATENTS
60
‘1,860
Great Britain ______________ __ of 1875
506,962
820,383
Great Britain __________ __ June 7, 1939
Great Britain _________ __ Sept. 16, 1959
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