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Патент USA US3081041

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March 12, 1963
R. H. LlvEsAY
3,081,031
cALcupATING APPARATUS FOR PRICE AND voLÚME: INDI cATORs
Filed March 18. 1958
'
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
BY
,
A ¿LA ,
ATTORN EYS
»
March 12, 1963
R. H. LlvEsAY
3,081,031
çALcULATING APPARATUS FoR PRICE AND VOLUME: INDICATORS
Filed March 18, 195e
s sheets-sheet 2
IA.LIël
DWI
ATTORNEYS
March 12, 1963
_
’
R. H. LIVESAY
3,081,031
CALCULA'IING APPARATUS FOR PRICE AND VOLUME INDICATORS
Filed March 18, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
BÉROBERT H. LIVESAY
ATTOR N EYS
f.
n
1C@
ìûßldidi
Patented Mar. 12, 1963
i.
3,681,031
CALCULATING APPARATUS FÜR PRICE AND
K
VOLUME INDICATQRS
Robert H. Livesargwihnington, Dei., assigner to Sun Gil
Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of New
`llerse ,
y Fiied Mar. i8, 1958,.Ser.No. 722,211
V5 Claims. (tCl. 23S-166)
This invention relates to calculating apparatus par
n
á
»FIGURE 3i is a diagram showing the'a‘pplication of the
invention to division;
FIGUREv 4’ is a diagram illustrating a bidirectional ring
counter and a digitalr motor.
There will first be described with reference to FIGURE
l an embodiment of the invention adapted to the type
of multiplication involved in calculation of the price of a
-delivered fuel. Following description of FIGURE I
there will then be> discussed theA theory of operation in
volved.
There is indicated at 2 a fuel line leading to Ia delivery
evaluation of summations of multiplied quantities, evalu~
nozzle by‘which the fuel may be introduced-into a ve*
ation of integrals, etc.
hicle tank. The line 2 includes a conventional volu
The present invention particularly relates to calculating
apparatus in which pulses are-counted in a fashion which, 15 metric meter 4 which is provided with an output shaft
the rotations of-which correspond to the quantity of fuel
though statistical in nature, will give rise to results
delivered. The output shaft drives a pulsegenerator 6
`which may-be made as accurate as desired. It maybe
to provide electrical pulses corresponding in number to
generally characterized hy a statement that it involves'a
>the quantity of fuel measured by the meter. To cite-'a
source of pulsesfrouted to a plurality of channels with
selection in the several channels of particular fractions 20 typical `figure, the pulse generator may produce one
thousand pulses per gallon. The pulse generator may
'of the pulses therein with accumulation of the pulses so
take numerous forms and is illustrated as involving a
resulting. The adoption of this procedure results in effec
slotted disc 8 driven by the meter output shaft arranged
tive multiplication in various ways which will be here
to interrupt a beam of light passing from a lamp 10 to a
after described, and further extensions of the system are
adapted for use in effecting division. Summation and 25 - photocell 12 -which is connected to an amplifier 14. -As
will be obvious, there might be here used for pulse gen
vintegration of products may also be provided. In par
eration a magnetized disc having pulse locations thereon
ticular, the procedure lends itself to simplicity of decimal
associated with a magnetic pickup, mechanical inter
representations such as are usually most desirable.
rupter means, or the like. The >amplifier 14 may be pro
In one` of its simplest forms, the invention is applicable
vided with conventional means to provide at its output
tothe computations of prices of fuels delivered to vehicle 30 properly
shaped pulses.
ticularly adapted for effecting multiplication, division,
tanks, effecting in simple fashion the multiplication of
The output pulsesV are delivered to a first stage ring
volume delivered by unit volume price. At the present
counter 16 which is followed by a series of similar ring
"time, gasolinestationsare provided with the conventional
counters at 13,20, -22 and 24. These ring counters are
“pumps” which involve metersproviding inputs to me
chanical variatore involving complex gearing and set for 35 here merely diagrammed since they may take numerous
well »known forms. They may, for example, consist of
the prices of -unit volumes. The mechanical intercon
conventional series of binary units provided by therm
Anections involved require, practically, th-at the pumps
ionic tubes, they may be- counters of transistor type, or,
shouldbe located'adjacent to the vehicles being serviced,
in a quite simple form, they may consist of gas filled
and- this results in the conventional physical lay-out of
v’gasoline stations. In accordance with the present inven 40 tubes having electrodes arranged in a circular'series to
provide, upon the reception of pulses, stepping about of
tion, the lay-out of such stations may be advantageously
the'fired conditions of the electrodes as in the well-known
Vmodified with considerable. savings in space by providing
relatively simple ovehead vhose delivery arrangements
“Decatrom” In the'case of each of these counters, the
final stage is coupled back to the iirst stage so that the
lwith remotey computation of prices which may be ex
hibited on conveniently located boards. For a` given 45 digit count is repetitive. Though not indicated in the
figure, it will be understood that these counters have con
number of delivery hose and nozzle arrangements, there
ventional zeroizing means associated therewith so that at
lmaybe provided-'aconsiderably less number of calculat
ing ork computing devices which may be selectively
thev beginning of each period of operation their counts
~ witched to the delivery stations. As .a result, the entire
may start from zero.
