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Патент USA US3082706

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March 26, 1963
Y
K. HENRICHSEN
' 3,082,696
HYDRAULIC PUMP 0R MOTOR
Filed Sept. 50-, 1959
5 Sh-eet‘s-Sheet 1
' TPRESSURE
KNUT
INVENTOR.
HENRICHSEN
M PM
ATTORNEY
March 26, 1963
K. HENRICHSEN
3,082,696
HYDRAULIC PUMP OR MOTOR
Filed Sept. 50, ~ 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
KNUT
HENRICHSEN
MW
ATTORNEY
March 26, 1963
K. HENRICHSEN
3,082,696
HYDRAULIC PUMP OR MOTOR
Filed Sept. 50, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR.
KNUT
HENRICHSEN
w ?pawéé
ATTORNEY
March 26, 1963
3,082,696
K. HENRICHSEN
HYDRAULIC PUMP 0R MOTOR
Filed Sept. 50, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
70
77
1
I
\llll
75
FIG. l5
KNUT
IN VEN TOR.
HENRICHSEN
BY
65%‘ FEM,
ATTORNEY
United States Patent ()1 "ice
3,082,696
Patented Mar. 26, 1963
1
2
3,082,696
FIG. 7, illustrating the ?uid pressures resulting from the
balancing grooves;
HYDRAULIC PUMP 0R MOTOR
FIG. 10 is a sectional view of the pintle valve taken
along line 10-10 of FIG. 4;
1
Knut Henrichsen, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to
North American Aviation, Inc.
Filed Sept. 30, 1959, Ser. No. 843,495
9 Claims. (Cl. 103-161)
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrating the
?uid forces resulting from angular misalignment of the
cylinder block and pintle valve;
‘FIG. 12 is a fragmentary elevational view partially in
section similar to FIG. 8, showing the balancing groove
ing application Serial No. 682,981 which was a continu
\
ation-in-part of my application Serial No. 651,240, now 10 arrangement for an underbalanced valve;
FIG. 13 is a sectional view taken along line 13-43 of
abandoned.
‘
'
FIG. 12 further illustrating the balancing groove and
This invention pertains to a hydraulic pump or motor
metering pin design;
operable at high speeds and high ?uid pressures.
I
FIG. 14 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along
The device of this invention relates to a pump or motor
of the pintle valve type of considerably improved eth 15 line 14-14 of FIG. 13 illustrating the longitudinal ?uid
This application is a continuation-in-part of my copend
pressure distribution on the upper half of an underbal
anced pintle valve for normal stable operation as well as
ciency, providing a compact lightweight unit of large
capacity. The invention includes a means for balancing
pressures around the outer surface of the pintle valve
for several conditions of pintle-cylinder block eccentricity;
FIG. 15 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal sec
to assure that a ?uid ?lm is provided between the valve
and the rotatable cylinder block. This pressure balance 20 tional view of a second embodiment of a pump pintle
showing a modi?ed form of metering pin arrangement;
arrangement may include passageways metering ?uid
FIG. 16 is a fragmentary view, partly in section and
from the high pressure port to the surface of the valve
partly in elevation, showing a simpli?ed arrangement of
adjacent the low pressure port regardless of whether the
the second pintle embodiment for supplying pressurized
device is utilized as a pump or as a motor.
Therefore, it is an object of this invention to provide 25 lubricating fluid to the pintle balancing grooves, thereby
a pump or motor of compact, lightweight design having
providing an optimum embodiment permitting use either
a large output capacity.
as a motor or pump;
1
t
A further object of this invention is to provide a pump
or motor having provisions for minimizing friction and
wear.
FIG. 17 is a transverse sectional view of the pintle
valve of FIG. 16 taken along line 17-17 in FIG. 16,
30 illustrating the balancing grooves and lubrication feed
and metering arrangement;
Another object o? this invention is to provide a pump
FIG. 18 is a schematic view illustrating the longitudinal
or motor having means to balance pressures around the
pintle valve to preclude metal-to-metal contact.
.
