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Патент USA US3082338

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March 19, 1963
R. MÖHRING l
3,082,328-
AMPLIFYING ARRANGEMENT
Filed May 4, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
n9
.SPEAKR
F/G./
8
6
March 19, 1963
‘
Filed May 4, 1959
R. MÖHRING
3,082,328
AMPLIFYING ARRANGEMENT
2 Sheets-Shea?I 2
United States Patent G" EC@
3,082,328
Patented Mar. 19, 1953
1
2
3,082,328
to its construction and its method of operation, together
with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be
best understood from the following description ofspe
ciñe embodiments when read in connection with the ac
AMPLIFYWG ARRANGEMENT
Rolf Möhring, Mosenstrasse 4, Dresden A19, Germany
Filed May 4, 1959, Ser. No. 810,969
7 Claims. (Cl. Z50-231)
The present invention concerns a circuit arrangement
for amplifying small amounts of energy, particularly
electric or radiation energy. An arrangement of this
type is particularly useful in the field of counting 0r
measuring radiation where it is desirable to produce a
perceptible signal, preferably an audible signal, whenever
the radiation reaches a predetermined degree of intensity.
Since radiation counting or measuring instruments are '
usually portable, it is of particular interest to have avail
able an amplifying arrangement of maximum reliability
and ruggedness, yet requiring as little space as possible and
a low energy input for operation.
Known devices intended =to Ibe used for the above de
scribed purpose are rather bulky and comprise a great
number of delicate components which render such de
vices rather expensive.
companying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating one em
bodiment of the invention; and
|FIG. 2 is a. schematic diagram illustrating another em
bodiment of the invention.
Referring now to FIG. >l1, a moving-coil instrument 11’
- is connected with an outside unit 11 furnishing the small
amounts of electric energy to be amplified. Unit 11 may
be any kind of a device furnishing a low electric potential
or current of any type, but may also be of the type of an
ionization chamber or Geiger-Mueller counter converting
radiation energy into electric energy. For the purpose
of this description, the instrument 1l’ operates as a de
tector means.
Auxiliary means in this arrangement comprise a source
of electric energy E assumed to be connected ‘between
two terminals a and b and furnishing a potential U
capable of supplying direct current. `Connected with the
It is therefore a main object of this invention to pro
terminals a and b is an oscillator circuit composed of a
vide a circuit arrangement of the type set forth which is
resistor l and a capacitor 2 and capable of causing a glow
comparatively simple in construction and composed of a 25 ylamp 3 of very small size, connected in parallel with the
rather small number of components so that it is rugged
capacitor 2., to emit light pulses at a predetermined pulse
and reliable and may be produced at comparatively low
cost.
It is another object o-f this invention to provide an
arrangement as mentioned above which can be con
structed so as to require comparatively little space.
With above objects in view, a circuit arrangement for
amplifying small amounts of electric or radiation energy
frequency depending upon the relation between the po
tential U and the respective sizes of the resistor 1 and the
capacitor Z. A preferred pulse frequency is several
hundred pulses per second. The light pulses are directed
at a photo-responsive device for converting the light
pulses into corresponding electric pulses. The photo
responsive device is shown as a photo-cell 4 connected
comprises, according to the invention, in combination, de
with one terminal to an input terminal c which may be
tector means responsive to input of the small amounts of 35 connected with the terminal a and therefore carry also
energy applied thereto, auxiliary means for furnishing a
pulsating electric potential at a predetermined pulse fre
the potential U. The other terminal of the photo-cell
4 is «connected with circuit means described further be
low.
Control means for causing the release of pulsating
causing the release of the pulsating electric potential 40 electric lpotential from the above described auxiliary
from the auxiliary means substantially in proportion with
means, or more particularly from the photo-cell 4, con
the response of the ‘detector means -to an input of the
sist of a light barrier or shield 10 moved lby the moving
small amounts of energy applied thereto, normally blocked
coil of the instrument lì' across the path of light between
amplifier means controlled by the pulsating electric po
the glow lampI 3 and the photo-cell 4. The movement of
tential and capable of releasing, upon input of a pre 45 the light barrier 10» across the light path is substantially
determined value of the pulsating electric potential, an
in proportion with the response of the electro-magnetic
amplified pulsating energy at the predetermined pulse
components of the instrument 11’ to the input of energy
frequency, and output means for delivering the amplified
4furnished by the unit 11. The light ‘barrier 10 is so
pulsating energy.
