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Патент USA US3082520

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March 26, 1963
c. F. LOUTHAN
3,082,511
HEATING UNIT MANUFACTURE
Filed Nov. 14. 1957
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HIS ATTORNEY
March 26, 1963
c. F. LOUTHAN
3,082,51 1
HEATING mm MANUFACTURE
Filed Nov. 14, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
C'Je?'er /.4 [oz/291a”
HIS ATTORNEY
ice
1
3,082,511
Patented Mar. 26, 1963
2
?lling a tubular sheath heating element wherein the heat
3,082,511
ing unit contains a plurality of heating elements;
HEATING UNIT MANUFACTURE
Chester F. Louthan, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to General
Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich” a corporation of
FIGURE '6 is a sectional view taken along line 6—6
of FIGURE 5;
FIGURE 7 is a sectional view taken along line 7-.-7
Delaware
of FIGURE 5;
Filed Nov. 14, 1957, Ser. No. 696,414
3 Claims. (Cl. 29-15565)
,
FIGURE 8 shows one step of making an end connec
tion having a plurality of heating elements; and
This invention relates to tubular sheath electric heating
FIGURE 9 illustrates a second step of forming an end
units that are commonly used as surface heaters for elec 10 connection having a plurality of heating elements.
tric ranges and the like and more particularly to a method
Referring now to the drawings and more particularly
and apparatus formanufacturing these heating units.
to FIGURE 1 the heating element ?lling machine of this
An object of this invention is to provide a method and
invention comprises a main frame 10 that includes ver
apparatus for manufacturing a tubular sheath heating ele
tically extending side frame members 12 and‘ 14. The
ment of the type having a tubular sheath containing one 15 side frame members 12 and 14 are connected by a cross
or more heating elements and a quantity of compacted
member 16 which is bolted to the side frame and which
has an opening 18 that is adapted to receive a metal
?nely divided electrical insulating material, and wherein
tubular sheath 20 that forms a component part of a heat
the use of the method and apparatus of this invention
ing unit. The side frames 12 and 14 carry a plurality
results in a high degree of compacting of the ?nely di
vided material and also results in a ?nished product 20 of reinforcing blocks 22 that are formed with vertically
wherein the heating element or elements are spaced a pre~
extending openings 24 that are aligned with openings 26
determined distance from the tubular sheath along the
entire length of the sheath and irrespective of the fact
that the sheath may have been initially bowed. The fore
formed in the side frames. The openings 24 and 26
form guides for a vertically movable heating element sup
porting frame generally designated by reference numeral
going object is preferably accomplished by supporting the 25
tubular sheath in a vertical position and threading a heat
28.
'
The vertically movable frame 28 includes a supporting
block 30 which carries vertically extending parts 32 hav
ing studs 34 that are threaded into threaded openings in
block 3t). The heating supporting frame 28 further in
ing element through the tubular sheath and through a
tamping or spacer plug that is located within the tubular
sheath and which has certain of its edges in contact with
‘the internal walls of the tubular sheath. The tubular 30 cludes a cross member 36 that is held in ?xed relation to
blocks 32 by means of screws 38 which may be tightened I
sheath is then supplied with a quantity of ?nely divided
to bear against blocks 32 and which provide an adjustable
insulating material such as magnesium oxide and at the
connection between the cross member 36 and blocks 32.
same time the tubular sheath is vibrated along the longi
The block 36 is provided with an opening 40 that is
tudinal vertical axis to cause vertical reciprocation of the
spacer or tamping plug. At each reciprocation of the 35 adapted to receive a supporting rod 42 and also has a set
tamping plug a quantity of insulating material passes
around the plug and is compacted by the downward
stroke of the tamping plug. During this vertical recipro
cation, the tamping plug climbs in increments from the
screw 43 that engages the rod 42 to hold it in ?xed rela
tionship with the cross member 36. The cross member
36 carries rods 44 that fit within the slots 24 and 26.