Such ring counters are also pro~
50 vided with outputs designed to deliver pulsesupon the
reaching ofseach new count, and such connections are
As will appear, the invention is of much more general
illustrated for the first three ring counter stages at 26,
`applicability and may be used, for example, for effecting
23 and 3€). The ring counters are staged by the inter~
continuous’multiplication of two variables with summa
~tion or integration of the products over particular periods.
connections 32, 34, 35 and 38 so that each counter de
Thevarious objects of the invention relate »generally 55 livers to the next following one a single pulse when it
reaches` a count' of ten, it being assumed in the present
Vto the foregoing and tovarious detailsoftapparatus and
4operation which will become more apparent froml the
instance that the counters are. decade counters since it is
following’description, read‘ in conjunction with the ac
desired to provide the results in a decimal system. It
companying drawings, in which:
will become evident, without further discussion, that the
FLGURE l isla diagram showing an embodiment «of 60 counters and their associated parts may be arranged for
>the invention particularly adapted >to the `multiplication
athe‘uutimate exhibition of a price in non-decimal mone
-of a variable quantity withan adjusted fixed quantity, the
tary systems-_) Associated with'the‘last three ringcount
diagram being illustrative of the application ofthe in
ers mayîberexhibiting devices as indicated at ‘tti indicative
yvention tothe dispensing and pricing of ïfuel;
of; the >total volume’of fuel delivered. For this purpose
FIGURE 2 is a-diagram illustrating afurther embodi 65 'the indicating devices
42, ¿teland 46 are respectively conment. of the invention.particularly` adapted forV the con
necte'dto the three' fìnalring'counter stages 20, 22 and 24.
tinuous multiplication of two variable quantities to pro
These indicators may be in the form of gas tubes con
videsummation or integration, they diagram also showing
taining electrodes rin the Y.forms of numerals to show di
Vthefashion inwhich the -.inventionfis adapted. to receive
inputs from analog devices and provide an analog out 70 rectly,rby glassglo‘w, the‘pertinent digits. A decimal point
38 may be provided in the lform of a continuously glow
.run
ing gas tube. This exhibition'of total fuel delivered may,
station equipment’may bemade much less expensive.
" 3,081,031
«
4
gallons of gasoline at M cents per gallon to be exhibited
of course, be provided by mechanical counters coupled
on a dispensing “pump” or on a panel associated with a
pump. If pulses are generated by a meter at the rate,
say, 1,000 pulses per gallon, l0n+1 may be 1,000. Sup
in conventional fashion to the ring counters.
The various output leads at 26, 28 and 30, one of each
group corresponding to Aeachusigniiìcant digit in its ring
pose the price M is fixed to the tenth of a cent per gallon,
counter, are connected to contact'points which may be
say- 27.94 cents, and the total price is to be given to the
selectively switched by _means of switch elements 50, '52
tenth of a cent. Then pn=2, p„_1=7, pn_2=9 and the
and 54 which are connected to the common line 56.
lsubsequent- p’s are zero. Assume in a particular delivery
'there are delivered 11.3 gallons. The total number of
¿These switches are arrangedasdiagrammed, so that, ¿for
example in the case of switch 50, _the lead corresponding
lto 'the digit 1 in the ring counter maybe connected, or
the two. leads corresponding to the.- digits 1> and l_2,A >r`,or
10 pulses then produced in the delivery will be 11,300.
Suppose, now, that provision is made for the deliveries
of fractions of the total number of pulses corresponding
,other series ranging from lv tothehighest digit for- which
seting is desired.4 For example, as shown, the contact
-50 engages the leads correspondingv to digitsl and Zand,
,to
the
.
_as will appear, has a setting corresponding` to a digit 2
fractions
.
I
'
_
y
>
Y
p_,l’pvl
>10102
_ Then the right hand:y side of the last equation becomes:
>in the tens place of' the price yper gallonI in cents. In
similar fashion, the switchelementvSZ is in a position
corresponding to sevenl cents. The switch element` 54 is r-f
11,300~%Ó+11,300f%00+1.1,300%00o
in arposition correspondingrto 0.9 cent. The total price
per gallon'corresponding to the settings illustrated is 27.9 20 which, tothe extent- of the integral number ofpulses rep
resented by each term is:
cents.
'
..
.
"
.
_
.
