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Патент USA US3080826

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March 12, 1963
Filed Sept. 27, 1960
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Patented Mar. 12, 1963
Still another object is to provide a separation device
that has an expansion chamber which provides a pressure
drop for the initially expanding gases and a venting
Anthony J. Sinishauser, China Lake, Calif., assignor to
the United States of America as represented by the
Secretary of the Navy
Filed Sept. 27, 1960, Ser. No. 58,862
4 Claims. (Cl. 102-49)
(Granted under Title 35, U.S. Code (E52), sec. 266)
The invention herein described may be manufactured
and used by or for the Government of the United States
of America for governmental purposes without the pay
ment of any royalties thereon or therefor.
The present invention relates to a device for separat
ing two objects and in particular to a device which sepa
rates two objects without imparting perturbation to the
separated objects or rupturing the separation device.
Separation devices having a cavity formed by two slid
ably disposed cylinders, each closed at one end and con
system to reduce the gas pressure to atmospheric pres
5 sure thereby preventing rupture of the separation device
and shock to the separated objects.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages
of this invention will become readily appreciated as the
same becomes better understood by reference to the fol
lowing detailed description when considered in connection
with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is an enlarged side elevation sectional view of
the separation device of the present invention; and
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2—2 of FIG. 1.
In FIGS. 1 and 2 are shown the separation device of
the present invention. The primary elements of this
device consist of outer member 11, inner member 13 and
squib 15. Inner member 13 is slidably disposed within
nected to an object to be separated, are known in the 20 outer member 11 thereby forming an enclosed cavity.
Squib 15 is mounted in the enclosed cavity and upon
art. It has been the practice in the use of such devices
to dispose an ignition squib in the cavity and ?ll the
space between the squib and cavity walls with a gas
producing material such as double-base propellant or
ignition thereof the released gases cause separation of the
inner and outer members and the corresponding objects
to which they are connected.
Outer member 11 consists of plate member 19 and
black powder.
25 cylinder 21 which may be integral (as shown) or separate
Two primary difficulties have been encountered with
structures which are rigidly connected as by weld, bolts
devices of this type. The ?rst is rupture of the cavity
or other suitable fastening means, The general plane of
walls and the second is the inducement of large shock
plate member 19 is substantially normal to the axis of
forces or perturbations to the separated objects. Both
of these difficulties arise because of the large uncon 30 cylinder 21 and together form a cavity closed at one,
end. Plate member 19 is circular and consists of inner
trolled quantity of gas that is released primarily by the
plane surface 23, outer surface 25, general radially extend
gas producing materiel and supplemented in part by the
mg peripheral ?ange 29 and shoulders 31 and 33. Outer‘
ignition squib.
surface 25 is shaped to correspond with the contour of
Rupture is largely thewresult of’ completely ?lling the
the object to which it is, connected which is illustrated
cavity of the separation device with gas producing mate
rial which con?nes the initially expanding gases to a 5 by broken lines 35. Flange 29 provides base material by
which outer member 11 is connected to the object 35 as
very small volume and results in high initial pressures.
by means of weld 37. Cylinder 21 has an inner cylin
These high initial pressures impart large forces to the
drical surface 39 and exterior threads 41. Cylindrical;
cavity walls resulting in rupture thereof. Previous
collar 43 has internal threads 45, which mate with threads
methods of overcoming rupture have been by increas
41; and a radially extending ?ange 47. A device 49,-_
ing the thickness of the cavity walls; however, this in
which may be a mercury nutation damper having an,
creases the overall Weight which is generally undesirable.
annular cavity 50 partially ?lled with mercury for damp
The large shock forces or perturbations imparted to
ening gyroscopic nutation frequencies, is mounted on the
the separated objects are primarily due to the large dif
exterior surface of cylinder 21 and collar 43 and is rigidly
ference between the cavity pressure and the ambient
pressure at the instant the two slidably disposed cylinders 45 held in place between a washer '51, which abuts shoulder
31, and flange 47.
become separated. At the instant of separation, the gas
. Inner member 13 consists of plate member 53 and
in the cavity, which is at a relatively high pressure,
cylinder 55 which may be integral (as shown) or sepa
suddenly expands and sets up shock waves which agitate
rate structures which are rigidly connected at by weld,’
the separated objects resulting in undesirable‘ uneven
5 0 bolts or other suitable fastening means.
