close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3082516

код для вставки
March 26, 1963
T. s. TE VELDE
3,082,508
HEAT FLOWMETER AND DEVICE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION THEREOF
Filed Jan. 7. 1958
Fir-av‘
,
INVENTOR.
7765’ S/[BOLT 7E V6205
United tates
re %
c
3,082,508
Patented Mar. 26, 1963
2
11
sions even smaller and to use for example a mandril of
3,082,508
0.3 x 0.5 mm.
HEAT FLOWMETER AND DEVICE FOR THE
CONSTRUCTION THEREOF
In the ?gures below FIG. 1 represents a view of an
embodiment of a heat ?ow-meter ‘according to the inven
Ties Siebolt te Velde, Delft, Netherlands, assignor to
tion.
‘FIG. 2 is a crossesection through this meter according
to the line II‘I—'I\I in FIG. 1.
Nederiandse Centrale Organisatie voor Toegepast
Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek, The Hague, Neth
erlands, a corporation of Holland
Filed Jan. 7, 1958, Ser. No. 707,534
Claims priority, application Netherlands Jan. 7, 1957
10 Claims. (Cl. 29—155.5)
The invention relates to heat ?owmeters, consisting of
FIG. 3 represents a single winding showing the cross
section of the helix forming the thermo-elements which
have been connected in series, on an enlarged scale.
‘FIG. 4 is a section ‘through this winding according to
a large number ‘of thermo-elements which have been ‘con
nected in series. Generally, these thermo-elements ‘are
the line IV—=IV on \an even more enlarged scale.
embedded in ‘an insulating synthetic resin.
helixes are made.
Applicant has, for instance, developed and marketed a
FIG. 5 is \a diagram of the apparatus with which these
15
?owmeter, the elements of which consist of a helix of
constantan Wire having a diameter of 0.15 mm., one
vIn FIG. 1 and 'FIG. 2 reference numeral 1 represents
a sheet of polyvinyl chloride with ‘a thickness of approxi
mately 2.2 mm. Herein the helix 2 of constantan wire lies
half of the helix having been coated electrolytically with
embedded, coppered over half of the winding. The wind
copper.
ings of the helix are rectangular and have been Wound
Said helixes were made by winding the con
stantan wire on a round mandril having a diameter of 20 on a mandril of 1 x 2 mm.; the pitch of the helix is ap
proximately 0.15 mm. The sheet has :an effective sur
3 mm. followed by removal of the mandril. In order
to prevent this unsupported helix, which consists of many
hundreds of windings, from wrenching during electrolytic
coppering and during the following mounting (‘on
face of approx. 18 x 18 mm.; the length of the helix is
approximately 25 cm. and in total there are thus approxi
mately 1600 thermo-elements present herein. The helix
wrenching the junctions would no longer all lie on the 25 is ?xed to contact strips 3, 4 which project beyond the
sheet.
upper or lower side of the helix respectively) this helix,
In FIG. 3 it is shown that the part 5 of each winding
having a pitch which is approximately double the wire
is coppered; the copper surface is indicated in FIG. 4 by
thickness is glued to a strip of paper, subsequently cop
reference numeral 6; the constantan surface by 7. The
pered and mounted. This treatment is time-consuming
and cumbersome; moreover not more than about approxi 30 thickness of the copper layer is not arbitrary; the best
result is obtained if the ratio of the surfaces of copper
mately 80 of these elements can be placed per square
layer and constantan core of ‘the cross section is approxi
cm. surface ‘of the flowmeter ‘and treatment of helixes
mately 0.065. Since a helix is electrolytically coppered,
with a core-diameter of less than 3 mm. was impracti
the copper layer ‘at (the outside of the helix, where the
cable. The sensitivity of a meter made with such a helix
electric ?eld is stronger, is as a rule thicker than the in
is approximately 1 mv. at a heat ?ow of 200 kcaL/hour
side of the helix as indicated in FIG. 4. This exercises
sq. in. through a sheet of 1 sq. cm.
The invention relates to a heat E?owmeter which is
constructed ‘according to the same principle, but is char
no disturbing in?uence, since only the proportion of the
surfaces is important.
It is not necessary of course to use constantan wire as
acterized by thermo-elements wound as a helix ‘of metal
wire or band about half of each turn of said helix being 4.0 a helix ‘and to coat said helix with copper, for other met
lals may also be used.
coated with a surface layer of la thermo-electrically dis
The helix may be of any material which is thermo
similar material :and which helix has ‘a vcross section hav
electrically dissimilar to the material of the coating.
ing at least one flat side. ‘Preferably the cross section of
For the electrolytical coating of the said helix can be
the helix ‘is rectangular, the long sides of the rectangle
having about the double length of ‘the short sides, and 45 used metals as e.g. platinum, gold, silver, iridium, pal
with the junctions between the thermo-electrically dis
ladium, rhenium, rhodium, chromium, iron, nickel, co
similar materials lying on the short sides. This makes it
possible on the one hand to provide a larger number of
elements per sq. cm. surface in ‘the heat ?owmeter land
balt, copper, cadmium, zinc ‘and tin.