A
50 constructed that progressive movement thereof across the
It is to be understood that the small amounts of energy
light path gradually changes the intensity of the light
to be amplified may be applied to this arrangement in
pulses impinging on the photo-cell 4 and accordingly
various forms. The energy to be amplified may have the
changes the output of pulsating electric energy available in
form of radiation energy like that of X-rays or rays de
the circuit connected with the photo-cell 4.
rived from radioactive sources, or it may have the form 55
Arranged in circuit with the photo-cell '4 is a nor
of low, constant or pulsating potentials or of low, direct
mally blocked Iblocking oscillator comprising a transistor
or alternating currents. The radiation energy may be
5 `and a transformer 9. The emitter of the transistor 5
applied directly to detector means forming part of the
is connected to ground while the base thereof is connected
circuit arrangement according to the invention, or it may
to the second terminal of the photo-cell 4 and therefore
be applied to separate instruments which are connected 60 acts as control electrode. One Winding 9’ of the trans
quency, control means, operatively connected with the
first detector means and with the auxiliary means, for
with detector means of this circuit arrangement so as to
furnish the above mentioned potentials or currents.
The
amplified output of the circuit arrangement according to
the invention may be used only for signaling the `fact
that the particular type of energy, and particularly a pre
determined amount thereof, has been applied to the
above «mentioned detector means, or, where the amplified
output appears in the form of pulsations, these pulsations
may be counted.
former is connected at one end to -ground and at the
other end via a rectifier 6 to the base of the transistor
5. A second rectifier or diode ’7 is connected in parallel
with the transformer winding 9'. The second winding
9” of the transformer is connected between the collector
of the transistor 5 and the terminal c. Inserted in this
last mentioned connection is a second detector means
which may be a relay yfor actuating any signaling or other
devices serviced by the present circuit arrangement, or
The novel features which are considered >as -character 70 which may be a loudspeaker 8 `as shown.
istic for the invention are set forth in particular in the
In operation, the current impulses caused çby the photo
appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as
cell 4 at the predetermined pulse frequency of the glow
3,082,328
lamp 3 and regulated by the light barrier 10 substantially
in proportion with the amount of electric energy applied
to the instrument 11' by the unit 11, are impressed on the
transistor 5 so that the blocking oscillator responds to
every current impulse with one oscillation. Consequently,
current iiows in the form of pulses at the above men
tioned pulse frequency »throu gh the loudspeaker 8 thus pro
ducing an audible signal corresponding to the input of
electric energy into the instrument 11’. It can be seen
4
While the invention has been illustrated and described
as embodied in a circuit arrangement for amplifying small
amounts of electric or radiation energy, it is not intended
to be limited to the details shown, since various modifica
tions and structural changes may be made without depart
ing in any way from the spirit of the present invention.
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully
reveal the gist of the present invention that others can by
applying current knowledge readily adapt it for various
that the rectifier 7 prevents self-oscillation of the blocking 10 applications without omitting features that, from the
standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential char
oscillator which only responds to impulses coming from
acteristics of the generic or specific aspects of this inven
the photo-cell 4. The blocking oscillator arrangement
tion and, therefore, such adaptations should and are in
serves as amplifier so as to furnish the amplified output
tended to be comprehended within the meaning and range
required for operating the second detector means, i.e.
of equivalence of the following claims.
loudspeaker 8 or a relay.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by
The photo-responsive device mentioned above may be
Letters
Patent is:
of any suitable type, for instance, a photo-diode or a
>1. Circuit arrangement for amplifying small amounts
cadmium-sulfide cell or the like.
» i
of electric energy, comprising, in combination, first de
Referring now to FIG. 2, the auxiliary means of the
embodiment illustrated by FIG. 1 are replaced by a tran
sistor-type oscillator comprising a transistor 103 in cir
cuit with a battery 101 as source of energy, with a con
trol switch 102 inserted in the circuit. A winding L1 of
a transformer 105 is connected in the collector- circuit,
and a variable resistor 104 in series with another winding
L2 of the transformer 105 are connected between the base
and the battery. The pulsating potential furnished by the
tector means including electro-magnetic means responsive
to input of said small amounts of energy applied thereto;
auxiliary means capable of furnishing a pulsating electric
potential, said auxiliary means comprising a source of
electric energy, glow lamp means, oscillator means ener
gized by said source and causing said glow lamp means
to emit light pulses at a predetermined pulse frequency,
photo-electric cell means arranged in the path of said
light pulses, and circuit means connected with said cell
above described oscillator is stepped up by the trans
means and with said source for setting up an output
former and supplied to a secondary circuit including the
secondary winding L3, a rectifier 106, and a capacitor '70. 30 potential pulsating at said pulse frequency; control means
including a light barrier means movable by said electro
Connected in parallel with this secondary circuit are a
magnetic means across said path of said light pulses in
resistor 108 and a voltage regulator tube 90. The recti
predetermined proportion to said input of small amounts
fied pulsating output of the last mentioned circuit is sup
of energy applied to said detector means, said light bar
plied to a third circuit comprising a load resistor 110 and
a radiation-responsive valve 111, e.g. a counter tube, and
a smoothing condenser 120. The valve 111 acts as the
detector means of the whole arrangement as Will be ex
plained below.
rier means being so constructed that progressive move
ment thereof across said path gradually changes the in
tensity of said light pulses impinging on said cell means
and accordingly changes said output potential substan
tially in proportion with the response of said first detector
As a control means is connected with the above de
scribed circuit, a transistor 130 in the following manner: 40 means to an input of said small amounts of energy ap
plied thereto; normally blocked blocking oscillator means
its base is connected to a junction point between the
controlled by said pulsating output potential and capable
valve 111 and the condenser 120, and its emitter-collector
of releasing, upon input of a predetermined value of said
circuit is connected via a variable resistor 140 with a
secondary winding L4 of the transformer 105. The emit
ter of the transistor 130 is coupled by a coupling con
denser 150 with a normally blocked blocking oscillator
5, 6, 7, 9 identical with the corresponding oscillator shown
pulsating electric potential, an amplified pulsating energy
at said predetermined pulse frequency; and second de
tector means in circuit with said blocking oscillator means
for causing the delivery of a perceptible signal indicating
the input of said small amounts of energy.
2. Circuit arrangement for amplifying small amounts
speaker 8 also connected in the same manner as shown
50 of electric energy, comprising, in combination, first de
in FIG. l.
tector means including electro-magnetic means responsive
In operation, the oscillator comprising the transistor
to input of said small amounts of energy applied there
103 produces voltage pulsations which are rectified, after
to; auxiliary means capable of furnishing a pulsating
transformation, by the rectifier 105. The rectified poten
electric potential, said auxiliary means comprising a
tial applied to the capacitor 70 is then stabilized by the
source of electric energy, glow lamp means, oscillator
load resistor 108 and the tube 90, whereafter the stabi
means energized by said source and causing said glow
lized rectified potential is applied to the valve 111 via
lamp means to emit light pulses at a predetermined pulse
the load resistor 110. lf now radiation energy is being
frequency, photo-electric cell means arranged in the path
applied to the radiation-responsive valve 111, a current
of said light pulses, and circuit means connected with
is caused to ñow from the valve «111, smoothed by the
condenser 120 and applied to the base of the transistor 60 said cell means and with said source for setting up an
output potential pulsating at said pulse frequency; con
130. However, negative impulses are applied to the col
trol means including a light barrier means movable by
lector due to its connection with the secondary winding
said electro-magnetic means across said path of said light
L4. As soon as the control current coming from the valve
in FIG. 1 and operating a detector means, c_g. loud
111 causes the transistor `150 to become conductive to a
predetermined degree, a pulsating potential is available
pulses in predetermined proportion to said input of small
65 amounts of energy applied to said detector means, said
light barrier means beingY so constructed that progressive
movement thereof across said path gradually changes
the intensity of said light pulses impinging on said cell
ing output current at the pulse frequency of the voltage
means and accordingly changes said output potential sub
pulses supplied via coupling condenser 150 is furnished
to the loudspeaker 8 causing the latter to deliver an aud~ 70 stantially in proportion with the response of said first
across the resistor 140 and is sufficient to trigger the
blocking oscillator arrangement 5, 6, 7, 9 so that a pulsat
ible signal accordingly.
