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Патент USA US3081058

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March 12, 1963
A. M. FUCHS
3,081,049
SLAVE SYSTEM AND METHOD
Filed April 24, 1952
4 Sheets—Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
4MAHAM M. [was
March 12, 1963
A. M. FUCHS
3,081,049
SLAVE SYSTEM AND METHOD
Filed April 24, 1952
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR.
4mm HAM/l1. fVCh’J‘
Arroklvzv
3,0815%?
Patented Mar. 12, 1963
2
A further object is to provide a system of the above
character for converting the movements ‘of a master
antenna in an interceptor into corresponding movements
3,081,949
SLAVE SYSTEM AND METHOD
Abraham M. Fuchs,'New York, N.Y., assignor to The
of the missile antenna about different axes, so that the
missile antenna will follow the master antenna in point
ing at the target before the missile is launched.
Still another object is to provide a system of the above
.character for operating in conjunction with a missile
This invention relates to a system for, and method of,
antenna before the missile is launched to limit the rela
positioning a missile antenna and more particularly to
‘a system for properly positioning the antenna of a missile 10 tive movement between the missile and the antenna in
a predetermined plane ‘by providing compensatory move
before the missile is launched‘so that the missile will
mentsof the antenna in other planes.
have as good a chance as possible of intercepting a
endix Corporation, a corporation of Delaware
Filed Apr. 24, 1952, Ser. No. 284,094
15 (Ilaims. (Cl. 244-—14)
target.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent from a
detailed description of the invention and from --the.ap
‘
In co-pending application Serial No. 175,442, ?led July
pended drawings and claims.
22, 195 0, by Edmund F. Lapham, J r. and Ian H. McLaren,
In the drawings:
now abandoned, a system is disclosed for guiding a missile
to intercept a target. The system for guiding the missile
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of an interceptor and
is an “active” one, in that it operates in the missile inde
a missile adapted to be supported by, and launched from,
pendently of any equipment in the interceptor aircraft
the interceptor;
‘from which it is launched. The system operates to guide 20
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged perspective view illustrating
the missile on a “collision” course towards a target, such
an antenna forming. a part of the missile shown in FIG—
that the missile gradually overtakes the target along a
line of sight between the missile and the target but merely
URE 1;
follows the movement of the target in the directions per
pendicular to the line of sight.
To maintain the missile on the collision course, the
missile is pivotable relative to its antenna in three sub
stantially perpendicular planes. In case the missile de
viates from its proper course, the missile is pivoted rela
FIGURE 3 is a simpli?ed block diagram of an electrical
system for guiding the missile shown in FIGURE 1 on an
optimum course towards a distant target;
FIGURE 4 illustrates the pattern of the signals re
?ected from the target to the missile antenna when the
missile deviates during‘?ight from its optimum course
vtowards a target;
FIGURE 5 shows curves illustrating the manner in
tive to its antenna in one or the other of the three 30
substantially perpendicular planes so as to return the
which the signals shown in FIGURE 4 are utilized by
the electrical system of FIGURE 3 to correct any de
missile to its proper course and to maintain the antenna
pointed at the target. However, the missile has only a
vviations of the missile from its optimum course towards
limited movement in a predetermined one of the three
a target;
plan-es. Because of its limited movement in the prede 35
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged rear elevational View of the
termined plane, the missile is pivoted in a compensatory
missile tail ?ns, showing the angle through which the
manner relative to its antenna in the other two planes to
missile may be rotated at any instant relative to its an
provide a substitution for the movement in the prede
tenna to correct any deviations in its ?ight;
FIGURE 7 is a view illustrating in schematic form the
termined plane.
In order for the missile to have as good a chance as 40 beam radiated towards the target by the missile antenna
possible of intercepting the target, especially when the
target is moving, the missile should be launched under
optimum conditions. One of the most important con
ditions is that the missile antenna should be pointed at
the target before it is launched. To accomplish this, the
missile antenna is electrically connected to a master
antenna in the interceptor aircraft. The master antenna
in the interceptor is operated by a radar system which
causes the antenna to point at the target, and the missile
‘antenna is adapted to follow the interceptor antenna.
This invention provides a system for converting the
shown in FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 8 is a schematic diagram illustrating the rela
tive ?ight paths at any instant of the missile and target
after the missile has been launched;
FIGURE 9 illustrates the course adopted by the missile
to intercept the target for a particular ?ight path of the
target;
FIGURE 10‘ is a simpli?ed block diagram of an elec
trical system for maintaining the missile antenna pointed
at a target before the missile is launched; and
.FIGURE 11 is a spatial diagram schematically‘ illus
movements of .the master antenna in the interceptor air
craft into corresponding movements of the missile an
tenna ‘before the missile is launched. Such a conversion
trating the manner in which the missile antenna is rotated,
befo-reibeing launched, in accordance with the movements
of va master antenna which is housed in the interceptor.
is necessary because of the compensatory movements re 55
In one embodiment of the invention, a missile, gen
quired of the antenna in certain planes to limit the move
erally indicated at 10 (FIGUREI), is adapted to be
vrnent of the antenna in the predetermined plane disclosed
above and to maintain the antenna pointed at the target
during ?ight. The system operates to maintain the missile
antenna pointed at the target even though the compensa
tory movements of the antenna to limit its movement
in the predetermined plane produce a constant shift in the
reference axes between the missile antenna and the inter
supported by aninterceptor, generally indicated at 12,
andto overtake a target, generally indicated at 14 (FIG
The missile has an an:
tenna, generally indicated at 16 (FIGURES 1 and 2), the
60 URE ,8), after being launched.
movement of which is determined before the missile
launching Vbyan antenna in a radar system 20 (FIGURE
10); as will be disclosed in detail hereafter. The radar
ceptor antenna.
'
system Zilforms part of the permanent equipment of the
65
An object of this invention is to provide a system for
interceptor 12. One radar system which may be used
maintaining a missile antenna pointed at a target before
has been given the engineering designation of AN/APQ
the missile is launched.