.
The iollowing combinations of metals can be used to
advantage platinum~platinum rhodium alloys, platinum
become much simpler, \as with a non-round helix wrench
platin-um rhenium alloys, platinum-platinum iridium al
loys, gold-palladium alloys, iridium-iridium rhodium al
loys, nickel-nickel chromium ‘alloys, nickel-copper, cop
per-nickel, copper-constantan, silver-constantan, iron-con
ing of said helix during the treatment can easily be pre
stantan, the last mentioned metal of the combination al
as a result to reduce the heat resistance, while on the 50
other hand the treatments in respect of coating and
mounting, necessary for the construction of the elements,
vented.
55 ways representing the metal of the helix.
The helixes ‘are made with the apparatus shown in ‘FIG.
‘It was e.g. found to be possible to wind constant'an
5 and can be embedded in a synthetic resin as e.g. poly
wire with a diameter of 0.08 mm. on a rectangular man
vinyl chloride. This can be done by mounting the helix
dril of 1 x 2 mm., which regularly pushes windings away
in a mould and pouring liqui?ed polyvinylchloride (e.g.
and thereafter to coat said helix continuously electrolyti
cally with copper in such a way that the junctions will 60 in the molten state or as a solution in the mould).
After solidi?cation of the polyvinylchloride a ?exible
lie at the short sides of the rectangle. Approximately
sheet containing the_helix is obtained. Also other syn
600 windings of
helix per sq. cm. surface could be
thetic resins as for example unsaturated polyester resins
placed in the heat ilowmeter; the sensitivity is then ap
and silicons can be used tor the same purpose.
proximately 1 mv.
a heat ?ow of only 50 kcaL/hour
After coppering the helix is preferably covered with an
sq. m. with 'a sheet of 1 sq. cm. Moreover, owing to 65
insulating lacquer layer in order to prevent the occurrence
the many thermo-elements per sq. cm. a much shorter
of a short circuit between adjacent windings owing to
adjusting time is obtained.
This opens up the possibility of measuring very small
deformations, for example during the mounting of the
helix.
heat ?ows rapidly and thus also small heat ilow varia
The device for the construction of the helixes shown in
tions, so that these elements can be applied ‘for very
FIG. 5 consists of a head 8. The constantan wire 13 of
sensitive calorimeters and radiation meters.
In principle it is quite Well possible to make the dimen
supplying coil 104's wound on the rectangular mandril ‘11
3,082,508
3
4
by the rotating arm 9, mounted on the driven disk 12.
lacquered parts lie on either side of each of said straight
parts of said turns, and then rinsing and drying said turns
of said helix.
6. The process of claim 5 including the step of cover
ing said rinsed and dried helix with an insulating lacquer
The rod 15 is slowly lifted by a cam on the disk 14 con
nected with the disk 12 and then it is pressed down with
a shock by the spring 20 at the end of the cam, which
movement is ‘transferred to mandril 11 via- the body 16,
rod 17 and lever 18, a Winding of the helix which has just
been wound (which helix is taken to the left by the
layer and subsequently baking said layer. .
7. A process for the production of a helical series con
nection o-f thermo-elements from metal wire, the diam
eter of said Wire being less than 0.15 mm, comprising
mandril) striking the springs 31 and as a result moves to
the right with respect to the mandril. Thus the helix is
pushed off the mandril. ,While it is still on the mandril
Winding said Wire as a helix on a mandril, said mandril
the helix is annealed in the oven 19 in order to remove
having a rectangular cross-section, the long side of which
all the tensions in the material, so that after pushing off
there is no longer anyinclination to wrenching. Subse
quently the helix is led through the bath 21 with a de
fa-ttening liquid and subsequently over the rotating disk 15
being approximately twice as long as the short side, an
nealing said helix on said mandril toremove any tensions
therefrom, periodically pushing turns of said helix off
said mandril, leading said helix through a defattening
22, which rotates in bath 23 ‘through a lacquer. As a re
bath and then over a lacquer-bathed disc so as to provide
sult a long side of the windings with they part of the short
a part of each of said turns with a surface layer of in
sides immediately connected thereto is covered with the
sulating lacquer, drying said lacquer layer, bath-coating
thin layer of lacquer. This is dried in the oven 24 and
the remaining uncovered part of each of said turns with
the. helix is subsequently coppered electrolytically on the 20 a surface layer of a thermo-electrically dissimilar metal
part which is not covered with lacquer in bath 25. After
so that the junctions of the coatedparts and the lacquered
coppering rinsing is effected in bath 26, drying in drying
oven 27 and subsequently the Whole helix is lacquered’ in
bath '28. Finally the latter lacquer is baked in the oven
29 and the helix is wound on the driven coil 30.