The general‘
plane of plate member 53 is substantially normal to the
The present invention obviates the disadvantages of the
axis of cylinder 55 and together form a cavity closed at
prior art by providing an initial expansion volume in
one end. Plate member 53 is circular and consists of
the cavity of the separation device and by venting the
inner plane surface 57, outer surface 59 and generally
cavity gas prior to separation of the slidably disposed
cylinders. This initial expansion volume is provided 5 5 radially extending peripheral ?ange 61. Outer surface
59 isshaped to correspond with the contour of the object
by employing a squib designed to occupy less than the
to which it is connected as illustrated by broken lines 63.‘
entire cavity volume and the venting is obtained by pro
Flange 61 provides material by which inner member 13,
vicling slots in the periphery of the inner cylinder adja~
is connected to the object as by means of weld 65.
cent the openend thereof. By providing an initial expan
sion volume, lower initial pressures are realized which 0 The outside diameter of cylinder 55 is slightly less than
the inside diameter of cylinder 21 such that they are slid
do not cause rupture and by providing venting slots, a
able with relation to each other and still prevent excessive
low di?Ferential pressure is obtained upon separation of
gas leakage. The length of cylinder 55 is adjusted so
the cylinders which does not impart shock forces or
perturbations to the separated objects.
that when fully inserted in cylinder 21, there is space be
An object of the present invention is to provide an 6 5 tween the end of cylinder 21 and ?ange 61. In the wall
inexpensive and reliable separation device.
of cylinder 55' longitudinally extending slots 79 and 80
Another object is to provide a separation device that
' are provided which extend from the end to approximately
will not rupture upon actuation.
midway of the length of the cylinder. Preferably these
‘ Still another object is to provide a separation device
slots are oppositely disposed; however, they may be ar
that does not impart perturbations to the objects which 7 0 ranged in any other manner provided the net reactive
are separated.
forces are negligible so that virtually no lateral motionv
,11 and 13 progressively separate, slots 79 and 80 become
exposed to atmosphere and vent the gas in the cavity to
atmosphere. At the instant of venting, the'momcntum
of separating members 11 and 13 and the objects, denoted
ployed so long as'the hereinafter described venting func
tion ‘is obtained.
against surfaces 23 and 57 with corresponding forces
causing separation of members 11 and 13. 'As members
will be imparted to the separation deviceand the objects ~
to which it is connected. Holes ‘or other openings, vary;
ingshaped slots or a varying number of slots may be em
Squib 15 consists of cylindrical casing'71, ignition ele
vmentT'73, gas producing material 75 and insulated lead ' _, by. lines 35 and 6,3, to which they are respectively con
nected, is of su?icient value, that they will become com
wires 77 and 78; Casing 71 is entirely closed, is maderof
hardened copper or other material having similar heat,
pletely separated 'andretain residual velocities in opposite
strength and ductility characteristics and u-ponignition at.
directions. Since the. venting takes place While cylinders
‘least one hole is punctured therein, without fragmentation '
thereof‘, to allow escape of the generated gases. Gas
producing material 75 is disposed in the casing and may.
be lead azide or'other combustible material that has a
low'ignition temperature and a rapid rate of- burning. 15
Ignition element 73 is imbedded in material 75, and is
resistive to current ?ow so that upon the application of a‘
21 and 55 are still in slidable contact, there can be no rela
potential ‘difference across insulated lead wires 77 and
78, the'tem'perature of the element exceeds the ignition
temperature of-‘the material. Element 73 is preferably
tive lateral motion of these cylinders‘ which may be '
caused by the venting. ' In addition, since the ventingjslots
are oppositely disposed, the resulting lateral force is ap
proximately ‘zero and there will be negligible lateral
motionv of membersll and 13 and the corresponding ob—
j‘eots to which theyare connected. At the'instant of
complete separation of members 11 and 13, the cavity is
, at approximately atmospheric pressure and there is virtu-V
20 ally no gas expansion and" no shock waves which could'
coated with the material t'o'assure' ignition by intimate
agitate the separated members and objects attached
contact. Openings arevprovided in member 11for re-, .