?uidv pressure distribution along the pintle valve of the
A still further object of this invention is the provision
embodiments of FIGS. 16 and 17 both for stable normal
be operated either as a motor or pump and with either
clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation without any ne
Referring in particular to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 of the draw
ing the device of this invention includes a pintle valve 1
about which cylinder block 2 rotates. Hereinafter the
device will be generally described as a pump but it will
be clear to those adept in the art that the device has equal
utility as a‘motor when supplied with a pressurized driv
of a universal means for balancing the pressures around 35 operation as well as when eccentricity exists between the
pintle valve and cylinder block.
the pintle valve so that the device of this invention may
cessity for rearrangement of external connections to the
device-
.
, Yet another object of this invention is to provide
simple non-clogging arrangement for providing lubrica
ing fluid.
.
tiorr between the pintle valve and the cylinder block rotat
The pintle valve includes openings 3 and 4 which serve
able.thereon which is equally effective whether the hy 45
as the inlet and outlet, respectively, when the unit acts
draulic device is operated as a pump or motor. ’
as a pump. The pintle valve in the embodiment illus
trated also serves as one end of the housing, connecting
These and other objects will become more apparent
when taken in connection with the following detailed de
scription and the accompanying drawings in which:
to main housing section 5 which surrounds the cylinder
block. The pintle valve acts as the main bearing for
' FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the exterior of the device
of this invention;
\
'
-
the pump, while bearing 6 also serves to support the
.
cylinder block axially where shaft 7 mates with splines
FIG. 2 is an axial sectional view of the invention taken
in the block and acts as a power input when the device
along line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
is used as a pump, or as a power takeoff when employed
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken along line
3—-3 of FIG. 2, illustrating the relationship of the bear
ing race, piston-slipper assemblies, cylinder block and
pintle valve;
;
as a motor. The cylinder block is provided with a plu
55
rality of radial cylinders 8 in which piston-slipper assem
blies 1t) reciprocate. Each of these assemblies includes a
piston portion 11 ‘for engagement with a cylinder, while
'
FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of the pintle valve,
with the cylinder block shown removed for purposes of
clarity;
'
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along line S—5 of ,
slipper portion 12 projects beyond the block and includes
60
main housing. The preferred embodiment of these pis
FIG. 4, illustrating the forces acting on the pintle valve;
‘FIG. 6 is a fragmentary view, partially in section, show
ing how the ?uid pressures in the high pressure port pro
vide a force on the pintle;
=
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along line 7—7 of FIG.
4, illustrating the balancing groove and metering pin ar
rangement;
a spherical outer face 13 which engages complementary
spherical bearing race 14 on the inner surface of the
ton-slipper assemblies forms the subject matter of my co
pending application Serial No. 682,981. The unit illus
65
trated is of ?xed displacement type with bearing race 14
disposed eccentrically with respect to the pintle valve to
effect reciprocation of the piston-slipper assemblies as the
cylinder block rotates.
V
v
Pump inlet 3 and outlet 4 connect with passages 16
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary elevational ‘view, partially in
section, further illustrating the balancing groove arrange 70 and 17 which in turn communicate with diametrically op
posed ports '18 and 19. The latter extend circumfer
ment;
_
entially around portions of the lower side and of the
‘FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken along line 9-9 of
3,082,696
A
upper side of the pintle valve, respectively.
Ports 18
which hold the ?ow to a predetermined value, depend
ing upon the clearance in the passageways. These meter
ing passageways and the grooves permit ?uid from port
and 19 are dimensioned to correspond to the diameter of
the cylinder ports for cooperation therewith in pumping
the ?uid. With the embodiment shown operating as a
pump the cylinder block rotates clockwise in the show
ing of FIG. 3, thereby drawing ?uid from inlet 3 into
port 18 and thence into the cylinders on the lower half
of the pintle valve. The pistons on the upper portion
of the pintle valve move inwardly and force the ?uid into
port 19, through passage 17 and outlet 4. Leakage ?uid 10
in the pump case passes through ports 20 and 21, to
central passage 22, the outlet 23 of which may be con
nected to the reservoir of the hydraulic system. The
axial location of this return passage assures that any air
in the case will be immediately exhausted as the pump
rotates.
19 to provide an additional force at the bottom of the
pintle as illustrated in curves B and C of FIG. 9. The
groove pressure drops off substantially linearly to case
pressure at the edge of the port, and at the edge of the
adjacent surfaces of the cylinder block and pintle. The
pressures within these grooves provide resultants W3 and
W.,, as shown in FIG. 7. These resultants will balance
the difference between forces W2 and W1, and proper
proportioning of the metering passageway-s will control
the rate of ?uid ?ow into the balancing grooves so that
concentricity of pintle and cylinder block is maintained.
Additionally, forces W3 and W4 counteract other un
15
balancing forces on the pintle. For example, if the cyl
An important consideration in providing an efficient
pump or motor capable of large capacities, high rota
inder block tends to move to the left from the position
of FIG. 3, which may result from pump eccentricity,
this tends to close up grooves 29, while opening up
tion speeds and long life is to assure that a ?uid ?lm
is maintained between the outer surface of the pintle valve 20 grooves 30.
and the inner surface of the cylinder block. In the design
illustrated there is only .0002 inch clearance between the
valve and the cylinder block, yet a ?uid ?lm must be
maintained at all times between these two elements. The
pump is subject to certain loads and pressures which com
This means that the ?ow out of grooves
29 will decrease and the pressure therein will rise, while
the presusre in grooves 30 decreases.
This will move
the cylinder block back toward the central position. A
similar balancing action takes place if the cylinder block
25 tends to move to the right.
plicate the problem of providing such a ?uid ?lm. As
Forces tending to misalign the cylinder block and
shown diagrammatically in FIG. 5, the cylinders on the
pintle are counteracted in the manner illustrated diagram
top half of the pintle valve provide a downward load
matically in FIG. 11, as well as by the balancing grooves
having a resultant W1 passing through the pintle center.
in the bottom of the pintle. If the cylinder block tilts
This load moves back and forth angularly between the 30 to a position with one edge in contact with the pintle
two dotted line positions shown in FIG. 5 as the cylinder
as illustrated in FIG. 11, the pressure curve A will be
block rotates. This occurs ‘because either three or four
altered to the shape illustrated from its original sym
cylinders will be in communication with port 19, de~
metrical form shown in dotted lines. By reason of the
pending upon the rotational position of the cylinder
tilted position of the cylinder block, substantially full
block. The midpoint is offset slightly from the vertical 35 pressure will be maintained out to the contacting edge
because of the pump eccentricity.
causing the right-hand portion of the curve to increase
An upward force is exerted at the top half of the
in area. The raised portion of the block at the left
pintle opposing W1. This results from the ?uid pressure
causes a tapered clearance at the left which causes the
within port 19 as illustrated in FIG. 6 (in which clear
presusre to drop off non-linearly and reduce the area
ances have been exaggerated) Where curve A depicts the 40 under that portion of the curve. Resultant W2 therefore
pressure distribution across the top of the pintle. Thus,
moves to the right and provides a moment tending to
full pump pressure is exerted in port 19 while the pres
move the cylinder block back toward its properly aligned
sure drops off as an essentially straight line across the
position. Additionally, the tilting of the cylinder block
area between the pintle and the cylinder block to the
will tend to close up grooves 29 and 30 on the left—hand
pump case pressure which will be substantially zero. The
side of port 18 while opening up the grooves on the
resultant W2 of this pressure always opposes W1 and
moves back and forth in the same manner.
In the
right-hand side. This increases the pressure in the grooves
0n the left of the port 18 while decreasing the pressure
design shown the high pressure port 19 is suf?ciently
in the grooves on the right-hand side of the port, there
large so that W2 is about one-fourth greater than W1,
by also providing a righting moment for returning the
thereby causing a pintle overbalance urging the lower 50 cylinder block to a position of alignment;
surfaces of the cylinder block and pintle into contact.
It is apparent, therefore, that the balancing grooves
Additional forces are present tending to cause metal
are located so that they provide ?uid forces in direc
to-metal contact between the pintle and the cylinder
tions to overcome any of the unbalancing forces which
block. The eccentricity of the slipper race with respect
may be encountered.
to the pintle causes a force tending to move the cylinder 55
By the design described above, it is possible to obtain
block to the left from the position in FIG. 3, which
forces which will maintain a fluid ?lm between the valve
would cause metal-to-metal contact on the right-hand
portion of the pintle. A force urging the cylinder block
to the right results from acceleration of the pistons within
the cylinders, but this may be either grcaterlor less than
the leftward force depending upon the pump design and
and cylinder block for all rotational speeds and condi
tions so that virtually no wear results. In tests pencil
marks made on the surface of the pintle valve have
remained intact after millions of revolutions of the cyl
inder block.
rotational speeds. Additionally, if the pump is installed
This is possible because the high pressure port 19 is
in a rapidly moving vehicle such as an aircraft, gyroscopic
proportioned to give an overbalanced condition for the
forces resulting from high speed maneuvering will tend
pintle, which is counteracted by the pressure in the bal
to misalign the cylinder block and pintle.