35. The construction and ope-ration of the AN/APQ~35
Another object is to provide a system of the above
radar system are fully disclosed in “Handbook of Main
character for properly positioning a missile antenna be
tenance Instructions for Radar Sets AN/APQ-35 and
[fore the missile is launched so that the missile will follow 70
the best possible course to intercept a target after being
AN/APQ—_35A” (three volumes) published in 1950 under
the authority of theSecretary of the Air Force and the
launched.
Chief ofysthe Bureau of Aeronautici .All of the compo¢
‘
3,081,049
4
nents shown in FIGURES 3 and 10 are separated from
larly, a transformer 72 converts the other quadrature sig
the radar system so as not to form a part of the system.
nal from the alternator 56 into a pair of signals having a
In addition to the antenna 16, which is positioned at
its forward end, the missile has at an intermediate posi
minals of the transformers 70 and 72 are connected to
tion an electrical system, parts of which are shown in
vFIGURES 3 and 10, and also has an explosive charge
at its rear end. A ?rst pair of diametrically disposed,
outwardly extending ?ns 24 (FIGURES land 6) is posi
180° phase relationship to each other. The output ter
input terminals of gated ampli?ers 74 and 76 and gated
ampli?ers 78 and 8t), respectively. Input terminals of
the ampli?ers 74, 76, 78 and 80 are also connected to
an output terminal of the receiver 68.
tioned at an intermediate position in the missile 10 and
The output signals ‘from the ampli?ers 74, 76, 78 and
is adapted to be pivoted relative to the missile to alter 10 80 are introduced to detectors 82, 84, 86 and 88, re
the course of the missile in one direction. A second
spectively, which are paired so that a signal resolver 90
pair of diametrically disposed fins 26 is positioned at an
receives the output of the detectors 8-2 and 84 and a
intermediate position in the missile in quadrant relation
signal resolver 92 receives signals from the detectors 86
ship to the ?ns 24 and in pivotal relationship to the mis
and 88. As disclosed in co-pending application Serial
15 No. 175,442 ?led July 22, 1950, by Edmund F. Lapham,
Jr. and Ian H. McLaren and now abandoned, the re
The construction and operation of the antenna 16 is
vsolvers 9t) and 92 may be square card sine potentiome
disclosed in detail in co-pending application Serial No. '
ters having variably positioned taps connected to the
mount gimbal 28 to provide an angular correction for
212,151, ?led February 21, 1951, by Theodore M. Mate
gorin, now abandoned. It includes a mount gimbal 28, 20 the rotation of the missile 10 relative to the mount gim
a ring gimbal 30 and ‘a horseshoe gimbal 32. The mount
bal. A differentiator 94 and a servomechanism 96 are
gimbal is adapted to rotate on a spindle‘ relative to the
connected in cascade arrangement to the output termi~
missile and to be driven through a suitable gear train by
nal of the signal resolver 90, and a diiferentiator 98 and
a motor 34 suitably secured to the missile. The ring
a servomechanism 100 are similarly connected to the
gimbal 30 is pivotably mounted on stanchions 36 extend 25 signal resolver 92. The output terminals of the signal
ing from the mount gimbal 28 and is adapted to retain in
resolvers 90 and 92 may also be directly connected to
sile to alter the course of the missile in a direction sub
stantially perpendicular to that con-trolled by the ?ns 24.
a socket the rotor of a synchro 38, the stator of which is _
the input terminals of the servomechanisms 96 and 100,
supported by one of the sta-nchions.
respectively, as indicated by the broken lines in FIG
A segment 40 of a ring gear extends from the periphery
URE 3.
of the ring gimbal 30 and, before the release of the missile, 30
Before the release of the missile, the antenna in the
meshes with a gear train which includes a pinion gear 42
driven by a suitable motor. A solenoid 44 controls the
position of the pinion gear 42 and, when energized, actu
interceptor 12 is operated by the radar system 20 (FIGi
URE 10) so that it points continuously at the target.
The antenna pivots in a plane of azimuth, correspond
ates its armature to move the pinion gear out of mesh
ing to a right or left movement in a horizontal direc
35 tion, and in a plane of elevation, corresponding to an
The horseshoe gimbal 32 is suitably mounted on the
up or down movement. The movement of the inter—
with the ring gear 40.
ring gimbal 30 in pivotable relationship to the ring gim
ceptor antenna in the azimuth or elevation planes is
bal and is adapted to carry the rotor of a synchro 48,
converted by the system shown in FIGURE 10 into
the stator of which is mounted in a socket of the ring
appropriate movements of the missile antenna 16 in the
gear. The synchro 48 is electrically connected to the 40 planes of the mount gimbal 28 and ring gimbal 30, as
motor 34 so as to operate the motor during the missile
Will be described in detail hereinafter. Such movements
?ight when an error signal is produced in it as a result
of the antenna 16 cause it to continuously point at the
of a pivotable movement of the missile relative to the
target before the missile is released.
horseshoe gimbal 32.
Upon the release of the missile, the solenoid 44 (FIG
A shaft 50 is supported by the horseshoe gimbal 32 at 45 URE 2) is energized to disengage the pinion gear 42
its inner end, and a wave guide 52 is in turn suitably
secured to the outer end of the shaft in aligned relation
ship with the shaft. The stators of a motor 54 and of
‘from the ring gear 40. This causes the antenna 16 to
be released for free pivotal movement relative to the
missile in the planes of the ring gear 30 and horseshoe
gimbal 32. As the missile travels towards the target
of the motor 54 and the alternator 56 are suitably secured 50 14, the modulator 64 triggers the magnetron 62 at a
an alternator 56 are mounted on the shaft and the rotors
to a retainer 58 adapted to rotate on bearings relative to
the shaft 50. An annular re?ector 60 having a parabolic
shape in axial cross-section is suitably secured to the
retainer 58, with its axis tilted in slightly skewed relation
ship to the shaft 50. The retainer 58, the alternator 56 55
"predetermined rate and causes the magnetron to pro;
duce pulses of energy which are transmitted towards the
target by the antenna 16. Since the re?ector 60 (FIG
URE 2) is slightly skewed with respect to the shaft 50
‘and the wave guide 52 and since the re?ector is spun
by the motor 54 at a predetermined speed relative to
stantially constant speed. Since the re?ector 60 is driven
the shaft, the antenna transmits a beam which rotates
at relatively high speeds and is mounted on gimbals and
about an axis at the speed of motor rotation. This beam
since it has a moment of inertia, it becomes a free gyro.
