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Патент USA US3080923

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March 12, 1963
Filed April 30, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet l
Vhis Attorney
March 12, 1963
?iìed' AprilAso, 1959 _
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Thomas M. Hamill
his Attorney
March 12,1963
5 Sheets-Shea?l 3
Filed April 30, 1959
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his Attorney
March 12, 1963
Filed April 30, 1959
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Thomas M, Hamill
his Attorney
March'lZ, 1963
Filed April-'_ 1.59„ 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Thomas M. Hamill
his Attorney
United States Patent` 0 ” ICC
Patented Mar. 12, i963
changer of the present invention is a vapor to liquid heat
exchanger in which heat is transferred between gaseous
Thomas M. Hamill, 11 St. Claire Ave.,
Oid Greenwich, Conn.
Fiied Apr. 30, 1959, Ser. No. 809,999
2 Claims. (Cl. 165_72)
This invention‘relates to heat exchangers and this appli
cation is a continuation-in-part of my copending applica
tion Serial No. 464,104, tiled October22, 1954, and _now
The primary object of the invention is to provide anim
and liquid media, the gaseous medium herein being
termed “vapor” and usually being a gas, such as steam,
which is in the liquid phase at room temperature. While
of especial value in the form disclosed in heating pine
apple juice during processing of the latter, it will be recog
nizedthat the heat exchanger of the present invention has
wide application in the transfer of heat between vapors
and liquids.
The illustrated heat exchanger is comprised of a piural
ity of tube banks 1, contained in or enclosed by a shell or
proved vapor to liquid heat exchanger of plural pass
jacket 2, of rectangular cross-section, the shell 2 being
doors for ready access to the tubes of the connected banks
banks a corresponding or counterpart tube with which it
banded laterally at spaced points throughout its length to
design on the‘liquid side wherein flow of liquid from one
to a succeeding tube bank is reversed by a compartment 15 withstand the vapor pressures‘to which it is subjected by
suitable means, such as the illustrated interlocked channel
connecting and discrete to those tube banks and having a
irons 3. The several tube banks 1 are arranged side by
return wall ‘of such construction and arrangement as to
side or in superimposed relation and each is comprised of
minimize the pressure drop incident to the ñow reversal.
one or a plurality, and preferably the same number, of
Another object of the invention is to provide a vapor to
liquid-conducting tubes 4, the several tubes desirably be
liquid heat exchanger having a compartment of the char
ing of ‘the same diameter and having parallel axes and
acter described for reversing the flow of liquid between
those within each bank being equally spaced, so that for
a pair of tube banks wherein the return wall of each corn
each tube of each bank there is in each of the adjoining
partrnent is built into and removable with one of the end
and instead of being ñat over its portion confronting the 25 is aligned in a direction normal to the banks. The several
tubes 4 are anchored at their opposite ends in headers or
tube ends, is substantially cylindrically concave in its en
tube sheets 5, one of which is fixed to the shell 2 and the
tirety, with consequent marked decrease in the pressure
other of which is connected to the shell by an expansion
cir-op attendant the reversal of iiow.
, A further object of the invention is to provide a vapor 30 joint 6 formed of an expansion plate 7 encircling and dis
posed substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of the
to liquid heat exchanger having for each adjoining pair of
shell and a frusto-pyramidal'hood or cover »S rigidly con
tube banks betweenwhich flow of liquid is to be reversed,
nected to the expansion plate 7 and the adjoining tube
a cylindrically concave return wall built into an adjoin
sheet and tapering or inclined inwardly beyond the ex
ing end door -of the heat exchanger and forming with
the confronting tube sheet a substantially semi-cylindrical, 35 pansion plate so as to join the associated tube sheet within
the lateral confines of the shell. The opposite ends of the
flow-reversing chamber embracing and discrete to the con
heat exchanger are enclosed by end doors 9, each of
tiguous ends of the tubes of the pair’of banks.
which, when in service, is sealed fluid-tight to the adjoin
An additional object of the invention is to provide a
ing of the tube sheets 5, as by bolts 1t), the end doors also
vapor to liquid heat exchanger of the tube type and of
plural liquid pass design, wherein an expansion joint con 40 preferably being hinged to the associated of the tube sheets
nected to a header serves as a draw-off for both condensed
to facilitate their opening and access to the tubes 4 for
and uncondensed vapor.
cleaning or other purposes.
