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Патент USA US3080666

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March 12, 1963
w. F. OLLIFF
3,080,555
TRACK TRANSIT ASSEMBLY
Filed Aug. 15, 1957
J
54
FIG-.8
L52
INVENTORI
WILLIAM F. OLLIFF
ATTORNEY.
United States Patent 0 " 1C6
l
v,
assatss
Patented Mar. 12, 1%53
2
get a predetermined distance away and reading deviations
3,98il,656
TRACK TRANSET ASSEMBLY
William F. Glli?, 3165 Ardly Road, SW., Atlanta 11, Ga.
Filed Aug. 15, 1957, Ser. No. 678,336
9 (Iiaims. (Ql. 33-439)
from indicia on the telescope eyepiece or from a scale
associated with the target. In a like manner, determina
tion of slope or curvature may be made by sighting to
an end target and noting where the line of sight passes by
a scale associated with an intermediate target.
From the foregoing, it will be readily seen that it is
This invention relates to a track transit assembly, and
among the objects of the present invention to provide a
is particularly concerned with means for making surveys
novel simple, and improved visual means for determining
of elevation and azimuth in connection with the construc
tion, maintenance, or repair or" railroad tracks.
10 the relative disposition of track as to both elevation and
azimuth.
in operations of the character referred to, it is custom
Another object of the invention is to provide an im
ary to utilize standard surveying instruments in determin
proved sighting means for use in railroad track construc
ing elevations and curvatures. Such instruments include
tion and maintenance by which a line of vision having a
transits, theodolites or like sighting means, together with
trajectory of both horizontal and transverse straight line
rods and targets, as well as chains, stakes, and markers.
characteristics may be projected adjacent the rail.
"the surveying party usually includes an instrument man
Another object of the invention is to provide a transit
and a rod man as well as such chainmen and stake-men as
for use in railroad construction and maintenance by which
may be required for the particular operation. Obviously,
a line of vision adjacent the track and generally parallel
such procedures are expensive as to both equipment and
thereto may be reflected to and magni?ed at a convenient
personnel; furthermore, the mathematical calculations in
location at the normal eye level of an operator.
volved are time consuming and tedious.
A further object of the invention is to provide a target
The present invention provides means for the simpli?
for rail transits which may be magnetically secured to
cation of the techniques involved, the reduction of person
nel required, and apparatus which is less intricate, less
delicate and less expensive than that heretofore available.
By this apparatus the surveying operation may be handled
by a single operator to directly determine the proper dis
position of a rail in azimuth and elevation, so as to effect
either a straight and level line of track, a curved level
track of predetermined are, or a straight track or" predeter
mined slope.
structurally, that form of the invention which is here
set forth by way oi’ example may be generally de?ned as
including a suitably mounted sighting member together
a rail at a suitable location and which may be conven~
iently dislodged from such magnetic attachment for relo
cation.
lt is also an object of the invention to provide in com
bination with an angular rail transit device, a plurality of
interrelated targets which may be conveniently maintained
in predetermined spaced relationship.
The invention also includes as an obiective that of pro
viding a scale for rail construction and maintenance work
including means for supporting the scale in horizontal or
vertical position so as to intercept the line of vision from
with a re?ecting surface in the line of vision from said 35 a ?xed zero ‘setting whereby the relative disposition of a
rail at a distant spot may be determined.
sightin?r
and one or more track engaging targets.
Numerous other objects, features, and advantages of
More speci?cs it , the structure includes a base member
having a telescope mounting which presents the tele
the invention will be apparent from consideration of the
following speci?cation taken in conjunction with the ac»
scope eyepiece at a convenient level for a standing opera
tor and directs the line of vision toward a mirror mounted 40 cornoanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of one form of the apparatus
at, or adjacent, the rail level. The angularity between
of the present invention;
the line of vision from the telescope and the mirror is equal
FIG. 2 is an enlarged vertical cross section of the
to the angular setting of the mirror with respect to the
transit of the invention;
rails, and thus, the trajectory of the reflected line of vision
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view taken on line 3-3 of
will be in a straight horizontal path parallel to the rail. 45
FIG. 2;
An important feature of the invention is the provision of
PEG. 4 is a detail perspective view of one of the tar
target blocks which may be placed as desired
straddle
fashion over the rails and magnetically secured thereto to
gets of the invention;
prevent inadvertent movement. These blocks are dis
posed along the track at spaced distances from the base ,
member and are adapted to support scales which may be
inserted vertically or horizontally therein. The arrange
ment is such that should the targets af?rzed to the rail be
out of the line of vision of the telescope, scales may be
inserted into the targets to extend into the line of vision
so that a single operator at the telescope may readily de~
termine the relation of the rail or target with respect to
such line of vision.