has a conical shape in space, as indicated at 102 in
The antenna 16 as well as its alternator 56 are included 60 FIGURE 7, for a complete revolution of the re?ector
in the system shown in FIGURE 3. Signals having a
and a conical shape, as indicated at 104, at any particu
relatively high frequency are introduced to the antenna
lar instant. The axis of the composite conical beam 102
from a magnetron 62 when the magnetron is triggered by
‘is indicated at 106 in FIGURE 7.
pulses produced at a relatively low repetition rate by a
If the missile is proceeding on a proper course to
modulator 64. A range gate circuit 66 also has signals 65 wards the target, the target appears on the axis 106 of
applied to it from an output terminal of the modulator
the composite cone 102. This causes the strength of
64 as well as from an output terminal of a receiver 68.
each transmitted pulse of energy which falls on the target
Connections are made from an output terminal of the
to be substantailly constant and the strength of the pulses
range gate circuit 66 and the output terminal of the mag
re?ected from the target back to the antenna 16 to re
netron 62 to input terminals of the receiver 68.
70 main substantially constant. When the missile deviates,
Two output signals having a 90° phase relationship to
from its proper course, however, the target no longer
each other are produced by the alternator 56, as will be
appears on the axis 106, and the strength of the beam
disclosed in detail hereafter. One of the quadrature sig
falling on the target varies sinusoidally as the beam ro‘
nals is introduced to a transformer 70, which produces a
tates through a complete revolution. The phase and
pair of signals having a 180° phase relationship.- Simi 75 amplitude of the sinusoidal signal are determined'by
and the re?ector 60 are driven by the motor 54 at a sub
‘3,081,049
5
6
the position of the target relative to the'conical axis
105. For example, a sinusoidal envelope 188 in FIG
missileto pivot aboutthecenter; of gravity of. the miss
URE 4 is produced by the re?ected pulses when the '
target is at a position 118 in FIGURE 7 relative to the
center of gravity. However, the antenna 16‘ continues
conical axis 186, and a sinusoidal envelope 112 is pro
duced by the re?ected pulses with the target in a posi
tion 114. As will be seen, the envelope 112 has a greater
amplitude and a different phase than the envelope 108.
The pulses re?ected by the target 14 are received by
the antenna 16 and are introduced through the receiver 10
68 (FIGURE 3) to the gated ampli?ers 74, 76, 78 and
'89. Only the pulses from the target 14 are introduced
to the gated ampli?ers as a result of the action of the
sile even though the antenna 16‘ is not located‘ at the
to point in substantially the samev direction since it op
era-tes as a gyro. Only drifts, in the; gyro cause the re
?ector 60 to. deviatefrom the line of sight between it
and the target.
_
In like manner, the signal resolver 92 operates on
the signals passing’ through the detectors 86 and 88 to
produce a resultant signal which. controls the pivotal
movement of the missile on the horseshoe gimbal 32.
The phase of the signal is shifted by the resolver 92
through an angle, correspondingv to the prior rotation
range gate circuit 66, which opens the receiver for the
of the missile on the mount gimbal 28, and this phase
passage of pulses only at the time that the pulses are 15 shifted signal is differentiated and introduced; after dif
expected from the target. The pulses introduced to the
ferentiation to the ser-vomechanism 100. The servo,
gated ampli?ers are mixed in the ampli?ers with the
mechanism pivots the ?ns 26 which in turn cause the
signals from the transformers 78 and 72. As previously
missile to pivot relative to they-horseshoe‘ gimbal 32.
disclosed, each of the transformers produces a pair of
_ Upon a pivotal- movement of the missile, relative to
signals having a phase relationship of substantially 180° 20 the horseshoe gimbal 32, a signal is produced in the
to each other and a phase relationship of substantially
synchro 48 and is introduced to the motor 34. The
90° to the signals from the other transformer. The
motor 34 then produces a relative motion between the
phase relationships of the signals introduced to the am
missile 10 and the mount gimbal 28 until the signal from
pli?ers 74, '76, 78 and 89 from the transformers 79 and
the synchro 48 is reduced to zero. At the same time,
72 are illustrated by the envelopes 116, 118, 120 and
the missile pivots in a compensatory manner relative
122, respectively, in FIGURE 5.
to- the ring gimbal 30. This compensatory motion of
The pulses re?ected by the target 14 to the antenna
the missile relative to the ring‘ gimbal occurs because of
16 pass through each of the ampli?ers 74, 76, 78'and
the freedom of movement provided between the missile
88 (FIGURE 3) during substantially only half of the
and the ring gear when the pinion gear 42 becomes ‘dis
time, corresponding to the positive portion of each of 30 engaged from the ring- gear 40 upon the release cf the
the signals 116, 118, 121} and 122, respectively. The
missile. Compensatory movements of-the missile in the
amplitude of the pulses passing through each ampli?er
two substantially perpendicular planesrepresented by the
at any instant is determined not only by the strength of
mount gimbal 28 and the ringgear 38 provide a substi
the the pulse as it is introduced to the ampli?er but
tute for the movement of the missile in a third plane
also ‘by the amplitude at that instant of the sinusoidal 35 substantially perpendicular to the ?rst twoplanes, this
signal introduced to the ampli?er from either the trans
third plane being, represented by the horseshoe gimbal
former 7t? or the transformer 72. The peak amplitude
32. The compensatory’ movements of the missilerela
of the pulses passing through each of the ampli?ers 74,
tive to the mount gimbal 28 and the ring. gimbal 30 in
76, 78 and 89 is determined by the detectors’ 82, 84,
.limiting the movement of the missile relative to the horse.