The block 30 carries similar rods 46 that slide Within
bottom of the tubular sheath to the top thereof and high 40 vertical‘ openings 24 and 26. The rods 44 and 46 are
thus contained within slots 24 and 26 and this arrange‘
ly compacts the ?nely divided insulating material during
ment prevents the frame 28 from rotating during vertical
its movement. The tamping plug in its movement fol
reciprocation thereof.
lows the contour of the tubular sheath and thus correctly
The ?lling machine of this invention has an impact
spaces the electrical heating element from the tubular
sheath, the spacing being the same over the entire length 45 vibrator 47 that may be either air operated or electrically
operated and which operates to vertically reciprocate a
of the tubular sheath.
block 48 having a recess 49. The block 48 is prevented
It is another object of this invention to provide an end
from rotating by a guide 50 that is suitably attached to
connection for a plurality of heating element wires Where
side frame 14. A similar block (not shown) may be
in one end of one of the heating elements is folded over
disposed on the‘ opposite side of vibrating block 48 in
another to form a heating element cluster and wherein the
order to prevent the block 43 from rotating during its
cluster is forced into a tapered opening formed in a sup
vibratory reciprocating movement. The vibrator 47 is
porting plug, the heating elements being threaded through
preferably mounted in ?xed relationship to the main
said opening except for the cluster which is tightly en'
frame of the machine by means (not shown). Where
gaged by the walls of the tapered opening.
Further objects and advantages of the present invention 55 the frame is ?oor mounted the vibrating mechanism 47
may also be ?oor mounted, and as noted above, the vibra
will be apparent from the following description, reference
tor 47 may be air operated and may take the form of an
being had to the accompanying drawings wherein a pre
air-hammer.
'
ferred embodiment‘ of the present invention is clearly
\When it is desired to ?ll a tubular sheath heating
shown.
In the drawings:
60 unit a tubular metal member 20 is ?tted with a wire coil
heating or resistance element 52 that is welded or other
-wise secured to metal rod terminals 53 and 54. In setting
up the machine for a ?lling operation a metal thimble 55
cordance with this invention;
is threaded over'the heating element and terminal 54 to
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken along line 2-2 of 65
a point where the thimble engages projections 56 for-med
FIGURE 1 is a vertical plan view with parts broken
away of a heating element ?lling machine made in ac
FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged view of a portion of FIG
URE11 showing a method of supporting one end of a
heating element;
integrally with the terminal 54. The thim-ble has a
central opening as illustrated in FIGURE 1 through which
the heating element 52 and terminal 54 are threaded. The
heating element 52 is also threaded through a freely
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken along line 4-4 of 70 mounted tubular tamping rod 57 that has a lower cross
section better shown in FIGURE 4. The lower end of
FIGURE 5 is a vertical sectional view of apparatus for
the tubular tamping rod is formed with ?at edges 58 and
FIGURE 1;
3,082,511
7
~
7.
3
with arcuate edges 59 that contact the tubular metal
sheath ‘20. .The edges 59 are in point contact with the
inner wall of tubular sheath 20 .to keep the tamping
rod 57 centralized within the tubular sheath 20 during
vertical reciprocation thereof.
The upper terminal 53 is held in ?xed engagement with
the lower end‘of rod 42 by providing a reduced portion
stroke compacts the quantity of magnesium oxide lo
cated below the tamping rod. The tamping rod during
this vertical reciprocation moves upwardly within the
tubular sheath 20, the tamping rod climbing slightly up
wardly during each singular vertical reciprocation. Since
the vibrator 47 is operated relatively rapidly the tamping
rod climbs up within tubular sheath 20 in small incre
ments as long as the vibrator 47 is in operation. The
tamping rod 57 will thus move from the lower end of
the supporting rod 42. The terminal 53 is detachably
connected to the lower end of rod 412 by simply slipping 10 tubular sheath 20 to the top end thereof and when the
tamping rod reaches the top end the tubular sheath 20
the end of terminal 53 into the openings formed in the rod
60 on the rod ‘53 which ?ts Within a slot 61 ‘formed in
42 with the large diameter portion 63 of the terminal
?tting over the annular portion 64- of rod 42. This con
nection between rod \42 and terminal 53 may be made
will be completely ?lled with compacted magnesium
oxide.