A principal feature of the invention is the interior con
’_ Another object of the invention is to provide an irn
struction of the end doors 9 by which each, with the
proved vapor to liquid heat exchanger which is compact,
of high efficiency and adapted for single or plural unit 45 connected tube sheet 5, is made to provide one or, more
generally, a plurality of compartments 11 for reversing
the flow of fluid between a pair of adjoining tube banks.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will -ap
While the concept in general is old in heat exchangers of
pear hereinafter in the detailed description, be particularly
the tube type of employing compartments formed by parti
pointed out in the appended claims and be illustrated in
the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE l is a side elevational View of a preferred
embodiment of the heat exchanger of the present inven
50 tioning end doors in lieu of individual reverse bends for
reversing llow between a plurality or multiplicity of tube
banks, its applications have been on a rather hit or miss
basis, with the primary objective ready access to the tubes
and this attained at an inordinate expense to operating
FIGURE 2 is a plan view of the heat exchanger of FIG
55 eíiiciency because of the greatly increased pressure drop
URE l;
between the tube banks. The -hit or miss nature of such
FIGUREv 3 is a vertical sectional view taken along theV
applications is demonstrated by all prior heat exchangers
lines 3_3 of FIGURE l;
FIGURES 4 and 5 together are a vertical section on an
of this type, none of which is uniform in its flow-revers
Referring now in detail to the drawings, in which like
loss Aof Vpressune attendant the flow reversal if two con
ditions are fultilled, one, that-each compartment be open
ing chambers and most of which use their chambers in
enlarged scale, taken along the lines 4_4 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 6 is an end elevational view7 partly in vertical 60 discriminately, some to connect two and others a multipli
city of tube banks. Nor is there any indication in such
section, taken along the lines 6_6 of FIGURE 4;
prior art that the return Walls of such chambers should
FIGURE 7 is a vertical sectional view taken along the
be of any particular shape, even though the function of
lines 7_7 of FIGURE 4;
each is essentially the same. Thus, in the compartments
FIGURE 8 is a vertical sectional view taken along the
65 of a single heat exchanger, the return walls of some com
lines 8_8 of FIGURE 5;
partments will be arcuately concave, while those of
FIGURE 9 is a vertical sectional view taken along thev
others will be substantially flat.
lines 9_9 of FIGURE 5; and
Bringing -order out> lorf chaos, it has now been found
FIGURE l0 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view
that the advantage of now-reversing compartments in
on an enlarged scale, taken along the lines 10-10 of
70 ready access to the tubes can be retained with a rninimumi
reference characters designate like parts,'the heat ex
only to a pair of adjoining tube banks, and the other,
that each compartment be substantially semi-cylindrical
with its return wall substantially cylindrically concave
and the ratio of its width to its `depth about 2:1. Taking
as the `best that the prior art had to offer, a heat exchanger
fulfilling the tirst of these conditions but not the second,
each compartment having a return wall presenting a ñat
surface to the ends `of the connected tube banks, com
doors and comparable with that of individual reverse
bends, While retaining the advantage inherent in inabuild
ing «the return »walls of ready accessibility to the tubes.
For leading the fluid, whose temperature is to be in
creased or otherwise varied, to and from the heat ex
changer, the end compartment 11a in one of the end doors
9, i.e., the door at the left of the heat exchanger as
viewed in the ligues, lare connected, respectively, to inlet
parative tests, even at low operating velocities of about
and outlet manifolds 17 and 18. Of the two manifolds,
41/2 feet per second, have shown that a heat exchanger 10 the inlet manifold 17 will normally be connected to a
equipped with compartments meeting both conditions
will have at least 10% better heat transfer for .the same
initial head, due to the lesser pressure drop, and the
suitable pump (not shown) for driving the fluid through
the heat exchanger, and the outlet manifold 18 to dis
charge piping (not shown), or either or both of the mani
expectancy curves are such as to indicate a further in
folds may be connected to another heat exchanger, de
crease 4in this eñiciency to as much as l5-20% with more 15 pending on whether the heat exchanger is to be used alone
normal operating velocities of 7-8 feet per second.