It will be understood that each of the elements de
scribed above, or two or more together, may also find a
useful application in oither types of amplifier circuits
differing from the types described above.
detector means to an input of said small amounts of
energy applied thereto; normally blocked blocking oscil
lator means controlled by said pulsating output potentialV
and capable of releasing, upon input of a predetermined
value of said pulsating electric potential, an amplified
3,082,328
5
6
pulsating energy at said predetermined pulse frequency;
converting said alternating potential into a train of pulses
at a predetermined pulse frequency vand connected in cir
cuit With said valve means for delivering through said
valve, depending upon said input of radiation energy ap
plied to the latter, an output potential pulsating at said
pulse frequency; control means including transistor means
and second detector means including an electro-acoustic
transducer means in circuit with said blocking oscillator
means and with said cell means for causing the delivery
of an audible signal indicating the input of said small
amounts of energy.
»
3. Circuit varrangement for amplifying small amounts
of radiation energy, comprising, in combination, first de
in circuit with said valve means and with said oscillator
means for releasing said pulsating'output potential sub
tector means including radiation sensitive valve means
stantially in proportion with the response of said first de
responsive to input of said small amounts of energy ap 10 tector means to an input of said small amounts of energy
plied thereto; auxiliary means capable of furnishing a
applied thereto; normally blocked transistor equipped
pulsating electric potential, said auxiliary means compris
blocking oscillator means controlled by said pulsating
output potential and capable of releasing, upon input of
a predetermined value of said pulsating electric potential,
ing a source of electric energy, oscillator means ener
gized by said source and ifurnishing an alternating po
tential of predetermined frequency, rectifier means for 15 an amplified pulsating energy at said predetermined pulse
converting said alternating potential into a train of pulses
frequency; and second detector means in circuit with said
at a predetermined pulse frequency and connected in
blocking oscillator means for causing the delivery of a
circuit with said valve means for delivering through said
perceptible signal indicating the input of said small
valve, depending upon said input of radiation energy ap
amounts of energy.
plied to the latter, .an output potential pulsating at said 20
6. Circuit arrangement for amplifying small amounts
pulse frequency; control means including electronic means
of electric energy, comprising, in combination, first detec
in circuit with said valve means and with said oscillator
tor means including electro-magnetic means responsive to
means for releasing said pulsating output potential sub
stantially in proportion With the response of said first
input of said small amounts of energy applied thereto;
auxiliary means capable of furnishing a pulsating electric
potential, Said auxiliary means comprising a source of
detector means to an input of said small amounts of
energy applied thereto; normally blocked blocking oscil
lator means controlled by said pulsating output potential
and capable of releasing, upon input of a predetermined
value of said pulsating electric potential, an .amplified
pulsating energy at said predetermined pulse frequency; 30
and second detector means in circuit with said blocking
oscillator means for causing the delivery of a perceptible
electric energy, glow lamp means, oscillator means ener
gized by said source and causing said glow lamp means
to emit light pulses at a predetermined pulse frequency,
photo-electric cell means arranged in the path of said light
pulses, and circuit means connected with said cell means
and with said source for setting up an output potential
pulsating at said pulse frequency; control means including _
a light barrier means movable by said electro-magnetic
means across said path of -said light pulses in predetermined
4. Circuit arrangement for amplifying small amounts 35 proportion to said input of small amounts of energy applied
to said detector means, said light barrier means being so
of electric energy, comprising, in combination, first de
signal indicating the input of said small amounts of
energy.