I claim:
parts of each of the turns lie on the short sides of the rec
tangle, and then rinsing and drying said turns of said
helix.
25
8. The process of claim 7, including the step of cover
ing said rinsed and dried helix with an insulating lacquer
layer and baking said layer.
1. A process for the production of a helical series con
nection of thermo-elements of metal wire, the diameter
of said Wire being less than 0.15 mm., comprising wind
9. A process for the production of a heat ?owmeter
comprising winding a wire, the diameter of which is less
ing said wire as a helix ‘on a mandril having at least one 30 than 0.15 mm., as a helix on a mandril having at least
?at side so as to provide for a straight part in each turn
one flat side so as to provide for a straight part in each
of said helix, annealing said helix on said mandril to re
turn of said helix, annealing said helix on said ‘mandril
move any tensions therefrom, periodically pushing turns
to remove any tensions therefrom, periodically pushing
of said helix off said mandril, leading said helix over a
turns of said helix off said mandril, leading said helix
lacquer-bathed disc so asto provide a part of each of 35 through a defattening bath and then over a lacquer-bathed
said turns with a surface layer of insulating lacquer, and
‘disc so as to provide a part of each of said turns with a
bath-coating the remaining uncovered part of each of said
surface layer of insulating lacquer, drying said lacquer
turns with a surface layer of a thermo-electrically dis
layer, bath-coating the remaining uncovered part of each
similar metal so that the junctions of the coated parts
of said turns with a surface layer of a thermo-electrically
and the lacquered parts lie on either side of each of said 40 dissimilar metal so, that the junctions of the coated parts
straight parts of said turns.
' a
and the lacquered parts lie on either side of each of said
I 2. The process of claimr2 including the steps of de
straight parts of said turns, rinsing and drying said turns
fattening the helical wire in a defattening liquid before
of said helix, covering said rinsed and dried helix with an
providing the surface layer of lacquer and drying the
lacquer layer before bath-coating the helix.
3. The process of claim 2 including the steps of rinsing
‘insulating lacquer layer, baking said lacquer layer, and
45 ‘embedding said helix in a synthetic resin.
and drying after bath-coating.
10. A process for the production of a heat ?owmeter
comprising winding a wire, the diameter of which is less
4. A process for the production of a helical series
than 0.15 mm, as a helix on a mandril, said mandril
connection of thermo-elements of metal wire, the diam
having a rectangular cross-section, the long side of which
eter of said wire being less than 0.15 mm., comprising 50 _being approximately twice as long as the short side, an
winding said wire as a helix on a mandril, said mandril
nealing said helix on said mandril to remove any tensions
having a rectangular cross-section, annealing said helix
therefrom, periodically pushing turns of said helix off
said mandril, leading said helix through a dcfattening
on said ‘mandril to remove any, tensions therefrom, peri
odically pushing turns of said helix off said mandril, lead
bath and then over a lacquer-bathed disc so as to provide
ing said helix over a lacquer-bathed disc so as to provide 55 a part of each of said turns with a surface layer of in
‘a part of each of said turns with a surface layer of in
sulating lacquer, drying said lacquer layer, bath-coating
sulating lacquer, and bath-coating the remaining uncov
the remaining uncovered part of each of saidrturns with
ered part of each of said ‘turns with a surface layer of a
thermo-electrically dissimilar metal so that the junctions
a surface layer of a thermo-electrically dissimilar metal
so that the junctions of the coated parts and the lacquered
of the coated parts and the lacquered parts of each of the 60 parts of each of the turns lie on the short sides of the
turns lie on the short sidesjof the rectangle.
rectangle rinsing and drying said turns of said helix, cov
5. A process for the production of a helical series con
ering said rinsed and dried helix with an insulating lac
nection of thermo-elements of metal wire, the diameter of
said wire being less than 0.15 mm., comprising winding
quer layer, baking said lacquer layer, and embedding
said helix in a synthetic resin.
7
said wire as a helix on a mandril with at least one ?at side 65
so as to provide for a straight part in each turn of said
helix, annealing said helix on said mandril to remove any
' References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
tensions therefrom, periodically pushing turns of said
helix off said mandril, leading said helix through a de
2,310,026
Higley ________________ __ Feb. 2, 1943
fattening bath and then over a lacquer-bathed disc so as
2,643,975
Neish _______________ .. June 30, 1953
to provide a part of each of said turns with a surface layer
of insulating lacquer, drying said lacquer layer, bath
coating the remaining uncovered part of each of said turns
with a surface layer of a thermo-electrically dissimilar
metal so that the junctions of the coated par-ts and the
2,680,710
Kenmore et -al __________ __VJune 8, 1954
2,699,424
2,795,032
Nieter ________________ __ Jan. 11, 1955
Kerstetter ____________ __ June '1 l, 1957
2,807,657
2,943,956
Jenkins et al __________ _- Sept. 24, 1957
Robinson ____________ __-__ July 5, 1960
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
437 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа