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Патент USA US3082797

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March 26, 1963
e. F.- ELSTON ETAL
3,082,787
THERMAL RESPONSIVE THROTTLE VALVE
Filed June 9, 1958
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F. ELSTON
F. TESS
LA%EN<:E .J. EVA s
BY 4“ MM
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ATTORNEYS
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United States Patent 0 "ice
,
3,082,787
Patented Mar. 26, 1963
2
1
It is still another object of this invention to provide
3,082,787
THERMAL RESPONSIVE THROTTLE VALVE
George F. Elston, Birmingham, and Gerald F. Tess, Rose
ville, Micln, and Laurence J. Evans, Denver, Colo., as
signors to Vickers Incorporated, Detroit, Mich., a cor
poration of Michigan
an improved flow regulating valve having a dial up
erated throttle for adjusting the opening of the throttle,
the dial of which‘can be locked to a desired tamper-proof
setting.
It is still another object of this invention to provide
an improved flow regulating valve having a dial op
erated adjustable throttle, the setting of which can be
locked, but which is automatically adjustable in response
This invention relates to power transmissions, and is 10 to temperature variations of the liquid in the system ?ow
Filed June 9, 1958, Ser. No. 740,803
2 Claims. (Cl. 137-468)
particularly applicable to those of the type comprising
two or more ?uid pressure energy translating devices,
one of which may function as a pump and another as
a ?uid motor.
ing through said valve.
It is a further object of this invention to provide
a ?ow regulating valve having an adjustable throttle which
may be locked to a desired setting and having an im
More particularly the invention is concerned with an 15 proved indicia arrangement for clearly indicating the
improved ?ow regulating valve. Flow regulating valves
have an important use in hydraulic power transmission
systems, such as in systems for driving machine tools
wherein they serve to accurately regulate the speed of
setting of the throttle.
It is still another object of this invention to provide
an improved ?ow regulating valve which is simple in con
struction, e?icient in operation and which is relatively in
a ?uid motor for driving the machine tool and to main 20 expensive to manufacture.
Further objects and advantages of the present inven
tain such speed constant.
tion will be apparent from the following description, ref
One type of ?ow regulating valve in common use has
erence being had to the accompanying drawings wherein
incorporated therein an adjustable throttle and a pressure
a preferred form of the present invention is clearly shown.
compensating valve. The compensating valve is respon
In the drawings:
sive to pressure changes ahead of or beyond the throttle 25
FIGURE 1 is a front elevation view, partially in sec
for maintaining a substantially constant pressure drop
tion, of a preferred form of the present invention.
across the throttle and thus the ?ow therethrough ‘at a
‘FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2-2 of
constant rate for any given setting of the throttle. How
FIGURE 1.
ever, for extremely accurate feed control of the motor,
‘FIGURE 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3—-3 of
adjustments to the throttle have to be made because 30
FIGURE 2.
the rate at which the oil flows through the throttle open
FIGURE 4 is a partial, sectional view taken on line
ing depends not only on the pressure, but also the vis
4-4 of FIGURE 3.
cosity of the oil. Although the conventional pressure
FIGURE 5 is a partial, sectional view taken on line
compensating valve is adapted to compensate for changes
'
in load to maintain the ?ow through the throttle con 35 5—5 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 6 is a partial, sectional view taken on line
stant, the viscosity of the oil in the system will vary
6--6 of FIGURE 1.
with temperature changes. Thus, as ‘the oil in the sys~
Referring now to FIGURES l, 2 and 3 of the draw
tern becomes heated, the viscosity of the oil will de
ings, there is illustrated a flow regulating valve, indi
crease and for a given pressure in the system, the ?ow
40 cated generally by the numeral 10, comprising a body 12
will increase through the throttle.
having mounted therein a pressure compensating throttle
Another disadvantage of prior ?ow regulating valves
valve 14, a throttle valve 16 in series with the throttle
has been the lack of tamper-proof means for preventing
14 and comprising a hollow piston, and a check valve 18.
the changing of carefully preselected throttle settings.