65 ancing grooves located remote from the high pressure
The features best seen in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 overcome
these unbalancing forces and assure that a ?uid ?lm is
maintained. To this end, a pair of balance grooves 29
is provided in the surface of the pintle on one side of
the midpoint of port 18 (the vertical line of the pump)
arranged to straddle port 18. A similar pair 30 is lo
cated on the other side of the vertical of the pintle. Pas
sageways 32 and 33 interconnect high pressure port 19
with the balance grooves. These ports are provided with
suitable restrictions such as metering pins 34‘ and 35 75
port.
In this manner, not only may the pintle over
balance be corrected, but the additional unbalancing
forces such as may arise from pump eccentricity, accel
eration of the pistons and gyroscopic conditions, also
may be offset.
If an unbalanced condition were not
created deliberately between the high pressure port and
the cylinder block, theulatter unbalancing forces could
not be overcome. In other words, if the high pressure
port were dimensioned so that the resultant of its ?uid
pressure exactly equaled the downward load from the
3,082,696
6
5
could not be used because they would upset the equilib
lets at the valve surface adjacent the inner perimeter of
the cylinder block means that when the clearance at the
rium between these two loads.
As a result, the addi
pressure outlet decreases the force exerted will become
tional unbalancing forces from eccentricity, piston ac
celeration and gyroscopic effect would meet no opposi
tion and metal-to-metal contact would be inevitable.
greater. When the clearance becomes larger, the force
is less. Thus, the magnitude of the force from the addi
tional pressure outlets adjusts itself to the requirement
The principles of this invention may be applied with
equal facility to a design where the pintle valve is under
at hand.
In some instances, such as for an arrangement like
cylinders (i.e., if W1 equaled W2) balancing grooves
that disclosed in my copending application Serial No.
balanced as illustrated in FIGS. 12, 13 and 14. Here
the size of the high pressure port 56 is less than the 10 733,408, now Patent No. 3,051,194 granted August 28,
1962, it may be desirable to have the pintle conduits
size of port 19 of the previously described embodiment.
which communicate the high pressure ?uid to the pintle
It is reduced sufficiently in width so that resultant force
balance grooves fed from the high pressure outlet pas~
W5 from the ?uid pressure in port 56 is smaller than
sage rather than from the high pressure port 19. In such
resultant force W1 of the cylinder load on the pintle.
Preferably also the width of the cylinder block at the 15 an arrangement, the conduits and metering pins ex;
tend longitudinally within the pintle 1, as shown in FIG.
valve is less than in the previous embodiment so that
15, thus providing greater ease of manufacture. This
there is a more rapid drop oil? in pressure and conse
arrangement lends itself to an improved form of self
quently a reduced resultant force. The excess of W1
cleaning metering pin. Fixed metering pins having nar
over W5 in this design urges the top of the cylinder block
inner surface against the top portion of the valve at 20 row restricted ori?ce sections tend to catch and retain
foreign material carried by the hydraulic ?uid and thus
the area around the high pressure port.
promote the formation of deposits. Such clogging of the
The unbalanced condition is corrected again by means
of balancing grooves connecting with the high pressure
flow passages may be obviated by the ?oating metering pin
proper proportioning of the metering pins 61 and 62,
lodge material which otherwise would impair the vmeter
ing action. Clogging or impairment of the restricted ?ow
arrangement of FIG. 15. In this arrangement metering
port. A pair of grooves 57 is provided on the upper
surface of the pintle on one side of the midpoint of port 25 pin 70 is centered within the conduit 71 located in pintle
1 by means of ?anges 72. Flat sides 73 on the ?anges
56, arranged to straddle that port. A similar pair 58
form passages for ?uid flow. The predetermined diam
is provided on the other side of the midpoint of port
etral clearance between central area 74 of the pin and
56. Pairs of passageways 59 and 60 interconnect port
the walls of conduit 71 provides the required ?uid meter
56 and the balance grooves, while metering pins 61 and
62 restrict the ?ow through passageways 59 and. 60', 30 ing restriction. Pin 70 is biased against a bore closure
member 75 by spring 76.
