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Патент USA US3083342

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March 26, 1963
w. H. BRINK ETAL
3,083,332
VOLTAGE REGULATING SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 26, 1959
2 /
RA D10
TRANSMITTER
V8 RECEIVER
__ __________ll k24
FIG 3
I 245 23b
INVENTOR5
BY MAR/AN l4 POOH/5K)’
vw/w A7775
Zi?ihilidg
ttes
Fatented Mar. 25, 1963
1
m,
FIG. 5 shows an alternate construction of the voltage
3,tlh3,332
VOLTAGE REGULATTNG SYSTEM
Wilbur H. Brink, Morton Grove, and Marian ‘V. Perl
lnslry, Chicago, Ill., assignors to Motorola, lino, tilti
cage, 111., a corporation of lilinois
regulator; and
FIG. 6 shows another construction of the voltage regu
later.
The invention provides a voltage regulator for supply
ing electrical potential from the electrical system of an
automobile to radio communication equipment installed
in the ‘automobile. The system includes a voltage sensi~
This invention relates generally to voltage regulators
tive relay which is energized when the voltage exceeds a
and more particularly to voltage regulators for use with 10 predetermined value. The voltage sensitive relay con
two-way mobile radio equipment operated from an auto
trols a slave relay which has contacts capable of carry
mobile electrical system which is subject to wide varia—
ing the load current. The contacts to the slave relay
tions in voltage.
are ‘bridged across a resistor connected in series in the
Voltage regulators are used in many applications to
potential supply line and are closed to short out the
provide operating voltage from a source which varies 15 resistor when the voltage is below the predetermined
through a wide range for holding the voltage in a range
value. The voltage sensitive relay releases the slave relay
suitable for use by equipment energized therefrom. One
When the voltage exceeds a predetermined value so that
such application is in connection ‘with equipment ener
the contacts thereof open, and the current ?owing through
gized from the electrical system of an automobile where
the resistor provides a voltage drop which reduces the
in the voltage of a nominal l2-volt system may vary from 20 voltage applied to the equipment. A current sensitive
19 volts or less to 16 volts or more, depending upon the
relay is connected in series in the energizing line and also
condition of the battery and the operation of the auto
includes contacts bridging at least a part of the resistor.
mobile generator. This wide range of voltage may cause
Accordingly when heavy current is drawn the resistance
damage to equipment at the high voltages or may cause
is reduced and the required potential is applied to the
improper operation at both low and high voltages.
25 equipment. A small resistor may be provided in series
A further problem is presented in connection with
with the current sensitive relay contacts to reduce the
2-Way radio equipment in that the load of the radio
potential when the voltage of the electrical system ex
equipment on the electrical system will have a ?rst value
ceeds a predetermined value. However, the heavy cur
during reception and a much greater value during trans
rent produces a substantial voltage drop in the cabling
mission. Accordingly the regulator must hold the volt 30 connecting the equipment and resistance may not be re
Filed Feb. 26, 1‘259, Ser. No. '7’95,7d7
7 Claims. (Cl. 323-»66)
age within proper limits at two different current rates.
quired.
Volt-age regulators for providing corrective regulation
Referring now to the drawings, in H6. 1 there is
illustrated a mobile radio communication system includ
ing a radio transmitter and receiiler it) having ‘a micro
phone llv for applying signals to the transmitter and a
for wide variations in source voltage and load current
have been quite complex and expensive and have not been
entirely satisfactory in operation.
_
It is therefore an obiect of this invention to provide
loudspeaker 12 for reproducing received signals. An
a relatively simple voltage regulator for protecting mobile
radio equipment from excessive voltage variations pro
antenna 13 is provided which may be connected to the
transmitter and receiver during transmission and recep
tion respectively. The radio transmitter and receiver it?
A further object is to provide a voltage regulator 4.0 is energized from the electrical system of an automobile
duced by an automobile electrical system.
which holds the voltage applied to the energized equip
ment within a desired range of voltage values when op
erating under conditions in which currents of widely
di?‘ering values are drawn by the equipment.
Another object of the invention is to provide a volt
including battery 14 and generator 15. The generator
15 is selectively controlled by the regulator in. The
potential applied to the radio transmitter and receiver
is controlled by voltage regulator 2t) which will be de
45 scribed in more detail.
age regulator for use with 2-way radio equipment where—
in the voltage is reduced when the voltage exceeds a
The voltage regulator 2d includes a supply circuit from
the ‘automobile electrical system to the radio transmitter
predetermined level, with the reduction being effective
‘and receiver which extends from terminal 21 through
both for low current drain during receiver operation and
the winding of relay 22 and resistor 23 to the output
for high current drain during transmitter operation.
50 terminal 24. The potential is applied with respect to
A feature of the invention is the provision of a volt
ground as illustrated. Connected to the input terminal
age regulator including a ?rst relay operative when the
21 is a voltage sensitive relay 25, the winding of which
voltage exceeds a predetermined value and a second re
lay operable when the current drawn exceeds a predeter
mined value, With the ?rst relay being eiiective to add
resistance in the circuit to provide a voltage drop there
across, and the second relay bridging the resistance to
change the effective resistance with the current drawn.
Another feature of the invention is the provision of a
voltage regulator including a voltage sensitive relay which
controls a slave relay which is operative to increase the
series resistance in the power supply line when the volt
age exceeds a predetermined value, and which together
with a current sensitive relay controls the eitective resist
ance in the energizing line with the current drawn.
The invention is illustrated in the following drawings
in which:
_
FIG. 1 shows the voltage regulator in a mobile radio
is bridged by capacitor 26 and connected to ground
through resistor 27. The resistor 27 is used to provide
the proper operating voltage for relay 25 and may be
omitted if the relay operates on the voltage applied to
terminal 21. The relay 25 includes contacts 28 which
when released as shown in FIG. 1 connect the winding
of relay 29 from the input terminal 21 to ground. Ca
The relay 29 is a
slave relay having contacts 31 which are capable of carry
ing the load current of the equipment energized thereby.
60 pacitor 30 bridges the contacts 23.
The contacts 31 ‘are bridged across resistor 23 and pro
vide a low resistance path across resistor 23 when the
65 relay 29 is operated.
The relay 22 in the main energizing
line is a current sensitive relay having contacts 32 which
in series with resistor 33 bridge the resistor 23.
The battery 14- and generator 15 provide .a voltage
which may vary over ‘a wide range. In a system having
system;
a nominal 12 volt ‘battery, the voltage may very from
FIGS. 2 to 4 inclusive show the voltage regulator in 70 less than 10 volts to more than 16 vol-ts depending upon
various conditions of operation;
the condition of the battery 14 and the operation of the
3,083,332
3
4
.t
generator 15. The radio transmitter and receiver must
be ‘designed to operate from the minimum voltage which
so
close.
that Contacts
only a small
32 connect
drop inresistor
the voltage
33 across
of theresistor
electricali
will be provided, and the maximum voltage of the system
is sufficiently high that the application of such a voltage
across.
to the radio transmitter and receive may damage the same.
The radio transmitter and receiver draws a relatively low
current during receiver or standby operation and a much
higher current during transmitter operation. As a ex
ample the current drain during reception may be from
5 to 7 amperes and the drain during transmission between
13 and 19 amperes. Regulators can be used for larger
system which is applied at terminal 21 will appear there-~
Resistor 33 may have a small value to provide1
a very small voltage drop in the circuit from input termi-'
nal 21 to output terminal 24 so that voltage applied to the
transmitter will be only slightly reduced. This is desired
in the transmitting condition because the heavy current
drawn causes a voltage drop in the power cabling to fur- '
ther reduce the voltage at the transmitter. The Voltage
drop in the cabling may be adequate so that the resistor
33 can be eliminated. It is pointed out that the resistor
current drains with the limit being determined by the coils
33 will not be effective in any of the other conditions of
used and the current carrying capacity of the contacts.
the regulator stated, and this resistor can be provided or
Generators have been provided ‘for systems drawing 35
not depending upon the voltage desired at the transmitter
.amperes. The voltage regulator operates to reduce the
when the voltage of the electrical system has a. high value.
voltage applied to the radio transmitter ‘and receiver when
An alternate ‘arrangement ‘for providing small resistance
the voltage of the electrical system- exceeds a predeter
in the energizing circuit during transmission when the
mined value. As an example, it may reduce the voltage
source voltage is excessive is shown in FIG. 5. In this
when the electrical system has a voltage exceeding 14
20 circuit the contacts 32 of relay 22 are connected only'
volts.