In railroad construction and maintenance, crtain shri
pli?ed techniques for slope and curvature determinations
have been developed, as for instance, the use of the fact
that a chord, of 61.6 feet in length which subtends an
are having a 5,730 feet radius will have an ordinate of one
i nch and that the radius of the are halves for each one
i no‘: increase in the ordinate of an equal length of chord.
It is therefore found that such suitable simpli?ed approxi
mations may be utilized in the application of the present
invention to surfacing and lining railroad track by secur
ing wires or chains of equal length between the sighting
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view taken on line 5-5 of
FIG. 4 with the rail removed therefrom;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of one of the targets hav
ing a scale inserted vertically therein;
FIG. 7 is a similar view of the target having the scale
inserted horizontally therein; and
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of the scale alone.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, the transit
unit of the assembly, in the embodiment here shown by
way of example, includes an elongate base member 1%
adapted to be disposed in inverted U-shaped fashion over
a conventional railroad rail indicated at 11 whereby its
sides “12 will be disposed on either side of the rail. It
will be noted that, since the sides 12 are spaced a distance
not less than the width of the rail tread, the base may be
readily applied and removed by simple vertical movement
with respect to the rail. However, for securing the base
in ?xed position on the rail, magnetic insert pieces 14 are
mounted in the under face thereof whereby the base will
be detachably secured by magnetic force.
The upper face 15 of the base is formed with an in
base and targets. in this manner, determination of either 70 clined internally threaded boss 16 which is adapted to
mount a standard 17 by means of the threaded connec
the straight or curved disposition of level track with re
tion 18. The upper end of the standard 17 is reduced to
spect to the base track may be made by sighting to a tar
3,080,656
3
form a central ?at apertured leaf 19. The leaf 19‘ re
ceives on each side thereof the lower terminal furcations
20 of a pivotal standard extension 21. A pivot bolt and
wing nut assembly 22 provides for retention of angular
adjustment between standard 17 and its extension 21.
4
19. Similarly, the lower end of the scale is provided with
a transverse rib 55 which may be received within the
longitudinal slot 45 as indicated in FIG. 7. By this ar
rangernent, the scale will ‘be in the line of sight of the
telescope although the target is considerably displaced in
azimuth from the line of the rail at the position of the
The outer end of standard extension 21 is hollow as at
base 10. Since the transverse rib 55 extends fully across
23 and thus provides for the slidable reception therein of
the scale 53, it will be seen that the scale may be ar
a telescope support rod 24. The longitudinal location of
ranged for securement in the target blocks to extend out
the rod 24 with respect to the standard extension 21 may
be secured by means of screw 25 extending through a 10 wardly therefrom in either direction. While as indicated
in FIG. 8, the scale is shown as being provided with appro
tapped boss 26 at the outer, upper end of the standard
priate scale marks or indicia on that side from which the
extension. In normal operation, the standard extension
ribs 54 and 55 extend, it will be understood that the scale
21 is in line with standard 17 and thus usually at an angle
may be arranged to face in either direction. Thus, scale
of 45 degrees with respect to the base 10 and rail 11 upon
marks or indicia may be applied to both sides of the scale
which it is mounted. At the outer free end of the tele
and the scale may be inserted with either face toward
scope support rod 24 there is provided a telescope bracket
the line of vision. Obviously, the ribs may be on both
30 having keyways as at 31 which receive the inner key
sides of the scale if so desired.
edges 32 of a conventional telescope mounting base 33,
When a line of track is to be laid, repaired, or main
providing for the removable mounting of the telescope 34.
tained in a generally straight and level condition, the base
It will be apparent, therefore, that this arrangement is
10 may be seated at a known straight and level position
such that the telescope is normally positioned in con
in the track constituting a zero setting, with the standard
venient location for observation therethrough by the rail
17 and mirror 36 ?xed as indicated to project a straight
foreman while in a normal standing position.