respectively, to a predetermined value. This connection
In operation ?uid enters at 77 from the high pressure
is made through outlet passage 63 which, of course, has
port and passes through bore 71 and out by- a conduit
the same pressure as port 56. The connection from
78 connected to the pintle balance grooves. Extension
port 56 to the balancing grooves 57 and 58 allows an
additional force to be exerted between the upper por 35 79 on the pin holds it clear of inlet conduit 78 and in¢
sures ?uid entry into bore 71. As shown in FIG. 15,
tion of the pintle valve and the cylinder‘ block. This is
pin 70 tends to be displaced axially to the left by the
illustrated graphically in FIG. 14 where it may be seen
force resulting from the pressure drop through the re
that the grooves result in a greater area beneath the
stricted bore. Spring 76 is designed to resist the displac
pressure curve. The additional force so provided, plus
the resultant W5, may be caused to balance W1, and by 40 ing force yet permit some degree ofrmovement to dis
the rate of ?ow into the balancing grooves may be con
passage will cause the pressure differential across the pin
trolled to prevent metal-to-metal contact between the
to rise, thus disturbing the spring biased pin ‘from its
block and the pintle. Curve A of FIG. 14 illustrates
the normal pressure distribution along the pintle for a 4:5 equilibrium position. This will cause the pin to move
axially to dislodge the deposit and thereby promote 'a
balanced concentric condition of the cylinder block and
self-cleaning action.
' '
pintle.v Curve B illustrates the maximum pressure dis
While
the
present
device
can
‘be
operated
as
a
pump
and
tribution with a zero clearance between the top of the
also as a motor by supplying pressurized ?uid tothe
pintle and the cylinder block; while curve C illustrates
outlet port 4 (with a consequent reversal in direction
the reverse or minimum pressure condition wherein the
of rotation), for universal operation of the present de
bottom of the pintle has a zero clearance with the cylin
vice either as a pump or motor’ and assuming operation
der block and the top clearance is a maximum.
as a motor with rotation in the same direction as when
In a manner similar to that for the previously described
it is operated as a pump, pressurized ?uid would be sup
embodiment, the resultant forces W6 and W7 from the
balance grooves 57 and 58 extend angularly with re 55 plied to the inlet port 3 and thence through port 18 to
the rotating cylinders. Thus, pressure acting on the lower
spect to the midpoint of the high pressure port and re
part of the pintle would result in an upwardly directed re
turn the pintle to a‘ concentric position with respect
sultant force passing through the pintle center equal but
to the cylinder block whenever an unbalancing force tends
opposite
to that occurring when operated as a pump. To
to move it to one side or to cause relative tilting. If the
clearance at the grooves is changed, the pressure there 60 overcome this unbalancing force and assure the mainte
nance of a ?uid ?lm on the upper surface of the pintle,
in will also vary as with the previously described embodii
a pair of balancing grooves should be provided on the
ment to counteract the unbalancing-force.
" I ‘a I‘
upper
pintle surface on either side of the midpoint of
The basic concept, therefore, in providing a ?uid?lm
port 19 arranged to straddle the port. Such grooves must
between the cylinder block and the valve block is ?rst
to create an unbalance between the load imposed by the 65 be fed from the high ‘pressure source and suitably metered
to supply a predetermined pressure to each groove of
cylinders on the valve and the opposing load from the
the upper set of grooves.
?uid in the high pressure port. Then ?uid is metered
Thus, to allow universal operation of the device of
from the high pressure port to the valve surface at a lo
this invention, either as a pump or motor and with rota
cation where additional ?uid pressure can be applied to
overcome the unbalance between those two loads. This 70 tion in either direction, a set of four pressure balancing
grooves should be provided on both the upper and lower
location is selected also so that the additional ?uid pres
halves of the pintle valve. Such universal operation,
sure will counteract any other unbalancing forces pres
therefore, also requires that four ?uid metering bores 'be
ent. Within this additional ?uid pressure the latter un
provided in the pintle in addition to the four such bores
balancing forces cannot be offset and metal-to-metal con
tact Iwill result. Positioning the additional pressure out 75 heretofore described as required for operation as a pump
3,082,696
7
8
or as a motor having a reverse direction of rotation.
the upper part being subjected to the high sidev pressure,
These bores would connect four additional balancing
grooves located on the upper surface of the pintle to the
inlet passages 16 which would then be supplied with
pressurized ?uid for motor operation. Suitable check
valve means in all eight of the ?uid metering bores would
be provided to prevent ?ow reversal during operation as
either as a pump or motor.