ceiving the lead wires 77 and 78 and are of such size that
‘The above-described separation, device is; particularly
, useful for'separation of rocket stages in a rocket system i
there is no gas leakage pastthe lead wires when assem
bled. ‘Lead wire 77 passes through ‘slot 79 and directly 25 of the type described in patent application Serial No.
77,478, ?led, December. 21, 19.60, by Firth Pierce for
to squib 15 through the near side of cylinder 71. Lead
“Scanning Method for'Firing Rocket Stage?’ When it is
wire 78 passes through slot 80 and halfway around squib
used to separate solid propellant rocketmotor stages, one
15 sofas to enter the same side of casing 71 as‘ lead wire
of which is. retromounted, bolts 85 and 87v may be; at-;
77 The ‘length of. casing 71 is less thanwthe' inside
diameter of cylinder 55 and the diameter of casing 71 is 30 tached respectively, to outer surfaces 25 and 59. Cylin
drical openings, which are larger than the outside thread;
less 'tli-anthe longitudinal distance between plane surfaces
diameters, are provided inthecasings of the rocket. motors
23‘a'n'd 57 when’member 13 is fully inserted. The lead
and the bolts. are inserted therethrough. Plates. 19 andv
wires of» squib 15 are adjusted and are sufficiently rigid
537are;welded about, their entire ‘periphery to prevent gas
to‘retain the'ends of the squib approximately equispaced:
from the interior surface 'of‘cylinder 53 and the cylindrical 35 leakage when the rocket motors are ignited. After as- >
sembly, the, igniter ‘elements of therocket motors, which
surface of the casing in spaced relation from plane sur
face 23. 'It is’toybe understood that squib 15 may be . have femalethreads corresponding with the threads of
bolts 8,5'and, 87, are mounted thereon and in abutment
disposed in the cavity formed by-members 11 and 13
with ‘the inner; surface 'of'the rocket motor casings.’ *
any position ‘so long as gases issuing therefrom may.
Obviously many modi?cations and variations of the
readily come into contact‘ with the interior surfaces 40
present invention are possible in the light‘ of the above.
thereof and that other shapes, sizes and designs of squibs
teachings. Itis therefore to be understood that within the.
may be‘ employed. In addition, ribs or extensions may be,
~scope of the-appended claims the invention may be
attached to the exterior surface of the squib or interior
practiced otherwise than as} speci?cally described.
surfaces of members 11 and13 to maintain the desiredv
_' '
' From this it can be seen that a clearancevolume 81 is
provided between "the exterior surface of squib15. and’
Whatjis claimed is‘:
1._ A device for,v separating a pair of rocket stages with
out imparting perturbations thereto, said vdevice compris
ing a?rst hollow cylinder closed at one end, a second hol
the interior surfaces of'the cavity formed‘by members 111
low cylinder closed atone end, said second cylinderv having.
" The operation ofrrthe device shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 is V50 a major portion thereof disposed within said ?rst cylinderl
and‘ 13 for purposes hereinafter described.
‘ .
’ ’
as followsr Upon the application of a voltage‘ acrossv
lead wires 77 and 78, element 73 is heated and,’ ignites
material 75 which completely burns almost instantane-v
ously. "Since squib 15 is 'supported'by the ,leadvwires so,
that’. there is considerableclearance about its entire outer
and closely'?tted thereto with a slidable ?t, said cylinders,
forming an enclosed cavitytherebetween, said slidable ?t
constituting the sole connection between said cylinders,
a cylindrical squib closed at both ends and having an out
~surface, the gas generated by material 75 rapidly expands.