It is to be noted that the tamping rod serves another
after threading the heating element 52 through the tamp 15 function in that it spaces the heating element 52 away
from the inner wall of tubular sheath 20' during its up—
ing rod 57, and when the supporting rod 42 and heating
ward vibratory movement. The tamping rod due to the
engagement of edges 59 with the tubular sheath 20 fol
lows the contour of the tubular sheath 20 and thus in
When the tamping rod 57 and heating element 52 have
been threaded through the tubular sheath 20 the sheath 20 sures that the heating element 52 will be spaced 2. predeter
mined distance from the tubular sheath '20 regardless
is positioned in the machine and the set screw 65 is tight
of the fact that the tube 20 might be slightly bowed.
ened to hold the tubular sheath 20 in ?xed relationship
It is also to be noted that the heating element 52 is
with cross member 30. In this position the lower end of
neither tensioned nor slackened during the vibratory move
. tubular sheath 20 rests on the lower wall of recess 49
ment of the tamping rod due to the fact that the upper end
and a process ?tting generally designated by reference
of the heating element is ?xed to movable frame 28 where
numeral 66 and shown in detail in FIGURE 2 may then
as the lower end is ?xed to the tube '20. Thus during
be attachedto the tubular sheath 20. The process ?tting
‘vertical reciprocation of the tube 20, and tamping rod
as shown in FIGURE 2 includes blocks 67 and 68 having
element 52 are threaded therethrough the rod ‘may be
?xed in place by the set. screw 43.
arcuate recesses that are adapted to engage the outer
57, a predetermined ?xed spacing is provided between
The blocks 67 and 68 are held 30 the ends of the heating element 52 to insure that it
is neither tensioned nor slackened.
together by threaded fasteners 69 which may be loosened
The apparatus shown in FIGURE 1 may also be used
or completely unthreaded to remove the process ?tting
to till a tubular sheath heating unit of the typeillus
from the position shown in FIGURE 1. The process
trated in FIGURE 5 wherein the ?nished product con
?tting in its position in the machine lies directly on the
vertically vibrating member 48 and the vertical recipro 35 tains three heating elements that are spaced from one ‘an
other by predetermined distances. In the embodiment
cation of the vibrating member 48 is transferred to the
‘shown in FIGURE 5 a metal tube 76 has a circular cross
tube 20 through the process ?tting 66.
section except for a portion 77 that is ?attened. In the
The cross member 30 carries a hopper 70 having a con
embodiment of FIGURE 5, a plug 78 is provided which
duit portion 71 of predetermined cross sectional area.
The hopper is adapted to contain a quantity of ?nely 40 has a tapered opening 80 that is of smaller diameter ad
jacent its top end thereof. The plug 78 has a shoulder
divided insulating material such as magnesium oxide.
‘82 which is adapted to engage one end of the flattened
The insulating material is fed through chute 71 into an
periphery of tube '29.
portion 77 of the tube 76 when the plug is inserted there
opening 72 formed in block 30 which communicates with
in. The plug is preferably formed of crushable ceramic
the space between tamping rod 57 and tubular sheath
20. The chute 71 may be provided with any suitable 45 material and is adapted to support wire coil heating or
resistance elements 83 and 84 in a manner illustrated in
valve mechanism for controlling the flow of magnesium
FIGURE 5.
oxide into the tubular sheath 2!) and may be designed
In order to assemble the heating elements 83 and 84
to feed any desired quantity of magnesium oxide into
within the plug 78 the heating elements are threaded
tubular sheath 20 for a predetermined or given period of
time.
.
A weight member 73 is secured to the upper end of
tamping rod 57 by means of a set screw as shown in
‘FIGURE 1.
The weight member 73 slidably engages
one side of a guide member 73a that is ?xed to frame
28, thus preventing rotation of the tamping rod 51 dur
ing reciprocation thereof. This weight provides for extra
downward force when the tamping rod 57 is being verti
cally reciprocated. A spring 74 is interposed between
through the plug 78 in a manner illustrated in FIGURE
8 wherein the heating element 83 is formed with a looped
end 85 and wherein the heating element 84 is threaded
through plug 78 and passed over the looped end 85 of
heating element 83. With the heating elements in the
position shown in FIGURE 8 the end of heating ele
ment 84 is bent over the looped end of heating element
cross member 16 and process ?tting 66 and the force of
this spring operates to move the process ?tting 66 down
83 in a manner depicted in FIGURE 9. In this position
of the heating elements 83 and 84 a heating element
cluster isformed which is pulled into the tapered open
ing 89 and which tightly engages the side walls of the
wardly during vertical reciprocation thereof.
opening 80. It has been found that by forming the
>When the machine has been set up in the manner illus
trated in FIGURE 1, the vibrator 47 is operated to ver
bunch or cluster as illustrated in FIGURE 9 a tight con
tically reciprocate the block member 48, the sheath 20
nection may be made with plug 78 which supports the
lower end of the heating elements within the tubular
and frame 28 which carries sheath 20. During this ver
sheath 76.
tical reciprocation the tamping rod '57 is vertically recipro
cated within the tubular sheath 2t}. and simultaneously
‘
.