Curve A illustrates the pres
sure distribution in the region of the pintle ports and
across the balancing groove, with the pintle and cylinder
block in a concentric relation. Curve B illustrates the
pressure distribution with a zero clearance between the
top of the pintle and the cylinder block. Curve C illus
either a motor or a pump. The additional grooves would
trates the reverse condition wherein the bottom of the
pintle has a zero clearance with the cylinder block. It
duality of lower groove pairs. To locate four more bores 10 will be noted that the groove pressure drops off substan
and ?uid metering pins within a pintle of the type shown
tially linearly to case pressure at the edge of the pintle
in FIGS. 7 or 15 would introduce extreme complexity into
low pressure port, and at the edge of the adjacent sur
the pintle construction even if su?iicent space were avail
faces of the cylinder block and pintle. From the groove
be disposed on the pintle diametrically opposite the
able to allow for such an arrangement. Accordingly, an
pressure of the top groove, the pressure rises to the pres
improved arrangement for producing this desired result 15 sure in the pintle high pressure port. The pressures with
is shown in FIGS. 16 and 17. This is shown as applied
to a pintle having longitudinally extending metering bores,
in these grooves can be made to provide resultant forces
which will counteract the overbalance and by proper pro
‘although it could also be utilized with an arrangement of
portioning of the metering passageways, maintain the
the type shown in ‘FIG. 7. In this arrangement only
cylinder block vertically and axially concentric with the
two pintle bores are required to supply the grooves and 20 cylinder.
allow universal operation either as a pump or motor
It will be seen by the foregoing, therefore, that I have
with either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation. The
provided an improved hydraulic device incorporating fea
two pintle bores replace the eight bores required for
tures which materially reduce the wear of the unit ‘and
universal pump or motor operation in the previous de
greatly increase its e?iciency and capacity.
vice. These bores are relatively unrestricted, having no 25
The foregoing detailed description is to ‘be clearly un
metering pin therein, thereby minimizing ‘any fouling and
derstood as given by way of illustration and example, the
clogging which may occur, particularly at elevated tem
spirit and scope of this invention being limited only by
peratures, when such metering pins are used in the bores.
the appended claims.
As shown in FIGS. 16 and 17, pump cylinder block
I claim:
80 is rotatably supported upon pintle 81, which contains 30
1. A hydraulic device comprising a pintle valve; a cylin
two longitudinally extending ‘bores 82 and 83. Consider
der ‘block in engagement with and rotatable relative to
ing clockwise rotation of the device operating as a pump,
said pintle valve, said cylinder block having a plurality
bore 82 connects to the pump outlet port, while bore 83
of cylinders therein, said pintle valve having a high pres
communicates with the pump inlet port. In the cor
sure and a low pressure port cooperating with said cylin
responding mode of motor operation, with clockwise rota 35 ders; a piston-slipper assembly reciprocative in each of
tion, bore 83 transmits the pressurized ?uid from the inlet
said cylinders; a bearing race engaged by the slipper por
port of the device. Bores 82 and 83 contain check valves
tions of said piston-slipper assemblies, said bearing race
84 and 85, respectively, therein preventing reverse ?ow.
being positioned to cause reciprocation of said piston
Thus, while the unit may ‘be utilized either as a pump or
slipper assemblies upon such rotation of said cylinder
motor and may be run in either direction, pressure will 40 block, said high pressure port being dimensioned such
always be supplied to the correct pintle ‘balancing grooves
that upon rotation of said cylinder block the ?uid therein
to balance the unbalanc-ing forces and maintain the pintle
exerts a force on said cylinder block unequal to the force
and cylinder block in concentricity. The check valves
of said cylinder block on said valve whereby a predeter
prevent ?ow from the high pressure region to the low pres
mined unbalanced force results; pressure balancing means
sure region regardless of whether the unit is operated as 45 comprising a plurality of grooves extending at least
a pump or motor.