In fulfilling the lforegoing conditions as to its flow-re
or grouped with others.
If desired to check the ef
iiciency of the Iheat exchanger periodically, thermometers
versing compartments, the heat exchanger of this inven
(not shown) may be mounted in the end compartments
tion has each of its end doors 9 divided on its inner face
11a of one or both end doors, through suitable, normally
into a plurality of recesses or concavities 11b «by `dividing 20 plugged, openings 19.
members, ribs or partitions 12 which, with the recesses,
Of multiple pass design on the vliquid side in the man
extend transversely `or laterally of the door, parallel to the
ner above described, the heat exchanger also preferably
tube banks 1 `and normal to the axes of the tubes 4, the
‘is multi-pass on the vapor side and the vapor also pref
ribs joining or merging with and the recesses being closed
erably iiows counter to the flow of the liquid, ie., the
at their ends by the side or lateral walls 13 of the door. 25 liquid and vapor enter the heat exchanger Afrom opposite
Embracing or straddling an adjoining pair of tube banks
sides and exist correspondingly. For the latter purpose
and sealed, separated or made discrete from each ad
the steam or other vapor is introduced into the tube sheets
joining compartment by engagement of one of the ribs
S through an inlet or feed pipe 20 positioned on the
12 with the end gasket 14 interposed »between each end
liquid-discharge side of the heat exchanger. Within the
do-or 9 and the associated tube sheet 5, each of the re 30 shell the vapor is directed through a plurality of passes
cesses 11b forms with the included portion of the as
by one or more, here two, ‘baffles 21 extending length
sociated tube sheet one of the dow-reversing compart
‘wise of the shell 2 and each interposed between ad
ments 11 for receiving fluid trom one bank of tubes
joining of tube banks 1, the baffles dividing the interior
and passing it on to the next bank. In the preferred
of the shell into a plurality of longitudinally extending
construction, in which the tube banks 1 are uniformly 35 vapor-pass passes 22. Each of .these longitudinal baffles
spaced and have the same number of tubes 4 and the end
21 terminates at one end 23 short of one of the tube sheets,
the spaced end being staggered relative to that of thte pre
doors 9 are rectangular, the plurality of compartments
ceding baflie, so that the vapor at the end of each pass
11 are uniform »or identical in their dimensions as well
as in their shape. In any case, the compartmenting of 40 will reverse its flow and proceed in the opposite direction
through the passage of the succeeding pass.
the end doors is relatively staggered, so that the banks
of the pair open to a compartment in one end door are
open to different compartments in the other end door,
the compartments of the two doors thus causing the
liquid to flow in turn through each succeeding bank and
reverse its direction of iiow between banks.
Conveniently cast integrally with the end doors 9, if
the latter are made of cast iron or like matetrial, «the tube
end-confronting, return or iioW-reversing walls 16 of the
compartments f11 are substantially cylindrically concave,
In the conventional vapor to liquid heat exchanger the
batiie or bañies for reversing iiow of the vapor normally
tre spaced equi-distantly so that the passages for the
several passes are of the same cross-section.
This has
»the disadvantage of a progressive decrease in the velocity
of the Vapor due to the pressure drop, with correspond
ing decrease in -heat transfer toward the vapor discharge
end of the heat exchanger. To counteract this pressure
drop, the longitudinal baffles 21 o-f the instant heat ex
not only over the area each presents »to the ends of the 50 changer are so spaced relative to each other and to the
shell 2 that the cross-sectional area of the passage 22
pair of tube banks 1 which its compartment 11 connects,
but in their entirety. Each of the compartments 11, in
fulfillment of the second of the two conditions, being
substantially semi-cylindrical with the ratio of its width
for each of the passes is less than that for the preceding
pass, the progressively decreasing cross-sectional area
counteracting the pressure drop and maintaining the vapor
to its depth on the order of 2:1 and its shape or con» 55 velocity `and heat transfer high throughout the several
figuration, when, as here, the tube sheets 5 are flat, being
A second factor responsible for reduced efi’iciency in
determined by the shape of its return wall 16, the latter
the conventional heat exchanger is that vapor condensing
in turn is substantially semi-cylindrical and has the same
in one pass tends to deposit 4as droplets on the tubes
ratio between its width and depth. To maintain its dis
creteness to the pair of adjoining tube »banks which its 60 contained in a succeeding pass, with consequent partial
blanketing and decrease in the heat «transfer coefiicient
compartment connects as well las further «to minimize
of the latter. This tendency is here overcome by sloping
resistance to reversal of iiow, each of the return walls
each of the longitudinal baiiies 21 laterally or trans
16 is made to embrace the contiguous ends of the con
versely, so as to provide a transverse gradient for causing
nected pair of banks and sealingly engage the adjoining
tube sheet thereabout and at lthe same time is restricted 65 any vapor condensate to flow towards a longitudinal side
or side wall 24 of the shell 2. Once at the side wall 24,
dimension or span of the connected banks. The compart
the condensate is enabled .to flow down it to the bottom
ments 11 of Athe present heat exchanger are each substan
or bottom wall 25 of the shell through a plurality of
in its width substantially to the corresponding outside
tially semi-cylindrical and discrete or open only to the
longitudinally spaced slots 26 between the side edges of
tubes 4 of the pair of tube Ybanks 1 which it connects. 70 the bañies 21 ‘and the shell, thus effectively shielding the
Quite evidently by minimizing turbulence and consequent
tubes of the next pass from this condensate. The desired
resistance to fluid ñow during pass reversal, the described
slotting at the sides of the baffles may conveniently be
compartments impart to the heat exchanger of this inven
produced by the use of baffles of less Iwidth than the
tion an operating etiiciency markedly better than prior
shell which, for support, are spot-welded `at intervals to
exchangers having how-reversing walls îbuilt into` their end 75 the side Walls 24.
Were the vapor ilo-W directed by the longitudinal bañles
tube sheets, said tubes being arranged in a plurality of
21, alone, the desired high vapor velocity throughout
substantially parallel tube banks ,for passing liquid through
the shell would be obtained, but without assurance 0f
full contact between the vapor and Iall of the tubes. Such
:full contact and correspondingly high heat «transfer ef
ñciency, is here obtained by transverse baíiles 27 each
connected at three edges to the shell 2, las b-y spot-weld
said shell between a liquid inlet and a liquid Ioutlet therein,
said banks each including the same number of tube-s each
ing, and having an irregular fourth edge 28 spaced from
the confronting of the side walls 24 -of 'the shell. The
aligned in a direction normal to said banks with a tube
of each adjoining bank, end doors disposed outwardly of
said tube sheets and closing ends of said shell `and con
fronting opposite ends of said banks, and »relatively stag
gered compartments at opposite ends of said tube banks
spaced irregular edges 28 of the transverse bañles 27, 10 each for connecting an end of a bank to an adjoining
end ont a succeeding bank for reversing iiow of liquid
like the spaced ends 23 of .the longitudinal bañles, are
therebetween, each compartment including a concave
relatively staggered, so «that the vapor will be directed
semi-cylindrical return -wall in one Aof the end -doors and
by each transverse baffle towards an opposite side of the
embracing and substantially equal in width to .the out
shell and :thus have the desired motion cross-wise as well
as longitudinally of the shell in each pass. The high 15 side span of contiguous ends of the pair of tube banks
connected thereby, and said return wall sealingly en
velocity attendant the progressive decrease in cross-sec
gaging .the adjoining tube sheet about said ends of said
tional area of the several vapor passes, coupled with the
connected pair lfor limiting access thereto to its com
cross-flow derived from the transverse battles 27, ef
fectively eliminates the rforrnlati‘on of stratified pockets of
2. A vapor to liquid heat exchanger comprising -a shell
vapor within the shell. In addition to their production 20
of cross-flow, the transverse bafñes 27 may also be em
substantially rectangular in cross-section, `spaced tube
tubes ‘4 it is ydirected «into 'a chamber 29 within .the ex
substantially parallel -tube banks for passing liquid
sheets in said shell adjacent ends thereof and closing ends
ployed as intermediate tube supports, eac-h of the illus
of -a vapor compartment therein, a plurality of tubes of
trated two bañles, `for this purpose, receiving and sup
equal diameter in said shell and extending through said
porting a different bali bf the tubes.