i
Y
tector means including electro-magnetic means respon
constructed that progressive movement thereof across said
path gradually changes the intensity of said light pulses
sive to input of said small amounts of energy applied
impinging on said cell means and accordingly changes said
thereto; auxiliary means capable of furnishing a pulsating
electric potential, said auxiliary means comprising a 40 output potential substantially in proportion with the re
sponse of said first detector means to an input of said
source of electric energy, glowÍ lamp means, oscillator
small amounts of energy applied thereto; normally blocked
means energized by said source and causing said glow
transistor equipped blocking oscillator means controlled
lamp means to emit light pulses at a predetermined pulse
by said pulsating output potential and capable of releasing,
frequency, photo-electric cell means arranged in the
path of said light pulses, and circuit means connected 45 upon input of a predetermined value of said pulsating
electric potential, an amplified pulsating energy at said
with said cell means and with said source for setting up
predetermined pulse frequency; and second detector means
an output potential pulsating at said pulse frequency;
including an 'electro-‘acoustic transducer means in circuit
-With said blocking oscillator means and with said cell
light pulses in predetermined proportion to said input of 50 means for causing the delivery of an audible signal indicat
ing the input of said small amounts of energy.
small amounts of energy applied to said detector means,
7. Circuit arrangement for amplifying small 4amounts
said light barrier means being so constructed that pro
of
radiation energy, comprising, in combination, »first detec
gressive movement thereof across said path gradually
tor means including radiation sensitive valve means re
changes the intensity of said light‘pulses impinging on
sponsive to input of said small amounts of energy applied
control means including a light barrier means movable
by said electro-magnetic means across said path of said
said cell means and accordingly changes said output
potential substantially in proportion with the response of
said first detector means to an input of said small amounts
of energy applied thereto; normally blocked transistor
equipped blocking oscillator means controlled by said
pulsating output potential and capable of releasing, upon
input of a predetermined value of said pulsating electric
potential, an amplified pulsating energy at said prede
termined pulse frequency; and second detector means in
circuit with said blocking oscillator means for causing
thereto; auxiliary means capable of furnishing a pulsating
electric potential, said auxiliary means comprising a source
of electric energy, oscillator means energized by said
source and furnishing an alternating potential of predeter
mined frequency, rectiiier means for converting said alter~
60 nating potential into a train of pulses at a predetermined
pulse frequency and connected in circuit with said valve
means for delivering through said valve, depending upon
said input of radiation energy applied to the latter, an
output potential pulsating at said pulse frequency; control
the delivery of a perceptible signal indicating the input 65 means including transistor means in circuit with said valve
of said small amounts of energy.
5. Circuit arrangement for amplifying small amounts
of radiation energy, comprising, in combination, first de
tector means including radiation sensitive valve means
means and with said oscillator means for releasing said
pulsating output potential substantially in proportion with
the response of said first detector means to an input of
said small amounts of energy applied thereto; normally
responsive to input of said small amounts of energy ap 70 blocked transistor equipped oscillator means controlled by
plied thereto; auxiliary means capable of furnishing a
said pulsating output potential and capable of releasing,
pulsating electric potential, said auxiliary means com
upon input of a predetermined value of said pulsating elec
prising a source of electric energy, oscillator means ener
tric potential, an amplified pulsating energy at said pre
gized by said source and furnishing an alternating po
determined pulse frequency; and second detector means
tential of predetermined frequency, rectifier means for 75 including an electro-acoustic transducer means in circuit
3,082,328
7
with said blocking oscillator means and with said cell
means for causing the delivery of an audible signal indi~
eating the input of said small amounts of energy.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,434,297
Test et al. ____________ __ Jan. 13, 1948
8
2,453,533
2,521,479
Norton ______________ __ NOV. 9, 1948
Rautter ______________ __ Sept. 5, 1950
2,653,248
Perlow et al. __ ________ __ Sept.
Friedman _____________ __ July
Bergen _______________ __ July
Goddard _____________ __ Aug.
2,683,813
2,685,064
2,687,646
2,721,276
2,838,680
22,
13,
27,
31,
1953
1954
1954
1954
Exner ________________ __ Oct. 18, 1955
Beuder et al ___________ __ June 10, 1958
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