When the heating elements 83- and 84 have been se
cured to the plug 78 in a manner shown in FIGURES
' with this vertical reciprocation magnesium oxide is fed
8 and 9, and when the heating elements 83 land 84 have
between the tamping rod 57 and the tubular sheath 20*.
been positioned in the plug 78, the three terminal ends
The magnesium oxide powder passes between the edges
86, 87 and 88 of the two heating elements are threaded
'58 of tamping rod 57 and the tubular sheath 20, and
starts to ?ll up the tube 20. This magnesium oxide is
designated by reference numeral 75 in FIGURE 1. The
vertical reciprocation of tamping rod 57 causes the mag
nesium oxide to ?ow thereby, and on each downward 75
through openings 86a, 87a, and 88a formed in a tamping
plug or spacer plug 89. The plug 89 has a flat side 90
that is adapted to cooperate with the ?at side 77 of
tubular sheath 76 to prevent rotation of plug 89 during
vertical reciprocation thereof. The plug‘89 is attached
8,082,511
6
5
supplying the space between said tubular sheath and said
tubular tamper member with granular insulating ma
to a rod 91 which in turn carries a weight 92 that is ?xed
to the rod by means of a set screw 93. The terminal
ends 86, 87 and 88 of the heating elements are connected
terial, and directly vertically reciprocating vsaid tubular
with terminals 93 which ?t within openings 94; formed
in a ?tting 95 that is carried by the upper end of tubular
sheath 76. The ?tting has set screws 96 which engage
the terminals 93 to hold the terminals in ?xed relation
ship with the tubular sheath 76. The ?tting 95 has an
opening that accommodates the rod 91 and has open
ings 99 which permit the passage of magnesium oxide 10
therethrough during vertical reciprocation of the tamping
sheath axially in a manner to cause said unsupported
tubular tamper member to move upwardly a greater dis
tance per reciprocating stroke than said sheath thereby to
leave a space between said tamper member and the pre
viously compacted surface of the insulating material into
which space the granular material can ?ow and cause
the tamper member to rise in said sheath with each re
ciprocating movement.
2. The method of manufacturing a heating unit of the
type having a tubular metal sheath containing a heating
element and a packing of insulating material comprising
plug 89. A ?ller chute member 97 may also ‘be ?tted
to the ?tting 95 in a manner shown in FIGURE 5 to
provide for ‘guiding means for the magnesium oxide in
sulating material.
the steps of, supporting said tubular sheath in a vertical
position, continuously ‘freely mounting a tamping plug
As noted hereinbefore the machine shown in FIGURE
having a vertically disposed opening in said tubular
1 is useful in ?lling tubular sheath heating units of the
sheath, supporting a heating. element in said tubular sheath
type illustrated in FIGURE 5. In ?lling the unit of
within the tamping plug, closing the bottom end of said
FiGURE 5 the tubular sheath 76 is secured to the process
?tting 66 shown in FIGURE 1, and the upper end of 20 tubular metal sheath, securing said heating element to
said bottom end to correctly position said heating ele~
the tubular sheath 716 is ?xed to the cross member 30
ment Within said tubular sheath, feeding granular in
sulating material into said tubular sheath, and directly
vertically reciprocating said tubular sheath along its longi
in a manner similar to the securing of tubular sheath
20 to cross member 30 and process ?tting 66. The
chute 71 is disposed to overlie the chute 97 whereby the
hopper 70 is adapted to feed magnesium oxide into the
chute 97. When the tube 76 of FIGURE 5 is inserted
within the machine shown in FIGURE 1, the tube 76
is vibrated along its longitudinal axis to produce a longi
' tudinal axis in a manner to cause said tamping plug to
tudinal vibration of tamping plug 89, rod 91 ‘and Weight
92. The tamping plug 89 and its ‘associated parts climb
upwardly within the tubular sheath 76 in a manner similar
to the climbing up of tamping rod 57 Within tubular
sheath 20. In the apparatus of FIGURE 5 the three
heating elements 86, 87 and 88 are held at predetermined
distances from one another and from the tubular sheath
76 due to the fact that they are threaded through the
openings in spacer or tamping plug 89. 'The magnesium
reciprocate vertically upwardly in said tubular sheath a
‘greater distance than said tubular sheath and solely in
response to the reciprocations of said tubular sheath
whereby to form a space between said tamping plug and
the previously compacted surface of the insulating ma
terial into which space the granular material can ?ow
for eifecting the rise of said tamping plug in said tubular
sheath with each reciprocation.