As the vapor completes the last of its passes over the 25 tube sheets, said tubes being arranged in a plurality of
through said shell between a liquid inlet and la liquid
-outlet therein, said banks each including the same num~
ber of tubes each aligned in a `direction normal to said
plate 7 and the hood 8. 'In the chamber 29 and pro
jecting at one end into the sump 30 fforming its lower 30 banks with a ltube of each adjoining bank, end doors dis
posed outwardly of said tube sheets and closing ends of
portion is a conduit for exhausting uncondensed vapor
pansion joint A6, which encircles the shell and is deiined
by the confronting walls «of the shell 2, the expansion
from the lheat exchanger, the conduit here being in the
Vfor-m of a pair of pipes 31 which extend upwardly in
the chamber »alongside the shell »and project at their upper
said -shell and confronting opposite -ends of said banks,
and relatively staggered compartments at opposite ends
of said tube banks each for connecting an end of a bank
ends through the hood 8. At the same time any con 35 to an `adjoining end of a succeeding bank for reversing
ilow oi liquid therebetween, each compartment includ
densate entrained in the vapor or flowing oil .the bottom
ing a concave semi-cylindrical return wall in and ex
wall 2‘5 -ot the shell 2, drops into the sump 30 and is dis
tending transversely of one of :the end doors «and em
charged therefrom through a discharge lopening 32.
Either the natural hydraulic gradient or, and preferably, 40 bracing contiguous ends of the pair of tube banks con
nected thereby, fand- sai‘d return Wall sealingly enga-ging
mounting of the heat exchanger so that the bottom wall
the -adjoining tube sheet about said ends of said connect/ed
25 of its shell 2 slopes toward .the sump 30, may be
pair f-or llimiting yaccess .thereto to its compartment.
relied upon yfor causing condensate ou the bottom wall to
ilo-w therefrom into the sump.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
From the above detailed description, it will be ap 45
parent that there has been provided an improved vapor
to liquid heat exchanger iwhich, while possessing yother
important features, improves over prior exchangers main
ly by use of lflow-reversing compartments which have
their return walls in the end doors for ready access to 50
the .tubes and by their particular construction yand ar~
rangement attain this objective without the sacrifice in
operating efficiency heretofore considered essential. It
should be understood that the `described land disclosed
embodiment is merely exemplary of «the invention and 55
that `all moditications are intended to `be included which
do not depart vfrom either the spirit of the invention or
the `scope of «the lappended claims.
Having described my invention, l claim:
1. A vapor to liquid heat exchanger comprising a shell 60 2,530,443
substantially rectangular in cross-section, spaced tube
equal diameter in said shell and extending 'through said
Maguire et al. ________ __ Dec. 31, 1946
Walker ______________ __ Nov. 2l, 1950
sheets in said shell adjacent ends thereof and closing ends
of a vapor compartment therein, a plurality of tubes of
Sims ______________ __ June 26,
Patitz _______________ __ Apr. 20,
:Wiki ________________ __ Ian. 24,
Bancel ______________ __ Oct. 27,
Wagner _____________ __ July 24,
Hughes ______________ __ Ian. 29,
Bancel ______________ __ Feb. 10,
Potter ______________ __ Oct. 25,
O’Dcnnell __________ __ »Fe-b. 13,
Maniscalco ___________ __ Nov. 6,
Saco ________________ __ Mar. 14,
IFrance ______________ __ Oct. 23, 1951
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