86 and 88, ‘respectively.
shoe gimbal 32 are fully dis-closed in co-pending Serial
The signal resolver 90 operates on the signals pass
No. 188,943 ?led October 7, 1950,_ by Edmund F. Lap
ing through the detectors 82 and 84 to produce a re
sultant signal having a phase and amplitude which con
trol the movement of the missile in the horizontal direc
ham, Jr.
tion. The signal resolver 98 also shifts the phase of
the resultant signal through an angle equal to the angle
through which the missile has previously pivoted rela
to follow a collision or other optimum course in which
resented by the ?ns 24 and 25. The angle through which
the-target and ‘1:4(2) and Vlvm) are the components of
the missile rotates at any instant relative to the mount
velocity in directions substantially perpendicular to the
-
The operation of the antenna 16 and the associated
electrical system shown in FIGURE 3 causes the missile
the missile gradually overtakes and ?nally intercepts the
target. As may be seen in FIGURE 8, the missile 10
tive to the mount gimbal 28, as will be disclosed in
has at any instant a velocity VM and the target 14 a
detail hereafter. Such a phase shift is necessary because
velocity VT. The velocity VM may be resolved into
the rotation of the missile relative to the mount gimbal 50 components VMQ), VM(2) and VMQ) of a coordinate sys
28 causes the coordinates determined by the transformers
tem in which VMU) is the component of velocity in the
78 and 72 to become different from the coordinates rep
direction of a lineof sight 3.26 between the missile and
gimbal 28 is illustrated in FIGURE 6 by the angular 55 line of sight.
distance between each of the ?ns 24 and 25 in its solid
Similarly the velocity VT may be resolved into com
and broken lines.
ponents VTU), V112), and VT“) along axes correspond
After being shifted in phase, the signal passing through
ing to the above coordinates. In an ideal collision course,
the resolver 9-1} is differentiated by the di?erentiator 94,
and this ditlerentiated signal is either introduced directly 60
to the servomechanism 96 or is combined with the phase
shifted signal from the resolver % before being intro—
duced to the servomechanism. A differentiated signal
is produce
to indicate the rate at which any devia
Since the only motion of the missile relative to the’ target
ticns are being corrected and to prevent hunting as the 65 is along the line of sight, the missile moves towards the
deviation approaches zero. Upon the introduction of
target with a velocity _VM(D—VT(1.> and ultimately inter
the differentiated signal to the servomechanism 96, the
cepts the target, as illustrated. in‘ FIGURE 9 for a par
ticular ?ight path of the target.
servornechanism produces a pivotal movement of the ?ns
24. The pivotal movement of the ?ns in turn causes
The system shown in FIGURE, 10 is adaptedto pivot
the missile to pivot relative to the ring gim'bal 38, such 70 the antenna 16 so that it points at the target before
that the missile returns to an optimum ?ight path rela
tive to the target.
When the missile returns to an op—
timum flight path relative to the target, the antenna 16
once again points directly at the target.
the missile is released. A relatively small part of the
system is adapted to be housed within the missile itself,
‘but most of the system is adapted to be retained with
in the interceptor for use, with more than one missile.
It should be appreciated that then?ns 24 cause. the ; 75 _'1fhe part,’ of the system housed
the missile. is indicated
3,081,049
8
at 300 and the part of the system housed in the inter
ment before the missile is released, since the pinion gear
ceptor is indicated at 302. The system includes the motor
54, the alternator 56 and a signal resolver 130 similar
to the resolvers 90 and 92. Signals from the alternator
56 are introduced to the resolver 130 and to ampli?ers
132 and 134 for isolating the alternator from subsequent
42 is in mesh with the ring gear 40. Therefore, the an
tenna 16 is maintained pointed at the target by movements
on the mount gimbal 28 and the ring gimbal 30.
stages.
Connections are made from the output terminals of
the ampli?ers 132 and 134 to the input terminals of an
azimuth tangent potentiometer 136 and an elevation tan—
gent potentiometer 138, the output terminals of which
In order to train the antenna 16 on the target 14 in
accordance with the movements of the antenna in the in
terceptor 12, it is necessary to convert the movement of
the antenna 16 in the azimuth and elevational planes into
corresponding movements of the antenna 16 on the ring
and mount gimbals. To obtain this conversion, the fol
lowing relationships are used:
L=R tan E,
(1)
are in turn connected to a summing circuit 140. The
Potentiometers 136 and 138 are ganged to the antenna
in the radar system 20, as disclosed by the broken lines
L=the vertical distance between the missile 10 and th
in FIGURE 10. The output terminal of the summing 15 7 target 14 at any instant;
_
'
circuit 140 is connected to a saturation ampli?er 142,
R=the horizontal distance at that instant between the
which has its output signals introduced to an input ter
missile and the plane formed by the lines of elevation
minal of a phase sensitive detector 144. The detector
and azimuth which pass through the target; and
144 also has input terminals connected to an isolation
E=the angle through which the antenna in the inter
ampli?er 146, which receives signals on its input side 20
ceptor 12 has moved at any instant in the direction of
from the roll resolver 130. The output terminal of
elevation;
the detector 144 is connected in cascade arrangement
Similarly,
with a ditferentiator 148, a relay circuit 150 and with
M =R tan A
(2)
the motor 34, also shown in FIGURE 2. The motor
where
operates through a gear train, indicated in block form 25 M=the horizontal distance at any instant, in the direc
at 163, to drive the resolver 130 and the mount gimbal
tion of azimuth, between the missile 10 and the target
28, which is shown in block form in FIGURE 10 for
14; and
convenience.
A=the angle through which the antenna in the inter
In addition to being introduced to the ampli?er 142,
ceptor 12 has moved at any instant in the direction of
the output from the summing circuit 140 is applied to an 30
azimuth.
input terminal of a subtracting circuit 154. An error
And,
ampli?er 156,.a detector 158, a power ampli?er 160 and
N=R tan 7
(3)
where
a motor 162 are connected in cascade arangement to an
‘
'
where
output terminal of the subtracting circuit 154. The motor
N =the total distance between the missile and the target
162 drives a tangent potentiometer 164 when it receives 35
in the same plane as the distances L and M; and
a signal from the ampli?er 160, the potentiometer being
'y=the angle which the missile forms with the target
driven in a direction to cancel the ampli?er signal. The
when the horizontal line R serves as the base of a
potentiometer 164 receives an input signal from an isola
triangle.
tion ampli?er 166, the input terminal of which is con
But the distances L and M actually comprise the legs
40
nected to an output terminal of the roll resolver 130.
of a right triangle with N as the hypotenuse. Therefore,
The output from the potentiometer 164 is introduced to
an input terminal of the subtracting circuit 154.
A synchro 168 housed in the interceptor is also driven
by the motor 162. The output from the synchro is in
where
troduced to input terminals of a subtracting circuit 170 45 a=the angle between the hypotenuse N and the leg L.
and a detector 172, and an error ampli?er 174 is con
,Substituting Equations 1 and 2 in Equation 4,
nected between the output terminal of the subtracting
circuit 170 and an input terminal of the detector 172.
___R tan A__tan A
tan a~R tan E_tan E
(5)
The subtracting circuit'170 also has an input terminal
which is connected to an output terminal of the synchro 50
Since N is the hypotenuse of a right triangle with M and
38 in/the missile, the rotor of which is adapted to be
-L as the legs,
‘driven by a motor 178 through a gear train 180 and the
N2=M2+L2
V
(6)
ring gimbal‘ 30 in the missile. The gear train 180 in
cludes the gear segment 40 and the pinion gear 42 shown
Substituting Equations 1, 2 and 3 in Equation 6,
in FIGURE 2. A relay circuit 182 is connected between 55
v
R2 -tan'*"y=R2 tan2 A-l-R2 tan2 E
(7)
vthe output terminal of the detector 172 and the input
terminal of the motor 178.
0r,
t
'
tan 'y=tan A+j tan E,
(8)
Before the missile is released, the antenna in the in
where 1' indicates a vectorial addition of tan A and tan E.
terceptor 12 (FIGURE 1) is pointed at a target, such as
If two signals proportional to tan A and to tan E are
the target 14, by the radar system 20 (FIGURE 10) and 60
‘respectively produced and if these signals are vectorially
is thereafter maintained pointed at the target. The an
combined, the phase of the resultant signal provides an
tenna in the interceptor 12 is pivoted either upwardly
indication of the angle a, as indicated by the relationship
or downwardly in a conventional manner to correct any
' shown in Equation 5, and the amplitude of the resultant
errors in elevation and is pivoted either to the right or
to the left to correct any errors in azimuth; The pivotal 65 signal determines the value of the angle 7, as indicated
‘by Equation 8. The angle a determines the amount of
movement of the antenna in the plane of elevation is
roll that the’ amount gimbal 28 should experience at any
indicated by the angle E in FIGURE 11 and in the plane
.of-azimuth by the angle A.
The movements of the missile antenna 16 correspond
ing to those of the interceptor antenna in the planes of
azimuth and elevation would normally be on'the ring
gimbal 30 and the horseshoe gimbal 32. As previously
disclosed, the horseshoegimbal 32 can make only a lim
ited movement before it strikes the ring gimbal 30. Fur~
thermore, the horseshoe gimbal is locked against move
instant to maintain theantenna 16 pointed at a target,
and the angle 7 indicates the pivotal movement that the
ring gimbal 30 should experience.
The values of tan A and tan'E are derived from the sig
'_nals produced by the alternator 56 (FIGURE 10). As
previously disclosed, the alternator 56 rotates with the
motor 54 at a, substantially constant speed and produces a
pair of signals having substantially a quadrature phase
3,081,049
10
with each other. One of the signals has its impedance
reduced, by the ampli?er 132 and is then converted by
the potentiometer 136 into an angular value representing
tan A. The conversion takes place because the potenti
ometer 136 is ganged to the antenna in the interceptor
12, so that it rotates with the interceptor antenna through
through the same angle as the potentiometer 164 and
causes the synchro to produce a signal having an ampli
tude dependent upon its angular movement. As previ
ously disclosed, the synchro 163 is housed in the inter
ceptor.
The amplitude of the signal from the synchro 168 is
compared with the amplitude of the signal from the
synchro 175, which is housed in the missile antenna 16,
the angle A in the plane of azimuth. Similarly, the second
signal from the alternator 56 is converted into a signal
representing tan E, since the potentiometer 138 is pivoted
and any difference in the amplitudes of the two signals is
with the interceptor antenna through the angle E.
10 determined by the subtracting circuit 170. After being
The signals from the potentiometers 136 and 1318 are
ampli?ed and detected, the difference signal is applied
then added vectorially by the. circuit 140 to produce a
through the relay circuit 182 to the motor 178. If the
resultant signal having a phase and amplitude represented
signal is negative, the motor 178 drives the synchro 38
by “tan A+j tan E.” The peak amplitude of the signal
through the gear train 18!) and the ring gimbal 30 in a
produced by the circuit 140 is clipped by the ampli?er 15 direction to increase the angular displacement of the
synchro 38. Similarly, the displacement of the synchro
142, and the clipped signal is introduced to the detector
144 for comparison of its phase with the phase of a sig
38 is reduced when a positive error signal is produced in
the subtracting circuit 179. In this way, the synchro 38
nal produced by the resolver 130.
The resolver 130‘ produces a signal having an amplitude
follows the movement of the synchro 168, which in turn
and phase given by the relationship “sin a+ j cos a.” This 20 moves in accordance with the amplitude of the signal
relationship is produced because the resolver 130 receives
from the summing circuit 140. At the same time that
the quadrature signals produced by the alternator 56 and
.the motor 178 causes a movement of the synchro 318, it
rotates these quadrature signals through an angle on in
also causes a movement of the ring gimbal 30 so as to
dicative of the relative pivotal movement between the
ivot the antenna 16 relative to the missile. In this way
mount gimbal 28 and the missile. The rotation of the 25 the antenna 16 is maintained pointed at the target.
_
quadrature signals through the angle 0: occurs because of
There is thus provided a system which is operative be
the ganged relationship between the resolver 130 and the
fore the release of a missile to maintain the missile an
mount gimbal 28. ‘At the same time that the resolver 130
tenna pointed at a target, in accordance with the move
changes the phase of the signals by the. angle a, it con
ment of an antenna housed within an interceptor for
verts them into signals having vmues dependent upon the 30 launching the missile. The system operates to convert
sin and cos of the angle a.
‘the movements of the interceptor antenna in the planes
The phases of the signals from the adding circuit 140
_of azimuth and elevation into corresponding movements
and the resolver 130' are compared in the detector 144.
of the missile antenna on its mount and ring gimbals.
If any difference occurs in the phases of the two signals,
Although this invention has been disclosed and illus
a resultant signal is produced, and this signal is di?erenti 35‘ trated with reference to particular aplications, the prin
ated and then introduced through the switching circuit
~ciples involved are susceptible of numerous other appli
150 to the motor 34. When the angle a through which
cations which will be apparent to persons skilled in the
the mount gimbal 28 has rotated is less than that required
art. The invention is therefore, to be limited only as
at any instant, the detector 144 produces a positive signal
indicated by the scope of the appended claims.
which acts upon the switching circuit 150 in such a direc 40
What is claimed is:
tion that the motor 34 rotates the mount gimbal 28 to in
1. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
crease the angle a.
This rotation occurs until the phase
missile to intercept a target, a radar system, an antenna
of the signal sin n+1‘ cos on corresponds to the phase of
the signal tan A+j tan E. Similarly, the detector pro
in the radar system adapted to be positioned in accordance
with the position of the target relative to the interceptor,
duces a negative signal when on is greater than that re
quired to point the antenna 16 at any instant at the target,
and this negative signal produces a rotation of the motor
34 and the mount gimbal 28 in a direction to reduce the
angle a. The error signal from the detector 144 is ?rst
45 imeans associated with the radar antenna and operative
'before the release of the missile to produce a control sig
nal having a phase and amplitude dependent upon the
position of the antenna, an antenna in the missile pivot
iable relative to the missile, and means for producing a
~ differentiated ‘before being introduced to the motor 34 so 50 movement of the missile antenna relative to the missile
that the motor will be operated at a greater speed when
in accordance with the phase and amplitude of the con
the error is increasing relatively fast than when it is in
trol signal so as ‘to point the antenna at the target.
creasing slowly. ln this way, the differentiator antici
2. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
pates any error that may occur and imparts an increased
missile to intercept a target, a radar system, an antenna
sensitivity and stability to the system.
55 in the radar system adapted to be pivoted before the re
Since the mount gimbal 28 is rotated by the motor 3a
lease or” the missile in accordance with the position of
to give the signal fro-m the resolver 13%} the same phase
:the target relative to the interceptor, means for convert
as the signal from the summing. circuit 149, the signal
ing the angular movement of the radar antenna into a
from the resolver 130 can be used as a reference signal
control signal having a phase and amplitude indicative
to determine the amount of rotation required of the an 60 of the antenna movement in a pair of predetermined polar
tenna 16 on the ring gimbal St). The signal from the
planes, an antenna in the missile p-ivotable ‘in the polar
resolver 13% can also serve as a reference signal because
the vectorial addition of the sine and cosine functions of
the same angle causes the amplitude of the signal to be
planes relative to the missile, and means for producing a
movement of the missile antenna in the polar planes rela
tive to t 1e missile in accordance with the phase and am~
always substantially unity. This reference signal is am 65 plitude of the control signal so as to point the antenna at
pli?ed and then resolved by the potentiometer .164
the target.
through the tangent of an, angle 0 corresponding to the
3. In combination in an interceptor ‘for launching a
movement at any instant of the antenna 16 in the plane
of the ring gimbal 30.
The amplitude of the signal representing tan 7 is com
pared in the subtracting circuit 154 with the amplitude of
the signal representing tan 6, and any difference in ampli
tude is detected and utilized by the motor 162 to drive
' the potentiometer 164 in a direction to reduce the ampli
vtude difference. The motor also drives the synchro 168
missile to intercept a target, a radar system, an antenna
in the radar system adapted to ‘be pivoted before the re
70 lease of the missile in accordance with the position of the
target relative to the interceptor, means for converting
the angular movement of the radar antenna into a con
trol signal having a phase and amplitude indicative of the
antenna movement in a pair of predetermined polar
planes, an antenna inthe missile pivotable in the polar
3,081,049
12
11
planes relative to the missile, means for producing a
antenna in the second pair of planes to maintain the
comparison signal having a phase and amplitude de
antenna pointed at the target.
8. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
missile to intercept a target, an antenna housed in the
pendent upon the movement of the missile antenna rela
tive to the missile in the predetermined polar planes, and
means for adjusting the position of the missile antenna
relative to the missile in the polar planes in accordance
interceptor, means operative before the release of the
missile to pivot the interceptor antenna angularly in a
with any differences in the phase of the control and com
?rst pair of substantially perpendicular planes to maintain
pariscn signals and the amplitudes of these signals.
the antenna facing the target, means for converting the
movement of the interceptor antenna in one of the planes
4. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
missile to intercept a target, a radar system, an antenna 10 into a ?rst signal having an amplitude dependent upon
in the radar system adapted to be positioned in accord
ance with the position of the target relative to the inter
ceptor, means for converting the angular movement of
the radar antenna into a control signal having a phase
a predetermined trigonometric function of the angular
movement, means for converting the movement of the
interceptor antenna in the other 'plane into a- second sig
nal having a quadrature phase relative to the ?rst signal
indicative of the antenna movement in a predetermined 15 and an amplitude dependent upon a predetermined trigo
nometric function of the angular movement, means for
polar plane and an amplitude indicative of the antenna
combining the ?rst and second signals to produce a con
movement in a second polar plane substantially perpen
dicular to the ?rst plane, an antenna in the missile pivot
trol signal, an antenna in the missile, and means operative
in accordance with the control signal to pivot the missile
parison signal having a phase dependent upon the ‘move 20 antenna in a second pair of substantially perpendicular
planes having an angular relationship to the ?rst pair of
men-t of the missile antenna relative to the missile in the
planes dependent upon previous movements of the an
?rst polar plane and an amplitude dependent upon the
able relative to the missile, means for producing a com
movement of the antenna relative to the missile in the
tenna.
5. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
missile to intercept a target, a missile antenna pivotable
_relative to the missile, an antenna housed in the inter
ceptor, means operative before the release of the missile 35
pendent upon a predetermined trigonometric relationship
9. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
second plane, means for adjusting the position of the
missile antenna relative to the missile in the ?rst polar 25 missile to intercept a target, an antenna housed in the
interceptor, means operative before the release of the
‘plane in accordance with any difference between the
missile to pivot the interceptor antenna angularly in a
phases of the control and comparison signals, and means
?rst pair of substantially perpendicular planes to main
for adjusting the position of the missile antenna rela
tain the antenna pointed at the target, means for con
tive to the missile in the second polar plane in accord
,ance with any di?erence between the amplitudes of the 30 verting the movement of the interceptor antenna in one
of the planes into a ?rst signal having an amplitude de
control and comparison signals.
to pivot the interceptor antenna in a pair of substantially
perpendicular planes to maintain the antenna pointed at
the target, and means for converting the movement of
the interceptor antenna into corresponding movements
of the angular movements in the ?rst pair of planes,
means for converting the movement of the interceptor
antenna in the other plane into a second signal having a
quadrature phase relative to the ?rst signal and an ampli
tude dependent upon a predetermined trigonometric re
lationship of the angular movements in the ?rst pair of
planes, means for combining the ?rst and second signals
to produce a control signal, an antenna in the missile, and
means operative in accordance with the amplitude and
phase of the control signal to pivot the missile antenna
’the target.
in a second pair of planes having an angular relationship
6. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
to the ?rst pair of planes dependent upon prior move
missile to intercept a target, a missile antenna, an an
ments of the missile antenna in the second pair of planes.
tenna housed in the interceptor, means operative before 45
10. The combination in an interceptor for launching a
the release of the missile to pivot the interceptor antenna
missile to intercept a target, a missile antenna, an antenna
in a ?rst pair of substantially perpendicular planes to
housed in the interceptor, means operative before the re
maintain the antenna pointed at the target, means for
lease of the missile to pivot the interceptor antenna in a
producing a control signal having a phase and amplitude 50 ?rst pair of substantially perpendicular planes to main
dependent upon the movement of the interceptor antenna
tain the antenna pointed at the target, means for convert
in the ?rst pair of planes, means for producing a com
ing the angular movements of the interceptor antenna in
of the missile antenna in a pair of substantially perpen
clicular planes to maintain the missile antenna pointed at
parison signal having a phase and amplitude dependent
the ?rst pair of planes into control signals having char
upon the movement of the missile antenna in a second
acteristics dependent upon predetermined trigonometric
pair of substantially perpendicular planes, the second 55 functions of the angular movements, means operative to
pair of planes having an ‘angular relationship to the ?rst
produce a comparison signal having a phase and ampli
pair of planes dependent upon prior movements of the
tude dependent upon prior movements of the missile an—
tenna in second and third .planes having a relationship to
the ?rst pair of planes dependent upon the movements of
control and comparison signals to adjust the position of 60 the antenna, means for pivoting the missile antenna in the
the missile antenna in the second pair of planes so as to
second plane to minimize any difference between the
maintain the antenna pointed at the target.
phases of the control and comparison signals, and means
7. In combination in an'interceptor for launching a
for pivoting the missile antenna in the third plane to mini
missile to intercept a target, an ‘antenna housed in the
mize any dilierence between the amplitudes of the control
interceptor, means for transmitting pulses towards the
and comparison signals.
‘
target and for receiving pulses from the target, means
11. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
operative in accordance with the received pulses to pivot
missile to intercept to target, an antenna housed in the
the interceptor antenna before the release of the missile in
interceptor, means operative before the release of the
. a ?rst pair of substantially perpendicular planes to main
missile to pivot the interceptor antenna angularly in a
tain the antenna pointed at the target, means for pro 70 pair of substantially perpendicular planes to maintain the
ducing a control signal having characteristics dependent
antenna pointed at the target, means for converting the
. upon the pivotal movement of the interceptor antenna in
movement of the interceptor antenna in one of the planes
the ?rst pair of planes, 1a missile antenna pivotable in
into a ?rst signal having an amplitude dependent upon
'a second pair of substantially perpendicular planes, and
. a predetermined trigonometric relationship of the angular
; means operative by the control signal to pivot the missile 75 movement in the plane, means for converting the move
missile antenna in the second pair of planes, and means
operative in accordance with any differences between the
3,081,049
13
14
ment of the interceptor antenna in the other plane into a
second comparison signal and the amplitude of the con
second signal having a quadrature phase relative to the
trol signal.
?rst signal and an amplitude dependent upon a predeter
mined trigonometric relationship of the angular move
ment in the plane, means for combining the ?rst and sec
ond signals to produce a control signal, an antenna in the
14. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
missile to intercept a target, an antenna in the missile,
a ?rst gimbal in the antenna for providing a pivotal
movement of the antenna relative to the missile in a
missile and having a plurality of gimbals for providing
?rst plane, a second gimbal mounted on the ?rst gimbal
during ?ight of the missile pivotal movements of the
to provide a pivotal movement of the antenna relative to
the missile in a second plane substantially perpendicular
missile about the axes of the gimbals, means operative
before the release of the missile to pivot the missile an 10 to the ?rst plane, an antenna housed in the interceptor,
means operative before the release of the missile to pivot
tenna about the axis of one of the gimbals in the plurality
the interceptor antenna in a pair of substantially per
in accordance wtih the phase of the control signal to main
pendicular planes to maintain the antenna pointed at the
tain the missile antenna pointed at the target, and means
target, electrical circuits for converting the angular move
operative before the release of the missile to pivot the
missile antenna about the axis of another of the gimbals 15 ments of the interceptor antenna in the pair of planes into
a control signal having a phase dependent upon the rela
in the plurality in accordance with the amplitude of the
tive angular movements of the interceptor antenna in the
control signal to maintain the antenna pointed at the
pair of planes and having an amplitude dependent upon
target.
the vectorial magnitudes of the angular movements in the
12. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
missile to intercept a target, an antenna in the missile and 20 pair of planes, electrical circuits including signal resolvers
having a plurality of gimbals for providing a pivotal
for producing a ?rst comparison signal having character
istics dependent upon the movement of the antenna on
movement of the missile during its ?ight about the axes
the ?rst gimbal, electrical circuits for providing a move
of the gimbals, the axes of the gimbals being substan
ment of the antenna on the ?rst gimbal to minmize any
tially perpendicular to one another, an antenna housed in
the interceptor, means operative before the release of the 25 differences between the ?rst comparison signal and the
phase of the control signal, electrical circuits including
missile to pivot the interceptor antenna in a pair of sub
signal resolvers for producing a second comparison sig
stantially perpendicular planes to maintain the antenna
nal having characteristics dependent upon the movement
pointed at the target, means for converting the angular
of the antenna on the second gimbal before the release
movements of the interceptor antenna in one of the
planes in the pair to produce a ?rst signal having an 30 of the missile, and means for providing a movement of
the antenna on the second gimbal to minimize any dif
amplitude dependent upon the angular movement in the
ferences between the second comparison signal and the
plane, means for converting the angular movements of
amplitude of the control signal.
the interceptor antenna in the other plane in the pair to
15. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
produce a second signal having an amplitude dependent
missile to intercept a tar-get, an antenna in the missile, a
upon the angular movement in the plane, means for com
?rst gimbal in the antenna for providing a pivtol move
bining the ?rst and second signals to produce a control
signal, means operative to produce a comparison signal
having a phase and amplitude dependent upon prior
movements of the missile antenna about the axes of ?rst
ment of the antenna relative to the missile in a ?rst
plane, a second gimbal mounted on the ?rst ‘gimbal to
provide a piovtal movement of the antenna relative to
and second gimbals in the plurality, means for pivoting 40 the missile in a second plane substantially perpendicular
to the ?rst plane, an antenna housed in the interceptor,
the missile antenna about the axis of the ?rst gimbal in
means operative before the release of the missile to pivot
the plurality to minimize any difference between the
the interceptor antenna in a pair of substantially per
phases of the control and comparison signals and to main
pendicular planes to maintain the antenna pointed at the
tain the missile antenna pointed at the target, and means
for pivoting the missile antenna about the axis of another 45 target, electrical circuits including a summing circuit for
converting the angular movements of the interceptor
of the gimbals in the plurality to minimize any differences
antenna in the pair of planes into a control signal hav
between the amplitudes of the control and comparison
ing a phase dependent upon the relative angular move
signals and to maintain the antenna pointed at the target.
ments of the interceptor antenna in the pair of planes
13. In combination in an interceptor for launching a
missile to intercept a target, an antenna in the missile, a 50 and having an amplitude dependent upon the vectorial
magnitudes of the angular movements in the pair of
?rst gimbal in the antenna for providing a pivotal move
planes, electrical circuits including a signal resolver for
ment of the antenna relative to the missile in a ?rst plane,
producing a ?rst comparison signal having characteristics
a second gimbalmounted on the ?rst gimbal to provide
a pivotal movement of the antenna relative to the missile
dependent upon the movement of the antenna on the ?rst
in a second plane substantially perpendicular to the ?rst 55 gimbal, electrical circuits including a detector for pro
ducing a ?rst signal representing any difference between
plane, an antenna housed in the interceptor, means op
the ?rst comparison signal and the phase of the control
erative before the release of the missile to pivot the in
signal, means including a motor and a synchro for pro
terceptor antenna in a pair of substantially perpendicular
ducing a movement of the antenna on the ?rst gimbal to
planes to maintain the antenna pointed at the target, elec
trical circuits for converting the angular movements of 60 minimize the ?rst difference signal, electrical circuits for
producing a second comparison signal having character
the interceptor antenna in the pair of planes into a con
trol signal having a phase and amplitude dependent upon
istics dependent upon the movement of the antenna on
the second gimbal, electrical circuits including a sub
tracting circuit and a detector for producing a second
pair of planes, electrical circuits for producing a ?rst
comparison signal having characteristics dependent upon 65 signal representing any difference between the second
comparison signal and the amplitude of the control sig
the movement of the antenna on the ?rst gimbal before
the angular movements of the interceptor antenna in the
the release of the missile, means for providing a move
ment of the antenna on the ?rst gimbal to minimize any
nal, and means including a motor and a synchro for pro
ducing a movement of the antenna on the second gimbal
to minimize the second second difference signal.
differences between the ?rst comparison signal and the
phase of the control signal, electrical circuits for pro 70
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
ducing a second comparison signal having characteristics
UNITED STATES PATENTS
dependent upon the movement of the antenna on the
second gimbal before the release of the missile, and
2,448,007
Ayres _______________ __ Aug. 31, 1948
means for providing a movement of the antenna on the
second gimbal to minimize any differences between the 75
2,512,693
2,557,401
Sparks et al. _________ .. June 27, 1950
Agins et al. __________ __ June 19, 1951
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