The throttle valve 16 is shiftably mounted in a throttle
The throttle setting to give a particular feed rate of a
machine tool is carefully calculated, not only to provide 45 bore 20 which extends completely through the body 12
from the front to the rear thereof. The bore 20 is
closed at the rear of the body by a threaded closure
member 22, and at the front face of the body by a
crease the feed rate of the machine tool beyond recom 50 throttle adjusting screw member 24 threaded into the
throttle bore at 25. The screw member 24 is keyed to
mended limits, and in many cases the cutting tool is
an insert member 26 threaded into a dial 28 and locked
ruined. In some cases where the throttle setting was
thereto by a set screw 29. The end of the screw mem
locked, machine operators have been known to shut olf
a good grade of ?nished product, but also to conserve
tool life. However, some operators of machine tools for
various reasons will adjust the throttle setting to in
ber is free'to slide in the insert member 26, and an
end clearance is provided between the screw member and
crease the feed rate beyond safe limits.
55 dial for that purpose.
7 It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide
A rod member 30 extends into a bore 32 of the adjust
an improved ?ow regulating valve with features alle
ing member 24 with an end surface 34 of the rod adapted
viating the disadvantages previously recited.
to abut a surface 36 forming the closed end of bore
It is another object of this invention to provide an
oil coolers to lower the viscosity of the oil and thus in
improved temperature compensated, ?ow regulating valve.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an
improved, combined pressure compensating and tempera
ture compensating, ?ow regulating valve.
It is still another object of this invention to provide
32. The opposite end of the rod 30, which is indicated
60 in FIGURE 4 by the numeral 38, extends through a
hole 40 formed in the closed end 42 of the throttle
valve 16 into the hollow portion thereof and slightly
beyond, where it is exposed to ?ow through a throttle
an improved ?ow regulating valve with an adjustable 65 chamber 44 formed in the throttle bore 20 between the
Open end of the throttle valve 16 and closure member 22.
throttle, the effective cross-sectional area of the opening
The rod 30 is provided with a ?ange forming a seat 46
of which will increase and decrease, respectively, with
I upon which the closed end surface 42 of the throttle
decreases and increases of temperature of the ?uid ?ow
valve 16 rests so that when the adjusting member 24 is
ing therethrough.
It is still another object of this invention to provide 70 screwed inwardly the throttle valve 16 is moved inward1y into the bore 20 against the bias of a spring 48 adapted
an improved flow regulating valve having an adjustable
to resiliently load the throttle valve 16 against the seat
throttle, which can be locked to a desired setting.
8,082,787
'
3
46. The spring 48 is mounted in the throttle chamber
44- and extends into the hollow portion of the throttle
valve 16. When the adjusting member is screwed out~
wardly, the spring 48 will shift the throttle valve 16 to
a new adjusted throttle setting, the rod member also
from the outlet side to the inlet side of the device against
the slight bias of a spring 74 to permit ?ow through a
passage 76 leading to the compensating valve bore 56
where it flows by means of passages 52 and 50 to the ex
ternal connection inlet port 53 of the device. When
being shifted with the throttle valve. Most important,
flow is from the inlet passage to the outlet passage, ?ow
when the rod expands or contracts because of ?uid tem
from passage 76 to passage ‘72 is blocked by the check
perature increases or decreases, the throttle will also be
valve 18.
shifted inwardly or outwardly to compensate for the vari
Referring now to the compensating valve 14, an op
ations in temperature.
10 erating piston 78 for the same is provided which is re
A plurality of holes 45 are constructed through the
siliently biased to shift the valve land 58 to the fully
closed end of the throttle valve 16, also shown in FIG
open position shown by a spring 80 mounted in an en
URE 4, for connecting the throttle chamber 44 to a cham
larged portion 81 of bore 56 which forms a chamber 82
ber 47 formed in the bore 20 between the throttle valve
at the spring loaded side of the operating piston 78.