partially around the circumference of said pintle valve
Bores 82 and 83 interconnect with a conduit arrange
ment 97 lying in a transverse plane of the pintle and com
and lying substantially in each of two radially transverse
planes located one on each side of said high pressure and
prising chordwise extending bores 86, 87 and 88. These
low pressure ports; conduit means communicating ?uid
‘bores terminate in radially extending bores 89, 90, 91 50 pressure from said high pressure port to said grooves, said
and 92, which communicate with ‘shallow metering
conduit means including separate restricted passage means
grooves or channels 95 located at quadrature points on
individually communicating a reduced ?uid pressure to
the circumference of the pintle. These shallow metering
each of said pressure ‘balancing grooves su?icient to
grooves 95 are of the order of .001650 inch in depth and
overcome the unbalanced force between said cylinder
are interconnected around the circumference of the pintle 55 block and said pintle valve, said pressure balancing
by means of the much deeper pressure balancing grooves
grooves being predeterminately positioned on the circum
96 which are also located in a quadrature relationship,
ference of the pintle so that the resultant force of the
and which are of the order of .032 inch in depth. This
reduced ?uid pressure communicated thereto counteracts
system of passageways supplies pressurized ?uid to the
the unbalanced force, said separate restricted passage
grooves in a relatively unrestricted manner whereby full 60 means further providing a higher reserve ?uid pressure
pressure may be supplied to the grooves 95 which are
which is automatically selectively applied to certain of the
of a predetermined size and length to e?ectively meter
individual grooves to thereby exert an increasingly greater
the ?uid pressure to the grooves 96, whereby the desired
force if the dimensional clearance between the pintle and
pressure balancing relationship between the cylinder block
cylinder block tends to decrease in the region adjacent
and pintle is obtained.
A second transverse circumferen 65 such certain grooves whereby the cylinder block and pintle
tial groove arrangement 598 comprising a similar series
valve are maintained in a concentric dynamically stable
of chordwise and radially extending passageways is dis
relation.
posed on the opposite ‘side of the pintle pressure port.
2. A hydraulic device as recited in claim 1, wherein
Groove arrangement 98 is a duplicate of groove arrange
said high pressure port is proportioned so that the ?uid
ment 97 and is connected thereto by means of short longi 70 therein exerts a greater force on said cylinder block than
tudinally extending bores 93 and 94 which interconnect
the force exerted by said cylinder ‘block on said pintle
the two planar systems of ?uid supplying passageways.
valve thereby creating an overbalanced force tending to
FIG. 18 illustrates the pressure distribution in the
bring the lower surface of said pintle valve into contact
region of the balancing grooves under various conditions
with the rotating cylinder block and wherein each plurality
of clearance between the pintle and cylinder block, with 75 of grooves lying substantially in each of the radially trans~
3,082,696
10
the circumference of said valve member and maintain
said cylinder block and said valve member in concentric
relation, said separate metering means further providing a
verse planes on each side of said high and low pressure
ports comprises two grooves on the lower half of said
pintle valve equiangularly spaced on the pintle valve oir
cumference with respect to an axially extending plane
passing vertically through said high and low pressure port
reserve pressure individually available to each groove to
exert a greater than normal force to automatically resist
and counteract any further dynamic unbalancing forces
tending to cause either radial or axial eccentricity between
means.
3. A hydraulic device as recited in claim 2 wherein said
two grooves on the lower half of said pintle valve are
symmetrical about lines extending at 45° from each side
of the axially extending plane passing vertically through 10
said high and low pressure port means.
4. A hydraulic device as recited in claim 1 wherein
said high pressure port is proportioned so that the fluid
therein exerts a lesser pressure on said cylinder block
than the force exerted by said cylinder block on said 15
pintle valve thereby creating an underbalanced force
tending to bring the rotating cylinder block into contact
with the upper surface of said pintle valve, in which each
of said plurality of grooves lying substantially in each of
the radially transverse planes on each side of said high 20
and low pressure ports comprises two grooves on the
upper half of said pintle equiangularly spaced on the
pintle circumference with respect to an axially extending
plane passing vertically through ‘said high and low pres—
sure ports.
25
5. A hydraulic device as recited in claim 1 wherein
the valve member and the cylinder block.