level line of sight. If one or more targets are then seated
Above the upper face 15 of the base 10, forwardly of
along the rail, the top surface of the targets will be visible
the standard 17, there is provided a re?ective element
through the telescope and slight deviations will be read
or mirror indicated at 36 which is supported by a boss
able by the usual hairline indicia of the telescope. Should
37. With the standard 17, the extension 21 and the
deviations be vertically downward in excess of that which
telescope itself at an angle to the rail of 45 degrees, the
is in the line of vision, a scale may be inserted in the
mirror 36 is disposed at an angle of 22.5 degrees with
manner of FIG. 6 and the deviation may be read by
respect to the base 10 and the rail 11 ‘so as to provide a
directly viewing the scale as it stands vertically in the
straight line of sight‘ along the rail as required by some
target. Should the deviation in azimuth be greater than
applications of the present invention.
is encompassed in the ?eld of the telescope, the scale may
For use with the transit unit'of the present invention,
be placed in the manner of FIG. 7 to extend laterally
there are provided one‘ or more targets or sight blocks
from the target into the line of vision so that the deviation
40 which are seatable on the rail 11 in inverted U-fashion
may be read directly from the target scale.
with their legs 41 bearing against the sides of the rail in
As to the application of the apparatus of the present
a manner similar to the base 10. As more clearly indi
invention where a line of track is to be laid, repaired, or
cated in FIG. 5, magnetic inserts 42 are imbedded in the
maintained with a substantial slope or curvature, the
underside of the targets and the inner face of the legs
so as to removably retain the same‘ at a set position on 40 base 10 may be seated on the rail along with a plurality
of targets, all of which are separated a predetermined
the rail. In order to locate the targets at predetermined
distance as by the cables 43. If the telescope is then ad
spaced intervals, wires or steel cables 43 may be secured
justed to sight through to an end target, the amount of
to the targets as by welding. ,Where an arrangement of
slope can be determined by reading from a scale asso
two or more targets is used as shown in FIG. 1, the end
of the cable is welded or otherwise attached to the base 45 ciated with one of the intermediate targets, a value of
ordinate may be obtained which can be used in arc ap
10 as at 44. The cable extends therefrom to be secured
proximations as heretofore discussed.
to the intermediate target at the bottom of a longitudinal
In some instances it may be desirable to sight the tele
slot 45 to extend ‘therethrough to the terminal target
scope at remotely distant points or at substantial eleva
at 46.
.
.
Preferably, the height of the targets is such that when 50 tions out of the range of the targets. For this purpose
the extension 21 may be pivotally adjusted to a generally
, seated on straight and level rail,‘ their top surfaces 50
horizontal position shown by the dotted lines of FIG. 1,
will’be in a plane approximately at the center of the mir
the assembly 22 providing for the retention of the exten
ror 36 so that a line of sight through the telescope re
sion at such angularity as may be desired. With this use
?ected from the mirror will include the top surfaces of
of the scope a plumb bob may be desired. An aperturcd
the targets. In such an application, the conventional hair
boss 60 is therefore provided on the extension 24 to
‘ line indicia of the telescope will provide a determination
which a bob may be secured as indicated in FIG. 7.
of variations in elevation and azimuth of the target blocks.
It will be understood that in the practice of the inven
However, where the elevation of the rail at the targets
deviates from that of the rail at the base 10 by a sub
tion numerous changes, modi?cations, and the full use
stantial amount or where a deviation in azimuth is in 60 of equivalents may be resorted to without departure from
excess of the ?eld of vision of the telescope, a scale is
the spirit or scope of the appended claims. It is to be
provided for removable attachment to any selected one
further understood that the invention is not intended to
of said targets to extend the range of operation. This is
be limited to the manner of use herein presented ‘by way
accomplished in the present form of the invention by pro
of example, but those skilled in the art will ?nd many and
viding the target blocks with transverse slots 51 adapted 65 various manners of use not herein set forth.
'to receive the lower end 52 of a scale 53. As shown in
I claim:
FIG. 8, the scale 53 may be fully removed from the tar
1. A track transit assembly including a sighting means
‘gets. When the scale is to be applied vertically, its lower
adapted to be supported at a ?xed location on a rail
end ‘52 is inserted in the transverse slot 51. To retain
road rail, and at least one target adapted to be positioned
the scale in vertical position, there is provided at its
on the same rail, means for positioning and maintaining
lower end 52 a vertically extending rib 54 which is re
said target a ?xed distance from said sighting means, to
ceived in longitudinal slot 45 as shown in FIG. 6. By
gether with base means for magnetically securing said
so positioning the scale, the indicia thereon will be visible
target to the rail at its ?xed distance from said sighting
at the telescope when the target bearing rail is consider
ably below the plane of the rail at the position of the base 75 means, said base means being of such con?guration with
3,080,656
6
5
respect to the rail as to retain said target in alignment
verted U-shaped body, magnetic means for securing said
with the rail while being slid therealong.
body in a ?xed straddled position over a railroad rail,
said body de?ning a transverse slot for the reception of
a scale in vertical and horizontal position for support by
said body, a scale mounted in said body, and means for
retaining said scale in ?xed relation to said body.
2. A track transit assembly including a sighting means
adapted to be supported at a ?xed location on a railroad
rail, and at least one target adapted to be positioned
on the same rail, means for positioning and maintaining
8. A track transit assembly including mounting means
said target a ?xed distance from said sighting means, to
adapted to be movabiy positioned on a railroad rail, a
gether with base means for magnetically securing said
telescopic sighting means mounted on and wholly sup
sighting means and said target at preselected positions on
said rail, said base means being of such con?guration 10 ported by said mounting means, re?ecting means mounted
on and wholly supported by said mounting means for
with respect to the rail as to retain said sighting means
sighting said telescopic means along said rail, a target
and said target in alignment with the rail while being slid
therealong.
adapted to be located on said rail at a predetermined dis
tance from said re?ecting means, ?exible means of a pre
3. A track transit assembly including a telescopic sight
ing means adapted to be mounted in a ?xed position with
determined length interconnecting said sighting means
and said target, and means wholly supported by said rail
respect to a railroad rail, re?ecting means adjacent the
and supporting said target, said last mentioned means fric
upper surface of said rail for sighting said telescopic
tionally engaging said rail so that it is dragged along said
means along the upper surface of said rail, targets adapted
rail by said ?exible means when said mounting means is
to be located on said rail at predetermined distances from
said re?ecting means, a scale mounted by one of said 20 moved along said rail.
9. A track transit assembly including mounting means
targets for selective extension therefrom in a vertical or
adapted to be movably positioned on a railroad rail, a
horizontal direction, and ?exible means of predetermined
telescopic sighting means mounted on and wholly sup
length interconnecting said sighting means and said target.
ported by said mounting means, re?ecting means mount
4. A track transit including a base adapted to be sup
ed on and wholly supported by said mounting means for
ported upon a railroad rail, a standard aligned with said
sighting said telescopic means along said rail, a target
rail and extending upwardly in an inclined direction from
adapted to be located on said rail at a predetermined dis
said base, telescopic sighting means carried by said stand
tance from said re?ecting means, ?exible means of a pre
ard in parallel relationship thereto, and a re?ector mount
determined length interconnecting said sighting means
ed on said base for re?ecting a line of vision along the
rail to said telescopic sighting means, said standard hav 30 and said target means wholly supported by said rail and
supporting said target, said last mentioned means fric
ing pivotally adjustable means to vary the inclination of
tionally engaging said rail so that it is dragged along said
the telescope with respect to said base.
rail by said ?exible means when said mounting means is
5. A track transit including a base adapted to be sup
moved along said rail, and a scale carried by said target.
ported upon a railroad rail, a standard extending upwardly
in an inclined direction from said base, an extension pivot 35
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
ally mounted thereon, telescopic sighting means carried
by said extension in parallel relationship thereto, a re?ec—
UNITED STATES PATENTS
tor on said base arranged to re?ect a line of vision along
the rail to said telescopic sighting means.
6. A track transit including a base adapted to be sup 40
ported upon a railroad rail, a standard extending up
wardly in an inclined direction from said base, an exten
sion pivotally mounted thereon, telescopic sighting means
‘830,640
11,124,247
2,142,472
2,763,932
Brown ______________ __ Sept. 11,
Aldridge ____________ __ Jan. 12,
Funk ________________ __ Jan. 3,
McMillan __________ __ Sept. 25,
2,795,853
Ben?eld et a1. ________ _.. June 18, 1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
carried by said extension, a re?ector on said base adja
cent the upper surface of said rail arranged to re?ect a
line of vision along the rail to said telescopic sighting
means, together with base means for releasably securing
said base to a rail, said base means including magnets so
positioned with respect to the rail as to permit said base
to be slid along the rail.
7. A target for railroad surveying including an in
50
415,723
417,788
547,995
409,365
495,455
190,083‘
Germany ____________ .... June
Germany ____________ _._ Aug.
Germany ____________ __ Apr.
Great Britain ________ __ Apr.
Italy ________________ __ June
Austria ______________ __ June
1906
1915
1939
1956
29, 1925
18, 1925
13,
30,
15,
111,
1932
1934
1954
1957
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