across part of resistor 23, being connected across the, part
Considering now the operation of the system, the volt
23a. When the relay 22 is operated by heavy current,
age sensitive relay 25 is‘ selected to operate when the Volt
and the relay 29 is released by excessive voltage, the part
age exceeds the value which is considered to be the maxi—
23a of resistor 23 is shorted out and the part 2317 is in
mum satisfactory voltage. As ‘stated above, 14 volts may
be used as an example. The relay 25 may be quite ac 25 the circuit. This will provide the required voltage drop
when the load current ?ows through the circuit.
curate since only small contacts are required to control
Another embodiment of the voltage regulator is illus
the energization of the slave relay 29. When the voltage
trated'in FIG. 6. In this ?gure the voltage sensitive relay
of the battery falls below 13.5 volts, relay 25 will be de
25 is connected to input terminal 21 as in the prior em
energized and the contacts 28 thereof will close to ener
gize slave relay 29. The slave relay will close its con 30 bodiments. The resistor 27 is omitted as this is not re
quired if the relay 25 is designed to operate at the voltage
tacts 31 to bridge resistor 23 and establish a connection
of terminal 21. Relay 25 operates contacts 28‘ to control
through the voltage regulator producing small voltage
the energization of winding 35. A further winding 36
drop. The contacts of the ‘slave relay are adequate to
is connected in series with resistor 23 between the input
carry the load current. Accordingly, substantially the
entire voltage of the electrical system is applied to the 35 terminal 21 and the output terminal 24 of the regulator.
The windings 35 and 36 control a single pair of contacts
radio transmitter and receiver. This is the connection
37 which are bridged across resistor 23. The contacts 37
shown in FIG. 1 of the drawings and the current supply
will be closed by operation of either or both of windings
path is shown in heavy lines.
35 and 36 when the current therein reaches speci?ed
As previously stated the relay 22 is a current sensitive
relay and will operate when the current therethrough 40 levels.
The system of FIG. 6 will operate in exactly the same
exceeds a predetermined value. In the system used ‘as
manner as the system of FIG. 1, except that the resistor
an example the relay 22 may operate when the current
33 of FIG. 1 is omitted. That is, when the voltage at
therethrough exceeds 8 ampcres. It will be apparent
terminal 21 exceeds 14 volts contacts 28 will open so that
that when the source voltage is less than the value causing
operation of relay 25, the contacts 31 thereof will be 45 winding 35 is deenergized and resistor 23 drops the volt
age applied to the load. If heavy current is drawn the
closed to bridge the resistor 23, and the relay 22 has no
winding 36 operates to close contacts 37 so that resistor
effect on the current path through the voltage regulator.
23 is bridged and full voltage is applied to the load. As
This is illustrated in FIG. 2 wherein contacts 32 are closed
previously stated the voltage drop in the cabling will
because the current sensitive relay 22 has operated. How‘
ever, since the resistor 23 is already bridged out by con 50 reduce the voltage to a safe value. When the voltage at
terminal 21 is less than about 13.5 volts, the relay 25
tacts 31, the contacts 32 have no effect. It is to be pointed
will be released to close contacts 28. This will energize
out that when the transmitter operates, it will initially
draw heavy curren which will cause the relay 22 to close.
coil 35 which closes contacts 37‘ to shunt out the resistor
23. Accordingly the full'voltage at input terminal 21
Accordingly, a relay may be used having a relatively high
pull-in current, but the relay must remain energized at a 55 will be applied to the output terminal 24. When, how
ever, heavy current is drawn by the load, the current
lower current so that it will be energized at all times that
through 36 is sufficient to energize contacts 37 so that
the transmitter is in operation. As stated above the relay
the resistor 23 is always shorted out.
should hold-in until the current ‘drops below 8 iarnperes.
The voltage regulator of the invention therefore is
FIG. 3 illustrates the operation of the system when the
effective to reduce the voltage applied to the equipment
voltage of the electrical system exceeds 14 volts. In
energized when the source voltage is excessive. The volt
such case the relay 25 will operate to open contacts 28
age drop is controlled in accordance with the current
and ‘dc-energize relay 29. Accordingly contacts 31 will
drain to provide proper operation at different current
be open and resistor 23 will be effectively in the energiz
loads. The voltage sensitive relay is accurate'to provide
ing circuit. When the current is low so that the relay 22
is not energized the resistor 23 will provide a voltage 65 operation at a desired level since it has only light con
tacts which control the slave relay having current carry
drop to reduce the voltage at terminal 24. As an ex
ing contacts.
ample, the resistor 23 may have a value of .25 ohm.