16 and the adjusting member 24. A portion 49 of the
Pressure beyond the throttle valve 16 is adapted to be
rod 30, located in the chamber 47, is thus also exposed
transmitted to the chamber 82, and thus to the spring
to ?uid, the temperature of which changes with that ?ow
ing through the inlet chamber 44.
In the device disclosed the rod member 30 is made of
an aluminum alloy, the throttle valve 16 and the adjust
ing screw 24 of steel, and the body of cast iron.
The
aluminum alloy has a temperature expansion coefficient
about double that of the iron or steel. The rod may
be made, however, of aluminum or other metals or al
loaded side of the compensating valve operating piston
'78 by means of the passages 66, 68 and 76, as shown in
FIGURES 2 and 3.
A chamber 84 is formed in the enlarged portion 81 of
the bore 56 on the opposite side of operating piston '73,
to which pressure ahead of the throttle 16 is adapted to
be transmitted by means of a passage 86 which is con
istics rendering them suitable for the purposes described.
As the ?uid in the hydraulic system, usually a good grade
of oil, becomes heated, the aluminum alloy rod will ex
nected to the passage 62 leading to the upstream side of
throttle 16. For the purpose of providing balanced op
erating areas for the operating piston 73, a transverse
passage 88 and longitudinal passage 90 are constructed
in the compensating valve for also connecting passage 62
pand with corresponding temperature increases of the
ahead of throttle 16 to an underside effective area of
loys having temperature expansion coe?icient character
heated oil and the ?ange will shift the throttle valve to 30 the compensating valve, indicated by the numeral 92.
adjust the throttle setting of the device to compensae
The compensating valve bore 56 is closed at the enlarged
for the temperature increases. When the system is at
bore portion thereof by a closure member 93 and at its
rest and the temperature of the ?uid decreases, the rod
opposite end by a closure member 95 which retains a
will contract to readjust or increase the throttle opening
seat member 97 ‘for the compensating valve against a
to a setting commensurate with the ?uid viscosity change. 85 shoulder formed in the bore 56.
Referring now to the flow passage construction of the
The position of valve land 58 of the compensating valve
device, inlet and outlet external connection ports 53 and
is modulated by the pressure responsive operating pis
51, respectively, are formed in the rear surface 55 of the
ton 78 for controlling the opening of passage 52 to the
body 12. Inlet ?ow to the external inlet connection port
chamber
54. Flow in excess of the regulated amount is
53 is conducted by an inlet passage 50 to a branch inlet 40 normally by-passed by valve means for this purpose, such
passage 52 leading to the compensating valve. The
as a pressure responsive relief valve, incorporated in the
branch inlet passage 52 opens to an inlet chamber 54,
hydraulic system. The compensating valve 14 thus func
formed in a bore 56 in which the compensating valve
tions as a pressure responsive throttle to maintain a con
14 is mounted, between a throttling land or valve 58 of
stant pressure drop, as determined by the bias of spring
45
the compensating valve and a spaced apart land 60.
‘80, across the throttle opening 64, and thus maintains the
Another branch inlet passage 62 leads from the com
?ow across the throttle 16 constant for any given setting
pensating valve inlet chamber 54 to the downstream throt
of the throttle 16.
tle chamber 44 formed in the throttle bore 20. Passage
Referring now to the throttle dial and locking arrange
62 opens laterally or transversely to the throttle cham
50 ment therefor, the body 12 is provided with a stepped
ber 44 and is controlled by throttle valve 16, said open
bore 94 extending from the front face 96 of the body
ing being indicated in FIGURE 2 by the numeral 64. A
and within which is mounted an under portion 98 of the
sharp edged ori?ce is thus formed by the leading edge of
dial having a ?ange 100 adapted to rest on a shoulder
throttle valve 16 and the edge of the wall opening to the
102 of the stepped bore. A cover plate 104, which is
throttle bore. An outlet passage 66, offset from passage
55 maintained on the front face 96 of the body 12 by screws
62, leads from the side of throttle chamber 44 to a branch
106, is centrally perforated, indicated by the numeral
outlet passage 68 leading to the external connection out
107 in FIGURE 1, so that the dial may extend there
let port 51 in face 55 of the body 12.