8. A hydraulic device comprising a pintle valve mem~
bet; a cylinder block in engagement with and rotatable
relative to said pintle valve member, said cylinder block
having a plurality of chambers therein; a piston-cylinder
assembly reciprocative in each of said chambers; a bear
ing race eccentric to ‘said cylinder block engaged by slipper
portions of said piston-slipper assemblies to effect recip~
rocation of the same upon rotation of the cylinder block,
said pintle valve member having high and low pressure
ports and passageways therein which form high and low
pressure conduit arrangements providing communication
between said chambers and the exterior of said hydraulic
device, said cylinder block having predetermined un
balancing forces acting thereon tending to shift the same
out of concentric alignment with said pintle valve mem
ber upon rotation of the cylinder block; a plurality of
grooves disposed on the circumference of said pintle valve
member in each of two radially transverse planes which
are spaced an equal distance on either side of the center
each of said plurality of grooves lying substantially in
line of said cylinder block, said grooves being located
each of the radially transverse planes on each side of said
around the circumference of the pintle valve member so
high and low pressure ports comprises four grooves lo
cated in quadrature relation on the surface of said pintle 30 as to provide a force opposite to and compensating said
unbalancing forces, each of said ‘grooves communicating
valve.
with said high pressure conduit arrangement by separate
6. A hydraulic device as recited in claim 5 wherein
said separate restricted passage means individually com
municating a reduced ?uid pressure to each of said pres
metering passageways which individually supply ?uid ?ow
to the grooves at individually reduced pressures; each of
sure balancing grooves comprises metering grooves on 35 said plurality of grooves being circumferentially arranged
to provide a resultant hydraulic force having components
the surface of said pintle valve.
acting along vertical and horizontal axes of one of the
7. A hydraulic device comprising a valve member; a
pintle valve member transverse radial planes, while said
cylinder block in engagement with and rotatable relative
plurality of grooves in each of said radially transverse
to said valve member, said cylinder block having a plu
rality of chambers therein; a piston-slipper assembly 40 planes provide force components axially along the pintle
valve member, said force components automatically
reciprocative in each of said chambers; a bear-ing race
counteracting such predetermined unbalancing forces as
eccentric to said cylinder block engaged by slipper por
well as any unstable dynamic forces both axially and
tions of piston-slipper assemblies to cause reciprocation
around the circumference of said pintle valve member
of the same upon rotation of the cylinder block, said
valve member having high pressure and low pressure ?uid 45 thereby maintaining the cylinder block and valve mem
ber in concentric relation.
passage means therein communicating with said chambers
9. A device as recited in claim 8, in which said separate
and the exterior of said hydraulic device, said cylinder
metering passageways comprise circumferentially extend
block ‘being acted on by predetermined unbalancing forces
ing channels on the surface of said pintle valve member
tending to shift the same out of concentricity with said
interconnecting said grooves.
valve member in a predetermined direction upon rotation
of the cylinder block; a plurality of grooves disposed on
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
the circumference of said valve member in each of two
radially transverse planes which are spaced an equal dis
UNITED STATES PATENTS
tance on either side of the center line of said’ cylinder
1,081,810
Carey ________________ __ Dec. 16, 1913
block, said grooves being located about the circumference 55
of the valve member so as to provide ?uid force compo
ments in opposition to the cylinder block unbalancing
forces; metering conduits interconnecting each groove
means and said high pressure ?uid‘ passage means includ
ing separate metering means for individually and sepa
rately supplying fluid to each of said grooves at a lesser
pressure than the pressure in said high pressure ?uid
passage means, said ?uid force components acting to
counteract such predetermined unbalancing forces around
1,878,862
2,205,913
2,328,717
2,416,638
2,426,588
Landenberger ________ __ Sept. 20,
Stacy _______________ __ June 25,
Gl-asner ______________ __ Sept. 7,
Morton ______________ __ Feb. 25,
Benedek ______________ _._ Sept. 2,
1932
1940
1943
1947
1947
2,454,418
Zimmermann _________ __ Nov. 23, 1948
2,769,393
2,901,979
Oardillo et a1. _________ __ Nov. 6, 1956
Henrichsen ___________ __ Sept. 1, 1959
2,977,891
Bishop _______________ __ Apr. 4, 1961
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