We claim:
Inasmuch as the nadio receiver draws from 5 to 7
1. A voltage regulator circuit including in combina
amperes, a voltage drop of about 11/2 volts will be pro
duced across resistor 23 so that the voltage at terminal 24 70 tion, an input terminal for connection to a voltage source
having a variable potential, an output terminal for con
will be 1%. volts less than the voltage applied to termi
nection to equipment to be energized, resistor means, a
current sensitive relay having a winding and normally
FIG. 4 shows the connections when the voltage exceeds
open contacts controlled thereby, means connecting said
the predetermined value and heavy current is drawn. ‘In
such case contacts 31 will be open and contacts 32 will 75 winding and said resistor means in series from said input
pal 21.
3,083,332
5
6
terminal to said output terminal, a voltage" sensitive relay
having -a winding connected to said input terminal and
normally closed contacts controlled thereby, a slave re
lay having a winding and normally open contacts con
trolled thereby, and energizing circuit for said slave relay
tion, an'input terminal for connection to a voltage source
having a variable potential, and an output terminal for
connection to equipment to be energized, resistor means,
?rst relay means having a winding and contacts con
trolled thereby, means connecting said winding and said
resistor means in series from said input terminal to said
for 1operating the same through said normally closed con
tacts of said voltage sensitive relay, and circuit means
output terminal, circuit means having resistance connect
connecting said contacts of said current sensitive relay
ing said contacts of said ?rst relay means across said
and said contacts of said slave relay in parallel across
resistor means, second relay means having a winding
said resistor means, said current sensitive relay being 10 connected to said input terminal and contacts controlled
operative to maintain said contacts thereof in a closed
thereby, third relay means having a winding and contacts
position and provide a continuous low impedance path
controlled thereby, an energizing circuit for said third
across said resistor means whenever the current ?owing
relay means including said contacts of said second relay
from said input terminal to said output terminal exceeds
means, and circuit means connecting said contacts of said
a predetermined value, and said voltage sensistive relay 15 third relay means across at least a portion of said resistor
operating whenever the voltage at said input terminal
means, said contacts, of said ?rst relay means being nor
exceeds a given value to maintain said contacts thereof
mally open and being maintained in the closed position
in an open position and thereby hold ‘said slave relay in
whenever the current ?ow from said input terminal to
a de-energized condition so that said contacts of said
said output terminal exceeds a predetermined value, said
slave relay open and thereby open the circuit across said 20 contacts of said second relay being normally closed to
resistor means through said slave relay contacts.
2. A voltage regulator circuit including in combina
energize said third relay means and being maintained in
the open position whenever the voltage at said input
terminal exceeds a given value to continuously deener
tion, an input terminal for connection to a voltage source
having a variable potential, an output terminal for con
gize said third relay means and cause said contacts there
nection to equipment to be energized, resistor means, a 25 of to be maintained in the open position.
current sensitive relay having a winding and normally
5. A voltage regulator circuit for use with a radio
open contacts controlled thereby, means connecting said
transmitter-receiver apparatus which requires large ener
winding and said resistor means in series from said input
gizing current when the transmitter is operating and less
terminal to said output terminal, a voltage sensitive relay
current when the receiver is operating, said regulator
having a, winding connected to said input terminal and 30 circuit including in combination, an input terminal for
normally closed contacts controlled thereby, a slave relay
connection to a voltage source having a variable potential,
having a winding and normally open contacts controlled
an output terminal for connection to said radio equip
thereby, an energizing circuit for said slave relay includ
ment, resistor means, ?rst relay means having a winding
ing said normally closed contacts of said voltage sensitive
and contacts controlled thereby, means connecting said
relay, and circuit means connecting said contacts of said 35 winding and said resistor means in series from said input
current sensitive relay and said contacts of said slave
terminal to said output terminal, circuit means connect
relay in parallel across said resistor means, said voltage
ing said contacts of said ?rst relay means across a portion
sensitive relay being operative to hold open said contacts
of said resistor means, second relay means having a wind
thereof and maintain said slave relay in a deenergized
ing connected to said input terminal and contacts con
condition whenever the potential of the source is above 40 trolled thereby, third relay means having a winding and
a predetermined value, said contacts of said slave relay
contacts controlled thereby, an energizing circuit for said
opening when said slave relay is deenergized to remove
third relay means across said resistor means, said con
the connection across said resistor means provided there
tacts of said ?rst relay means being normally open and
by, said current sensitive relay being operative whenever
being maintained in the closed position whenever the cur
the current drawn at the output terminal exceeds a pre 45 rent flow from said input terminal to said output ter
determined value to provide a continuous connection
minal exceeds a predetermined value, said contacts of
said second relay being normally closed to energize
across said resistor means.