less'than the_inysider diameter of said, second’ cylinder and
insaid ?rstcylinder and solely supporting saidjsquib such‘
into clearance volume 81. " It should be particularly'noted
that the entire cavity volume de?ned by members 11, and‘
I3 is not occupied and the generated gas is fr'ee'to expand
to a pressure much lower than would be the'lcase if the
gas producing materialv were strictly con?ned.v
sideldiameter less than the distance between the interior
surfaces of. the closed ends of said cylindersand a length“
having electrical lead lines, said lead lines being mounted
The relationship between the clearance volume and the’
volume ofthe squib (which is generally directly‘related
that vthe closed ends thereof are approximately equispaced
from the. interior cylindrical surface of said second cylin
der’ and thepcylindrical surface of said squib is spaced
from said’ interior. surfaces thereby forming an expan- '
to the energy released by the gas producing material) is ' siren‘ volume between, the, exterior surface of said squib
such thatin the expansion process the gas pressure'rises 65' and the interior surfaces of said enclosed cavity, said sec
ond cylinder having venting means in. the.v cylindrical
to a value which. is considerably lessthan that which
wall adjacentthe open end thereof.
would. rupture the wall- of cylinder 21. - In addition,'since“ 7
2. The device,‘ of claim 1 wherein said: venting means
the, ?ow. ofv gas into thisivolume is relatively unimpeded,
comprises a‘plurality of longitudinally extending slots in
equallpressure. is almost instantaneously applied to all
surfaces. of squib 15 and there isv therefore no. net force 70 the'wall of said second cylinder which extend from the
end thereof to approximatelymidway of the length of
acting upon, the. squib land it will be retained in a. ?xed
position with relation to memberll by lead .wires77 and.
7.8 and will notbe, free to strike or. agitate the separation ,
the second cylinder, and‘ said electrical lead lines pass
through said slots.
3. A mechanism for completely separating vtwo rocket
The instantaneously generated gas creates a pressure 75 stages without imparting perturbations thereto, said mech
anism, comprising a ?rst cup-like member having an
open end and a bottom secured to one of the stages, a .
second cup-like member having an open end and a bottom
wall disposed within said ?rst member with a close-?tting
slidable ?t between the walls of said members, said walls
constituting the sole connection between said stages, said
members de?ning a chamber therebetween, said cylin
secured to the other of said stages, said second cup-like
member having a major portion thereof disposed within
drical wall of said second member having a pair of diamet
said ?rst cup-like member with a close-?tting slidable
rically opposite slots therethrough, a pair of electrical
fit between said members, said slidable ?t constituting the
lead wires extending into said chamber, one of said wires
sole connection between said members, said members
passing through one of said slots and the other wire pass
together forming a closed chamber therebetween, said
ing through the other of said slots, an electrically-ignitable
second cup-like member having a pair of diametrically 10 smoke-producing squib of lesser dimensions than said
disposed slots therein extending from the open end there
chamber, said squib being connected to said wires and
of to approximately midway the length thereof, a pair of
supported solely thereby within said chamber in spaced
wires extending into said chamber, one of said wires pass
relation to the walls thereof; whereby gas released from
ing through one of said pair of slots and the other wire
the gas-producing squib expands into said chamber and
passing through the other slot, and a gas producing device 15 causes gradual sliding separation of said members, and
supported within said chamber in spaced relation to the
said ‘slots vent the gas to atmosphere prior to the com
walls thereof, said wire being connected to said device
plete separation of the members.
and comprising the sole support therefor.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
4. A mechanism slidably interconnecting a pair of
rocket stages and adapted for gradual complete separa
tion thereof without imparting perturbations to the stages,
said mechanism comprising a ?rst cup-like member se
cured to one of said stages and having ‘an inner cylin
drical wall, a second cup-like member secured to the other
of said stages and having a cylindrical wall with an out
Marvin ______________ __ Mar. 17,
Kee _________________ __ July 2,
Musser ______________ __ Dec. 13,
Allen et a1. __________ __ July 31,
side diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the
inner cylindrical wall of said ?rst cup-like member, said
second member having a major portion of its cylindrical
Burrows ____________ __ Dec. 10, 1957
Nessler _____________ __ Apr. 28, 1959
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