3. The method of manufacturing a heating unit of the
type having a tubular metal sheath containing a heating
element and a packing of insulating material comprising _
the steps of, supporting said tubular sheath in a vertical
oxide represented by reference numeral 98 is compacted
during the vertical reciprocation of tamping plug 89‘ to
position, continuously ‘freely mounting an unsupported
tamping plug in said tubular sheath, supporting a heating
form a highly compacted mass within tubular sheath 76.
element in said tubular sheath adjacent the tamping plug,
closing the bottom end of said tubular sheath, ?xing
said heating element relative to said bottom end, directly
vertically reciprocating said tubular sheath along its lon
It will be apparent that the operation of the apparatus
shown in FIGURE 5 and in FIGURE 1 is substantially
identical the difference being that three heating elements
are being positioned Within the tubular sheath in FIG
URE 5 whereas in FIGURE 1 only a single heating
element is being ?tted within the tubular sheath.
When the tamping rod 89 has moved ‘from the lower
end of tubular sheath 76 to the top end thereof, the tube
is completely ?lled and an end cap (not shown) may
gitudinal axis in ‘a manner to cause said tamping plug to
move upwardly a greater distance per reciprocating stroke
than said sheath thereby to leave a space between said
tamping plug and said bottom end, ‘and ‘feeding granular
insulating material into said space whereby to cause said
tamping member to move incrementally upwardly in said
then be attached to the lower end thereof. The tube 50 sheath while said granular material is being compacted
between said bottom end and said tamping plug.
is then removed ‘from the machine and may be swaged
to crush the crushable member ‘78, the material of mem
ber 78 being thus highly compacted to hold the ends
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
of heating elements v86, 87 and 88 together and ‘from
moving along the length of tubular sheath 76.
While the form of embodiment of the invention as
herein disclosed ‘constitutes a preferred ‘form, it is to be
understood that other forms might be adopted as may
come within the scope of the claims which follow.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,359,400
Lightfoot ____________ __ Nov. 16, 1920
1,474,723
Levinson ____________ __ Nov. 20, 1923
1,547,335
Lightfoot et al. ______ __ July 28, 1925
1,588,558
Thornton ___________ __ June 15, 1926‘
1,669,385
2,311,358
2,469,801
12,472,145
2,477,226
2,591,925
2,652,622
Wiegand et al. _______ __ May 8,
Baily _______________ __ :Feb. 16,
Vogel et al. __________ __ May 10,
Cappell ______________ __ June 7,
at the bottom end of said tubular sheath to correctly
105,716
932,471
1,131,200
Australia ____________ __ Nov. 17, 1938
France _____________ __ Mar. 23, 1948
France ______________ __ Feb. 18, 1957
position said heating element within said tubular sheath,
528,718
Great Britain ___-,._____ Nov. 5, 1940
What is claimed is as follows:
1. The method of manufacturing a heating unit of the
type having a tubular ‘metal sheath containing a heating
element and a packing of insulating material comprising
the steps of, supporting said metal tubular sheath in ‘a
vertical position, supporting said heating element within 65
said tubular sheath, freely mounting a continuously un
supported tubular tamper member within said metal tubu
lar sheath with said heating element being threaded
through said tamper member, closing the bottom end of
said tubular metal sheath, securing said heating element
1928
1943
1949
1949
Ashton ______________ __ July 26, 1949
Erbe _________________ __ Apr. 8, 1952
Charbonneau ________ __ Sept. 2-2, 1953
FOREIGN PATENTS
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