,
'
Y
Pulses emitted> from the _common line 56`pass to the
conventional decimal counter 53 which provides an out- " '
i If these pulses are counted on a decimal counter with
put to a total price exhibiting means indicated at 60 and>
which may take one of the forms described above with 25 ,the decimal point suitably assigned, the total price is
given as $3.152, accurate to the tenth of a cent.
reference to the quantity indicator 40. A decimal point
Considering, now, the application of the foregoing to
is provided at 62 and the exhibited total price shown in
_FlGURE l is 3.152 dollars, the price being given to the i' .r a gasoline station„it will be recognized that at any usual
tenth of 4a cent.
t
l
It will be evident from what has been described, that
.gasoline station the “duty cycle” of the computing ap
paratus is quite low; i.e., actual delivery of gasoline oc
30
cupies only a small fraction of total time. YEven assumß
vvof the pulses entering the ring counter 1,6 two pulses
ing that the gasoline station has a large volume of busi
ness and to avoid delays in servicing it may require, for
out of every ten will be delivered to the line 56. Since
v'only every tenth pulse entering the ring counter 16 will v .
example, ten delivery stations provided with fuelhoses
and nozzles, it Would be quite unlikely that more than
_four of these would actually beV delivering gasoline at any
enter the counter 18, it will be evident that this last
>counter emits to the line 56 seven out of every hundred
:pulses entering counter 16.
_In similar fashion the
.one time.
counter 20 will provide for the setting illustrated to the
Even though more than four vehicles were
line 56 nine pulses for every thousand ventering the ring ' ` present, sevices other than the actual delivery of gasoline
,counter 16. It may be here noteduthat since the counter 40 „would be involved for major por-tions of their stays.
Thus, except for abnormal overload conditions it would
16 does not emit a pulse to the line 56 when a pulse
suffice to have no more than four computing devices,
isdelivered to the counter 18, the same being true with
certainly no more than the number of attendants pres
respect to the counters 18 and 20, the several counters
ent. It will be evident, therefore, that selective switching
devices of quite obvious character may be provided
,vision of any “anti-coincidence” arrangement of the type 45 vwhereby Vthe computing devices may be selectively con#nected to the individual Ymeters and pulse generators“
frequently used in other Yapparatus to avoid improper
corresponding to the delivery nozzles. Interconnectioni
,counting when pulses may be emitted simultaneously.
may, of course, be provided to prevent delivery of fuel
The theory of operation will now be given.
unless a computing device is switched to the particular
A number M is represented in the decimal scale as:
50 `delivery unit and is available for price calculation. In
will never emit simultaneously any plurality of pulses
to the line ’56. There is thus no necessity for the pro
dicators such as 40 and 60 may be provided individual
to- the delivery nozzles, these being involved in the se
lective switching. The entire system thusv involves saving
Its product with N, vwith inclusion of a decimal scale . ‘
factor 10n+1 is then:
of computing devices as well as much simplification of
55 thegasoline station lay~out. The computers may be
vl0“V
11o
_housed in the service building, and the vehicles may be
routed for service into parallel areas each having asso»
ciated with it an overhead support for a delivery hose
and nozzle and confronted with indicators such as 40 and
70""
+N'10n+1+N'10n+a+ ' " '
Suppose, then, that .a quantity
-
60 60 observable by the driver and the servicing attendant.
,The required land area for the gasoline stationmay thus
b_e reduced far below that which is presently conven
tional for an equivalent service capacity.V
to be multiplied by -a second quantity M is measured by i
»
.
The system which has been described is veryY readily
a number of pulses in such fashion that a unit value of 65 Yadapted .to the different fashions in which fuel is de
the first quantity there corresponds 10n+1 pulses. Then
the right hand kside of the last equation represents a
number of pulses which when counted givesl a measure of
ythe product. It will be noted that each of the fractions
_multiplying N, the number of pulses, is less than unit.
To take a very simple example of possible use of the
invention, consider the representation of the total price of
.livered.
Some customers will request filling of the tank. This
may be automatically achievedY by interruption of the
' Vfilling by switching means when the tank is filled by the
70 use, for example, of the arrangement described in the
application of Shawhan, Serial No. 716,757, filed Febru~
ary 21, 19,58, now Patent No. 2,918,095, dated December
'22;
75
1959.
Y
.
y
v
Other customers may request the delivery of a. certain».
Y'egos-11,031
5
number of gallons orv of a
quantity of fuel amounting
l’6
satisñed by providing automatic stoppingV when the indi
rotationin comparison with the movement imparted to
the contact S4 for the'sakeof securing. high accuracy.
cationof the ring counters 20, 22 and 2d or of the deci
lmal' counter 5S reach certain values; These provisions
are not indicated in FIGURE l since, asV described below
»arms of which one is .illustrated'at 98, others providing
to a certain` price. These later requirements may be
in FIGURE 3, there may be provided a device for inter
rupting operation under such conditions.
The motor shaft 94Lcarriesv a drum which issur'rounde'd
by aifriction bandv 96 which carries apluralityr of switch
reversing switches: which are indicated at`120` and~ 122
'and' which willrbe hereafter described but-are not' shown
in the diagram as'connected 'to the friction band 96. The
ln an operation such as that above described, the
quantity M is a constant` throughout one operation. But 10 switch arm 93 operates through a limited range of motion
between contacts. respectively connected to positive and
that is not necessarily involved in the application of the
negative supply terminals 100'and`1`d2. Theswitcharm
present invent-ion whichl may be applied to the approxi
-98 is electrically connected to a brush- 104 bearing on
mate evaluation- ofY an integral or summation of the'v type
commutator segmentsltlómounted on theV shaft 94`and
connected `together and to a line 108.
15
The operation‘of the matter just described is as‘follows:
The operation of:` motor 88" under control cf there
in'wllichM >and N are variable with time. In this case,
versing relay 92'issuch as to Amaintain'equality between
the pulses may be generated >at a suitably high rate' per
fuma
'the potential at 84 andïfthe potential attthecathodefof‘the
second in proportion to the value of M. (This, of
course, would be the `case in the example already given 20 ‘ cathode follower Sti which is4 substantially proportional to
the'input potential EX. (If'the maintenance of Va high de
in which the number of pulses per second correspon‘ds‘to
»gïreeof equality is` desired, thev cathode-follower St). may,
the rate of gasoline delivery.) The value of M as it
' of course, be replacedïby‘a circuit'arrangenient which will
varies with time rwould then involve corresponding varia
`maintain almost precisely equal the potential at‘84 and EX,
tions of the value of the p’s. The result then would be
'the summation over the integration interval of groups» 25 such asV anV arrangement involving a high gain- differential
amplifier.) If’ the positionfof the contact 84 starts from
of pulses, each corresponding -to a small subperied be
' ground, the total movement at any time will be reilected
’ «tween changes of digits of M. It will be evident that the
in the net positive pulses delivered at108 through the
summation, approximating the integration, will -be sta
commutator and'brush arrangement, and the'. number of
tistical in nature with possible ‘losses of pulses during
transitions of the apparatus used; but with transition> 30 pulses thus delivered is proportional to the input potential.
The arrangement of switch 98 is such that positive pulses
periods of minimum durations andl suitable high fre
will be emittedïwhen‘the motor rotates to drive the con
quencies of pulses, the statistical approximation may be
tact 84 in the positive direction and negativepulses will
made extremely good.
'be emitted when the drive is in the opposite direction.
FIGURE-2 illustrates an apparatus for performing the
type of sum-mation or integration just mentioned. To. 35 When the input voltage does not changethe net pulse
count remains constant, and as will'immediately appear
indieate the generality obtainable, FIGURE 2 illustrates
this maintains constant the switching set-upr which routes
an apparatus in which the input signals to be multiplied
the pulses from the ringcounters.
originate inthe form of variable voltages such «as might
The line ldd feeds its pulses to the first bidirectional
be provided from any elec *ical analog. Further, the ap
paratus is shown as delivering a variable potential which 40 ring counter'ïltl of’a series indicated at 110, 112 and 114
corresponding individually to the ring counters but in re
may then be used as an input to‘an analog system.
verse order. Each of these bidirectional ring counters is
A pulse generator 64 is ar-ranged to Ydeliver pulses at a
lof a type which will count upward on receipt cf positive
constant suitably high frequency. This provides an in
pulses and downward on receipt of negative pulses. The
pu-t to a modulating system which controls the number of
ñrst ring counterlltlvreceivers the positive and negative
pulses emitted during a unit interval in proportion to an>
pulses-:from the commutator 165 directly. The second
input voltage, the modulated pulse trainv becoming, then,
counter 112 receivers its pulses through connection 116
Ithe'equivialent of such an inputv pulse train as is delivered
when the-lirst ring counter passes through Zero, and to
from the> anipliiier 14 in FIGURE 1 which involves
provide positive or negativevpulses depending upon the
the directy generation> et pulses dat a rate proportional to
a variable.
direction of change, there may be involved switching de
50 vices such as 120 and' 122 which may be controlled bythe
rthe ygenerator ed delivers its-pulses to a ringV >counterde which forms the first of a series indicated at do, o8
and 7il which may be of any number desired for the prob
lems involved and which correspond in their intercon
nections `and characteristics with the counters 1d toA 2.1i
in FEGURE l. Asin the case of FIGURE l, the ring
'counters have output connections 72, 7d and '76 corre
sponding to the individual digits l to 9. (In a ease such
as that ‘being now specifically described it may not be
of importance to have involved a decimal system, and it 60
will be understood that any desired system may be em
friction band 95, so, alternatively,.the introduction of pos
itive or negative pulsesl may- be electrically/“controlled in
dependence uponwhether the zero of the counter llo is
reached from -a count of-1` or from a'count of 9.
The ar
rangement, in any. form, is' such thatthe’group of counters
ill), liZ andflî‘i willlallïcount upward'or downward depending upon theintroduction at 193 of positivefor nega
tive pulses.
The respective bidirectional counters control switching
of their corresponding ring counters 'of the group 65 to
7i? in the fashion which may b'e‘bestidescribed by con
pioyed.)
sidering the corresponding counters 66 and 114. Each
One of the variables to ybe multiplied is provided by
ofthe output‘terminals 72 ofv counter'éúis connected ’to
the potential EX which is shown as introduced between
input terminal 78 'and ground. The input is delivered ‘to 65 an input terminal‘of-an “and”'gate 128. lThe other input
terminal of‘eachtof these‘gates` isconnected to one of the
a cathode follower Sil.
digital outputs of " thebidirectional counter 114 as indi
A linear potentiometer 32 is Yconnected between a
cated` »at H4. klietwecn thesuccessive'connections 172.4
positive supply terminal and ground and has its mova-ble
there are arranged the diodes 126. Assuming that as the
contact Sd driven through reduction gearing 86 by a re
versible motor âß’connected at 9d' to a reversing relay 70 lsuccessive. counts of counter‘lM are reached the output
terminals thereof Iare individually. positive, the result will
92 arranged to change the direction of rotation of the
bethat the counter will provide apositive‘input to all of
motor-depending upon whether the potential at contact
thegates up to and including that 'corresponding to the
84 is, higher or lower than the output potential of the
count. Eor example, assuming> that’the terminal corre
cathode follower 8h. The motor Sti may be of alternat
sponding to the count of `ti’is energized, all o‘f'the gates
ing or direct current `type but desirably has a high rate of
corresponding to counts ofl'to Shave theirflinput‘ter
,spendet
8
--cured through the mechanical switching arrangement of
rrni'nals on'the side of the counter 114 energized.' The
FIGURE 1.
gates are such that when so energized they will deliver
’pulses to the line 130 whenever pulses are received from
:the ring counter 66; It will be evident, on comparing
-
The arrangement specifically illustrated in FIGURE 2
-is adapted for “first quadrant” multiplaction, i.e., multi
plication in which the introduced variables are of the
«same sign. It will be at once apparent that if the variables
this action with that involving the switch 50 in FIGURE
l, .that the gates 12S correspond in groups to the posi
.have -both positive andnegative values provisions may be
.tionswhich the contact 5t) may assume, but due to the
¿fact that the gates are electrically controlled there is no
made for suitable switching-to provide an output which
fat
all times has a proper sign, these provisions providing
`limit to the rapidity of. change of switching imposed by
positive and Anegative outputs at 132 delivered to a
10
'any'mechanicalconnectiona and the switching may ac
«counter 134 which, in such case, would be bidirectional.
.cordingly follow rapid changes in the valve of the input
,The switching, of course, would be such that so long as
.potential Ex limited only by the rapidity with which the
y`EX and ‘Eyhave the _same sign, the output pulses would
be positive while if they were of opposite signs the out
put pulses would be negative, the terms “positive” and
`the gates associated with allof the ring counters 66 to 7115 “negative” being here .used in the sense of effects on the
.Ímotor 88 may .effect balancing at the‘potentiometer 82.
It will be noted that .the line 130 receives pulses from
7€). It' should be here noted, to -avoid confusion, that
.what has just been described is merely' a- means for mod
rulating the pulsesin number in correspondence with the
counter rather than in the sense of actually being posi
tive or negative potentials with respect to ground.v The
necessary switching arrangements will be obvious, cer
Ainput potential. In a sense, multiplication is here in 20) tain of the ground connections in the system then being
volved, but it is with the quantity unity in view of the
returned instead to supply terminals negative with respect
-constant- frequency of :pulses provided by the generator
. to ground, as for example, the returns of the cathode
64. The connection 130 is, essentially, equivalent to the
kinput to the first ring counter 16 in FIGURE l.
At the right of FIGURE 2 the apparatus illustrated is
A follower resistances and the right' hand terminals of the
potentiometers 82 and S2’.
The application of the invention to the process of divi
25
identical with that at the left and will, acordingly, not be _' » sion is illustrated in FIGURE 3. The arrangement here
vdescribed in detail, the corresponding parts being desig
illustrated is in general similar to that illustrated in FIG
nated by the same numerals primed. In the case of the
URE 1, though it will be obvious that the more elaborate
right hand arrangement, the other of the variables to be
arrangement of FIGURE 2 may be used. The process of
multiplied Ey, is introduced between ground and the ter 30 ~division consists, essentially, in multiplying a divisor by
minal 78’. Between the input at 130 and the output
at 132 there occurs precisely the same type of multiply
ing action as was described in connection with FIGURE
l, the output connection 132 corresponding to 56 of FIG
URE l. Since the frequency of pulses introduced at 130
is proportional to the value of EX,v and since the switch
ing corresponds to the instantaneous values of the input
Ey, it will be evident that multiplication continuously oc
` curs in accordance with the theory heretofore discussed
. an input (which ultimately becomes the quotient) until
the product acquires the value of the dividend. For this
purpose, a pulse generator 150, which may be assumed to
deliver positive pulses, provides its pulses through an
35 “or” gate 152 to the first ring counter 154 of a group 154,
156, 158 corresponding to those shown in FIGURE 1.
Any type of “or” gate 152 may be here used but it is
, exemplified as comprising parallel triodes capable in
~ divtdually of` passing the positive pulses and shutting off
with the result that a counter 134 receiving the input from 40 the, supply of positive pulses to the ring counter 154' only
line 132 accumulates (as an approximating summation)
when all three grids are driven to cut off by negative
the value of the integral which is shown in FIGURE 2 ap
f potentials applied to lines 153.
plied to the terminal connected to the potentiometer con
The outputs of the ring counters are associated with
tact 142. If a digital evaluation of this integral is de
the variable switches 162, 164 and 166 corresponding to
sired, the apparatus may terminate with the counter 134. 45 the switches 50, 52 and 54. Indicators V16d connected toV
However, if it is desired to recover a potential Ez for use
the ring counters are arranged to exhibit the final digits
in further analog operations or for indication on a meter,
composing the quotient. If the switches 162, 164 and
the output from the counter 134 may operate a digital
166 are arranged to correspond to the divisor, the counts
motor drive indicated at 136 which in »turn drives a digital
represented by the input pulses are multiplied, effectively,
motor 13S the shaft 140 of which adjusts a contact 142 50 by the divisor to provide a product output at 168. This
on the potentiometer 144 connected between a positive
ouput is delivered to the series of4 ring counters 17€), 172,
supply terminal and ground. The digital motor drive 136
and 174 which have their outputs connected to the groups
takes the same form as a bidirectional ring counter, and
a Vsuitable circuit for effecting the results desired will be
described hereafter with reference to FIGURE 4.
A potential corresponding to EZ might also be provided
by applying to suitable summing resistors (through diodes
_ of terminals 176, 178 and 1?»0 which are selectively en
gageable by the switch arms 182, 184 and 186 connected
The
switches 182, 1S4'and 136 are setto correspond to the
digits of the dividend. Assuming the outputs from the
55 by the lines 153 to the grids of the gate tubes.
blocking reverse current flows) potentials from the ele
ring counters to be so chosen as to be negative, the nega
ments of the counter 134.
' tive outputs being suñicient to cut off the triodes of the
It may be noted that the apparatus shown in FIGURE 60 gate, it will be evident that pulses will be delivered from
2 to the left of connection 136 may be varied depending i
the generator until the product with the divisor reaches
» upon the
type of input which might replace Ex. For
example, if the variable input was to be a measure of a
the value of the dividend whereupon all three of the
- triodes will be cnt off to stop the delivery of pulses. The
ñow, there could be used directly a variable frequency
quotient will then be indicated att-160. Of course, any
pulse input arrangement of the type shown in FIGURE l. 65 `desired number of stages may be used to satisfy require
required other systems generat
' If high accuracy Was not
' ing pulses at frequency’rates dependent upon a variable
to be multiplied might provide the pulses on line 139, forY
example, multivibrators are known with frequency out
puts, through at least limited ranges, proportional to ap
v
"
Such an arrangement might well
. plied d'irectpote'ntials.
be provided to supply the pulses introduced through line
i 130. In suchv cases the right hand portion of FIGURE 2
wouldbe of interest to provide forirapid variation of
Q switching-at rates »in excess> ofjthose which couldbe se
ments.
The portion of FIGURE
consisting of the ring Y
counters 170, 172 and 174 andthe setting arrangements
provided by the switch armslâiî, 184 and 186 are also
illustrative of the fashion in which a gasoline dispensing
~ computer such as that shown in FIGURE lmay termi
nate the delivery of fuel upon the attainment of a pre
determined quantity or price. By connection. either to
e. the counters such as 2u, 22 and 24 or to the counter 58,
3,081,031
the attainment-of predetermined' accumulationsv may con
trol a gate suchas 152 to cause either energizationA or
>deenergization . of a relay to operate a valve to cut oit
iiow of fuel. This procedure, of course,.is>essentially one
of division. For example, in the case of stoppage on at
tainment of a predetermined price, theV price is the divi
dend, the- unit price is the. divisor, and the quantity of
gasoline isv the quotient.
FIGUREA illustrates both a bidirectional ring counter
li)
being the reference for the positive and negative supply
potentialsreterred to.
In the use of the lai-directional counter as a digital
motor drive, the anode loads are constituted by the phase
windings 244', 246 and 24g which are connected to the
positive supply potential terminal 250. The digital mo
tor is here considered to be of D_C. type having the three
ì phase windings and a field provided by a permanent mag
net or by a D.C. winding connected between positive and
l such as has been referred to heretofore and also a digital
10 negative supply terminals.
motor drive such as indicated at 136 in FIGURE 2.
For simplicity of description, three stages> are shown as
would' be involved in a digital motorfdrive, but it will be
obvious that the number-of stages maybe indefinitely in
creased to provide a decimalv counter or any. such other
bidirectional counter as may be required.
Three» triodes 19d, 192" and' 194 are connected in a cir
Resistors and potentials are so chosen that at any time
only one ofthe triodes of the counters is conducting and
hence only one of the phase windings is energized, posi
tioning the rotor of the motor. When the bistable multi
vibrator is in a state so that the terminal 224 has a high
positive potential compared to the terminal 220, succes
sive negative pulses received through the line 236 from
cuit involving corresponding elements> associated with
that terminal 228 or 2334 which is receiving negative pulses
eachtriode and similar interconnections which will be
will be applied through the capacitors 238 to the grids of
readily apparent frornthe‘ñgure. There will be described 20 the
triodes. A negative pulse applied to the triode which
thoseelements which are particularly associated' with the
is conducting will cut oit this triode and render the next
triode , 19d.
Apositive supply terminal 1% is connected to the grid
of triode190 through the resistor 198 and capacitor 200.
lsubsequent triode conducting. Pulses applied to the non
conducting triodes will be ineffective. Thus upon receipt
The grid is also connected through a capacitor 262 and 25 of each pulse there will be a count in a forward direction
in the counter. Ou the other hand, if the multivibrator
resistor 204 to the positive supply terminal 196’ which is
connected to the saine source as 196.
The connections
`to the succeeding triodes are the same between 196’ and
196", between 196” and ì96’", etc.
terminal 220 has the high positive potential state, count
ing will take place in the reverse direction. A digital
Imotor may thus be driven forwardly and backwardly step
by step upon the receipt of each pulse. When the bi
A negative supply terminal 2015v is connected through 30 directional counter is not used to operate a motor, posi
tive or negative signals may be taken from suitable parts
itspositive terminal connected tothe junction ot4 resistor
or" the counter. In such case, the anode loads may be
198and capacitor 290, audits negativel terminal is con
constituted by resistors. The variations of connections
nected through resistor 212 to vthe grid. of triode 190.
resistor 26S to the grid of triode 190i. A diode 210 has
A diode 214 has its positiveterrninal connected to the
junction of resistor 264`v and capacitor 202 and' has its
negative terminal connected >to the grid of triode 19t)
through resistor 216. AÍ diode `218 has itspositive-ter
minal connected to the junction _of resistor 198 and> capaci
tor 290 and. its negative terminal tothe output terminal
229 of a bistable multivibrator 226. A diode 222 has its
positive terminal connected to the junction of resistor 204
and capacitor 202 and has its negative terminal connected
to the other output terminal 224 of the multivibrator 226.
The input terminal-s 223 and 236 of the multivibrator 226
for more stages than three will be obvious from the fore
going.
Bidirectional counters of other types may, of course, be
employed, in connection with the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. InV combination, a plurality of individual ring-type
recirculating counters each having therein a position cor
responding to a full counting cycle; each individual coun
-ter having a plurality of output connections coupled di
rectly to individual stages in the corresponding counter,
the output connections thus providing individual output
pulses from the several stages in the respective counters;
connections from the said position of each individual
are so connected, as through the secondary of a trans
former, that positive signals from a source such as the
counter save the last to the input of the next succeeding
line Hi8 of FÍGURE 2 will provide a positive pulse at one
counter, thereby to sequentially stage the counters so
of these terminals and a negative pulse at the other while
that each individual counter save the last provides an
a negative pulse will provide a reversal of these inputs. 50 input actuating pulse to its succeeding counter only upon
The bistable multivibrator is thus of a type that the ñrst
completion of a full counting cycle; means providing in
positive input pulse will place itin one of its stable states
put actuating pulses to only the first of said counters,
and this state will be maintained so long a-s positive input
a single common output terminal, and individual switch
pulses are received. On the other hand when a negative
ing means comprising gates and ring counters controlling
impulse is received the state wiil be reversed and will be 55 the states oi said gates, said individual switching means
maintained until a positive pulse is received. The control
being singly associated with each respective one of the
thus effected provides alternatively forward or reverse
first-mentioned counters and operating to simultaneously
counting of the counter. The terminals 22d and 230
connect selectively to said output terminal a plurality of
are connected to the negative terminals of diodes 232
said output connections of the individual inst-mentioned
`
and 234, the positive terminals of which are connected 60 coun-ters.
together and >through line 236 to a’capacitor 233 leading
2. A combination according to claim l, including also
to the grid of triode 19d. The various connections to
means for converting a continuously variable signal into
the triode 1% are repeated for the triodes 192 and i954
corresponding pulses, and means delivering the last men
and such other ones as may be involved.
tioned pulses to actuate said ring counters controlling
interconnections between the triodes are provided 65 the states of said gates.