through and so that the surface area of the plate immedi
It should be noted that the temperature sensing exten
ately surrounding the perforation covers the ?ange and
sion 38 of rod 30 passes through the throttle valve 16
60 prevents the dial from lifting from the body.
so as to be directly impinged upon by ?uid which passes
The locking arrangement comprises a pawl 108
through the ori?ce opening 64. Thus, any change in
temperature in the metered ?uid is immediately re?ected
mounted in a milled-out portion 110 in the front of the
body and which is provided with serrations 112 at its in
in a temperature change in the extension 38. Due to the
ner end. The pawl is adapted to be shifted into engage
high heat conductivity of the rod, an almost immediate
ment with mating serrations 114 located on the under por
temperature change takes place in the working portion 65 tion of the dial, after proper adjustment of the throttle
of rod 30, that is between abutment 36 and abutment 46,
has been made and then looked to prevent rotation of
which results in rapid response repositioning of throttle
the dial. For this purpose an inner angular surface 116
valve 16, as a function of working ?uid temperature
of the pawl, opposite the serrated end of the pawl, is en
change.
70 gaged by a tapered portion 118 of a locking screw 120,
For the purpose of providing unregulated reverse ?ow
shown in FIGURE 6, which when threaded into the body
from the outlet passage to the inlet passage, a branch
forces the pawl against the dial serrations by a wedging
passage 70 is provided which connects the outlet port 51
action. The head 122 of the screw may be engaged, for
and outlet passage 68 to a passage 72 leading to the check
unlocking and locking the pawl, through an access hole
valve 18. The check valve 18 may be opened by ?ow 75 124 formed in the plate. When a throttle adjustment is
3,082,787
5
to be made the screw 120 is partially withdrawn and the
pawl 108 drops permitting the mating pawl and dial ser
rations to disengage to permit rotation of the dial for
adjusting the throttle. A clearance, indicated by the nu
meral 125, is provided between the inner end of the pawl
and the screw, permitting the pawl to drop and thus dis
engage the mating serrations.
In order to prevent tampering with the locking screw
6
one complete turn of the dial, which together with the
numeral markings previously explained, will indicate a
particular opening of the throttle to provide a predeter
mined ?ow rate. The letter “C” indicates two complete
turns of the dial, which together with the numerals ap
pearing through the arcuate slot would indicate another
more fully open setting of the throttle with a higher flow
rate.
When the rotor is turned to a setting “C,” for ex
ample, and the dial is continued to be rotated, the tooth
throttle settings, the access hole 124 is closed by an end 10 responsible for the actuation of the rotor, which had been
impressed in the groove 160, will ride out of the groove on
portion 126 of an arm 128, rotatable to and locked in the
top of the ?ange. The rotor will not be actuated again
closed position as shown in dotted lines in FIGURE 1
until another complete turn of the dial has been made,
by means of a cylinder 130 of a lock assembly 132 ro
at which time the next adjacent tooth will be pressed into
tatably mounted in a stepped bore 134 extending com~
pletely through the body from front to rear thereof. The 15 the groove 160 to rotate the rotor for bringing the next
letter into view through the sight hole 162 to indicate a
lock assembly is maintained in the bore 134 by means of
still more fully opened setting of the throttle.
a head 135 of a screw 137 threaded into the cylinder
There is thus provided a ?ow regulating valve which
which is adapted to loosely abut a shoulder 139 of the
will accurately control the flow rate in the hydraulic sys
stepped bore and by cooperating shoulders formed in the
stepped bore and on the cylinder. The arm 128 is 20 tem regardless of pressure ?uctuations or ?uid viscosity
changes due to temperature variations. Flow across the
mounted in a recessed portion 136 in the front of the
opening 64 controlled by the throttle 16 ‘would, without
body and may be fastened to the cylinder in any suitable
the pressure compensating valve, vary with pressure ?uc
manner, such as by being keyed to a slot in the head end
tuations caused, for example, by changes in load on a
of the cylinder, indicated generally by the numeral 141
in FIGURE 2, so as to be rotatable by the cylinder 130. 25 hydraulic motor in the system. However, the pressure
120 and thus permit changing of carefully preselected
The cylinder 130 in the locked position is prevented from
drop across the throttle 16, for any given setting thereof,
is maintained constant by the pressure compensating valve
rotation by a plurality of spring pressed plungers or tum
14 and, disregarding changes in viscosity of the liquid
‘blers 138, shown in FIGURE 2, which for the purposes of
medium in the system, the ?ow across the throttle 16 will
illustration have been shown in the extended position.
The plungers extend into an o?fset drilled hole 133 of 30 remain substantially constant.
In order to compensate ‘for changes in viscosity of the
bore 134 also shown in FIGURE 1 to prevent dial rota
?uid medium due to variations in the temperature thereof,
tion. It should be understood, however, that when a key
a temperature compensated throttle is provided. The
140 is inserted in a keyhole slot 142 of the lock, the
throttle 16 is ?rst adjusted to a desired ?ow rating and
plungers are released.
With the key 140 inserted in the keyhole slot 142, the 35 then locked. As the temperature of the ?uid ?owing
through the flow regulating valve increases, the rod mem
plungers 138 are released from the hole 133 and turning
ber 30 expands because a portion 38 of the rod 30 is ex
of the key rotates the cylinder, which in turn rotates the
posed to ?ow across the throttle in the chamber 44 from
arm 128 so that the arm portion 126 uncovers the access
the throttle opening 64 to the passage 66. In addition,
hole 124. In order to prevent lifting of the dial by re
moval of the cover plate so that access can be had to the 40 any temperature increase of the liquid medium is trans
mitted by the holes 45 in the valve 16 from the throttle
adjusting member 24, the outer periphery 144 of the pro
inlet chamber 44 to the chamber 47, wherein portion 49
jecting portion 126 of the arm 1'28 ?ts into a groove 146
of the rod member is exposed. As the coe?icient of ex
located in the under portion of the dial directly beneath
pansion of the aluminum alloy rod is much greater than
the ?ange and prevents lifting of the dial (FIGURES 2
and 6). The cylinder must ?rst be rotated to shift the 45 the cast iron body within which the throttle bore is formed
and of the steel adjusting screw and throttle piston, the
outer periphery 144 of the arm portion 126 from the
rod member 30 will expand, which shifts the ?ange or
groove 146 before the dial can be lifted.
seat 46 inwardly, thus shifting the throttle 16 against
Referring now to the improved dial throttle indicia ar
the slight resistance of spring 48 to more fully close the
rangement for properly indicating the adjustment setting
of the throttle, the outer vface of the dial ?ange 100 is 50 throttle opening 64. Thus, the pressure drop across the
throttle opening will remain the same but the size of the
provided with numerals from 0-9 with line markings in
throttle opening will be decreased to compensate for the
between, some of which appear through an arcuately
?uid viscosity change due to temperature increases. If,
shaped cutout portion 148 of the plate below a centrally
for any reason, the temperature of the ?uid decreases, such
located indicating arrow 150 on the Outer surface of the
plate.