3. in combination, a plurality of individual ring-type
through the lines 24d and 242, it being noted that in the
recirculating counters each having therein a position cor
three stage arrangement shown the third stage is connected
responding to a full counting cycle; each individual coun
to the first as it to a subsequent stage. Each connection
ter having a plurality or“ output connections the number
dit is between the anode of one stage to the grid of the
next stage through a resistor corresponding to 212. Each 70 of which is one less than the number of stages in the
corresponding counter, said output connections being cou
connection 242 is from the anode of one stage through
pled directly to individual stages in the corresponding
a resistance corresponding to 2id to the grid of the
preceding stage.
counter, the output connections thus providing individual
The cathodes of the triodes are grounded, the ground 75 output pulses from the several stages in the respective
counters; connections from the said position of each in
r3,051,031
v dividual counter save the last to the input of the next suc
ceeding counter, thereby to sequentially stage the counters
_so that each' individual counter save the last provides an
12
corresponding counter, said output connections being cou
Apled directly to individual stages in lthe corresponding
' counter, the output connections thus providing individual
output pulses from the several stages in the respective
-input actuating" pulse to its succeeding counter only upon 5 counters; connections from the said position of each in
completion of a full counting cycle; means providing input
dividual counter save the last to the input of the next
vactuating pulses to only the iirst of said counters, said ' succeeding counter, thereby to sequentially stage the coun
`means operating to automatically modulate the frequency
ters so that each individual counter save the last provides
of occurrence of the last-named actuating pulses in ac
an input actuating pulse to its succeeding counter only
4c_ordance with a time-variable signal; a single common
upon completion of a'full counting cycle; means provid
` output terminal, and individual switching means singly as
ing input actua-ting pulses to only the first of said coun
sociated with each respective counter and controllable to>
ters, a single common output terminal, and individual
simultaneously connect selectively to said output terminal
switching means singly -as-sociated with each respective
' a plurality of said output connections of the individual
' counters.
'
4. In combination, a plurality of individual ring-type
’ recirculating counters each having therein a position cor
' responding to a full counting cycle; each individual coun
- ter having a plurality of output connections the number
of which is one less than the number of stages in the
counter and' controllable to simultaneously connect selec
15- tively to said output terminal a plurality of said output
' connections of the individual counters.
"References Cited in the tile of this patent
20»
UNITED STATES PATENTS
' pled directly lto individual stages in the corresponding
2,758,787
2,774,534
Felker ___-; __________ __fAug. 14, 1956
Dunn ______________ __'- Dec. 18, 1956
counter, the output connections thus providing individual
` 2,833,476 '
Hayes etal. _;.____‘_-___.-‘_'_ May 6, 1958
Thompson et al _________ _.. July 22, 1958
Devand ______________ __ June 30,A 1959
corresponding counter, said output connections being'cou
2,844,790
' output pulses from the several stages in the respective
counters; connections from the said position of each in' 25 2,892,526
2,913,179
dividual counter save the last to the input of the next
' succeeding counter, thereby to sequentially stage the coun
ters so that each individual counter vsave the last pro
2,961,160
2,963,222
vides an input actuating pulse to its succeeding counter
only upon completion of a full counting cycle; means pro~
' viding input actuating pulses to only the first of said coun 30
ters, a single common output terminal, individual switch
Gordon ...... __'____‘_;.._ Nov. 17, 1959
Bell et al. ___' _________ ___. Nov. 22, 1960
Allen _________________ _.. Dec. 6, 1960
t FOREIGN PATENTS
654,313
Great Britain ___.' ...... _.. June 13, 1951
'OTHER REFERENCES y
'
ing means singly associated with each respective counter
Slaughter: An Analog-To-Digital Converter With an
and controllable to simultaneously connect selectively to i Improved Linear-Sweep Generator, Convention Record of
said output terminal a plurality of said output connec
35 March 23-26, 1953, IRE National Convention, Part 7
' tions of the individual counters, and means automatically`
(April 1953),.pp. 7 to 12.
»
v _
controlling said switching means in accordance with the
Packer: Dynamic Binary Counter With Analog Read
‘ value of a time-Variable signal.
Out, Convention Record of the March 23-26, 1953 IRE
5. In combination, a plurality of individual ring-type - National
Convention, Part 7 (April 1953), pp. 13-19.
recirculating counters each having therein a position cor
Brierley: An Industrial Batclring Counter, Electronic
responding to a full counting cycle; each individual coun 40
Engineering (April 1954), vol. XXVI, No. 314, pp. 157
ter having a plurality of output connections the number
to
162.
the
number
of
stages
in
the
’ of which is one less than
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