55 as when the system is at rest, the rod member 30 will
contract with said temperature decreases and the spring 38
The adjusting member 24 has to be completely rotated
will shift the throttle valve 16 to increase the size of the
in the threaded portion of its body mounting bore several
throttle opening 64 to compensate for the change in ?uid
times in order to permit the throttle to shift axially from
viscosity due to the temperature decrease.
the “0” or closed position to its maximum throttle open
There is also provided a tamper-proof locking of the
ing. Thus, in the device disclosed which is designed for 60
throttle setting through the medium of the locking pawl
a maximum rating of 1000 cubic inches per minute, it
would take about 3.3 turns of the adjusting member to
108, which can only be released from its locked position
with the dial serrations 114 by means of locking screw
obtain 1000 cubic inches or approximately 0.85 cubic
120. Access to the locking screw 120 can only be had
inch per each degree of rotation. For the purpose of
indicating the number of turns of the adjusting member, a 65 through the access hole 124 in the plate 104 which, once
the throttle has been adjusted, is covered by an end por
small rotor 152 is provided with letters thereon. The rotor
152 is rotatably mounted in ‘a recess 154 in the front face
tion 126 of the arm 128 which is locked to a position
of the body 12 and is free to slide slightly vertically toward
the dial ?ange, being biased in that direction by a spring
closing the access hole by lock assembly 132. A special
key 140 must ?rst be inserted in the keyhole slot 142 of
156 (FIGURES 1 and 5). A plurality of spaced apart 70 cylinder 130 to release the tumblers 138 from the drilled
teeth 158 extend from the rotor which are adapted to
hole 133, which will unlock the cylinder to permit rota
tion of the same and thus rotation of the arm 128 to
successively engage a groove 16¢]l in the ?ange. As the
uncover the access hole. Removal of the plate 104 will
dial is turned, the rotor will be turned and a letter indi
not provide access to the locking screw 120 because the
cating the number of turns of the dial will appear through
a hole 162 in the plate. Thus, the letter “B” represents 75 arm portion 126 is locked to a position over the screw.
3,082,787
7
Removal of the plate 104 from the front of the body
will not permit access to the screw member 144 for adjust
ing the throttle because the dial must ?rst have to be lifted
from the adjusting screw 144 and removal of the dial
from the body is prevented by the expedient of having the
peripheral portion 144 of the arm portion 126 rest in the
groove 146 below the ?ange 100 of the dial. The ‘arm
8
2. In a ?uid ?ow control valve: a body having a par
ticular coe?icient of expansion; means forming a ?ow
passage in the body; a throttle valve element slidably posi
tioned in the passage forming an adjustable restriction to
?uid ?ow through the passage; a temperature compensat
ing rod member having a coe?icient of temperature ex
pansion different from that of said body and including
portion 126 must ?rst be rotated away from the dial to
a ?ange engaging the throttle valve element, said rod
remove the peripheral portion thereof from the groove
member having a temperature sensing portion on one side
and as previously recited, the arm is locked by the lock 10 of said ?ange freely extending into the path of ?uid ?ow
assembly to this position.
ing through said restriction and a Working portion on the
While the form of embodiment of the invention as
opposite side of said ?ange and abutting said body;
herein disclosed constitutes a preferred form, it is to be
means forming a ?uid chamber in which a portion of the
understood that other forms might be adopted, all com
working portion of the rod member is exposed; and port
ing within the scope of the claims which follow.
15 ing means connecting said ?ow passage to said chamber.
What is claimed is as follows:
1. In a ?uid flow control valve: a body having a par
ticular coe?icient of expansion; means forming a ?ow
passage in the body; a throttle valve element slidably posi
tioned in the passage forming an adjustable restriction to 20
?uid ?ow through the passage; a temperature compensat
ing rod member having a coe?icient of temperature ex
pansion different from that of said body and comprising
a throttle valve engaging portion, a temperature sensing
portion on one side of said throttle valve engaging portion 25
freely extending into the path of ?uid ?owing through said
restriction, and a working portion on the opposite side of
the throttle valve engaging portion to that of the sensing
portion and abutting said body; means forming a ?uid
chamber in which the working portion of the rod member 30
is exposed; and porting means connecting said chamber to
the ?ow passage.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,055,307
1,813,122
1,914,677
2,021,427
Barton ______________ __ Mar. 11,
Moore _______________ __ July 7,
Schultz _____________ __ June 20,
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1936
1943
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1958
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1960
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