3. A voltage regulator circuit including in combina
said third relay means and being maintained in the open
tion, an input terminal for connection to a voltage source
position whenever the voltage at said input terminal
having a variable potential, and an output terminal for 50 exceeds a given value to hold said third relay means in
connection to equipment to be energized, resistor means,
a deenergized condition and cause said contacts thereof
to remain open.
?rst current sensitive relay means having a winding and
contacts controlled thereby, means connecting said wind
6. A voltage regulator circuit including in combination,
ing and said resistor means in series from said input
an input terminal for connection to a voltage source hav
terminal to said output terminal, circuit means connect 55 ing a variable potential, an output terminal for connec
ing said contacts of said ?rst relay means across at least
tion to equipment to be energized, a voltage sensitive
a portion of said resistor means, said ?rst relay means
relay having a winding connected to said input terminal
being operative to close said contacts whenever the cur
and contacts controlled thereby, said contacts being nor
rent through said winding exceeds a predetermined value,
mally closed and being maintained in the open position
second voltage sensitive relay means having a winding 60 whenever the voltage at said input terminal exceeds a
connected to said input terminal and contacts controlled
given value, a ?rst winding, an energizing circuit for said
thereby, third slave relay means having a winding and
?rst winding including said contacts of said voltage sensi
contacts controlled thereby, an energizing circuit for said
tive relay, said contacts of said voltage sensitive relay
third relay means including said contacts of said second
normally holding said ?rst winding energized and open
voltage sensitive relay means, said voltage sensitive relay 65 ing when said voltage sensitive relay operates to de
means operating to hold open said contacts thereof to
energize said ?rst winding, resistor means, a second wind
maintain said slave relay means in a deenergized condi
ing connected in series with said resistor means between
tion whenever the voltage of said input terminal exceeds
said input terminal and said output terminal, contact
a predetermined value, and circuit means connecting said
means responsive to energization of said ?rst winding and
contacts of said third slave relay means across at least 70 to current through said second winding which exceeds
a portion of said resistor means, with said contacts of
a predetermined value, and circuit means connecting said
said slave relay means opening to connect said resistor
contact means to said resistor means to provide an unin
means in the energizing circuit during the time said slave
terrupted low impedance path across at least a portion
relay means is in the deenergized condition.
y
4. A voltage regulator circuit including in combina 75
of said resistor means.
7. A voltage regulator circuit for use with radio equip
3,083,332
7
ment and including in combination, an input terminal for
connection to a voltage source having a variable potential,
8
?rst winding so that said contacts of said relay means
may release to remove the shunt across said resistor
an output terminal for connection to the radio equipment
to be energized, a voltage sensitive relay having a wind
ing connected to said input terminal and normally closed
means, said relay means responding to current through
said second winding thereof to hold said contacts thereof
in a closed position whenever the current execeeds a pre
contacts controlled thereby, relay means including ?rst
and second windings and contacts controlled thereby, an
said resistor means.
energizing circuit for said ?rst winding including said
normally closed contacts of said voltage sensitive relay,
resistor means, means connecting said second winding 10
and said resistor means in series between said input
terminal and said output terminal, and circuit means
connecting said contact means across said resistor means
to provide a low impedance shunt path thereacross,, said
voltage sensitive relay being operative to hold open said 15
contacts thereof whenever the voltage of the source ex
ceeds a predetermined value to thereby de-energize said
determined value and thereby establish‘ the shunt across
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,158,001
2,315,625
2,556,371
2,617,907
2,846,639
Neely ______________ .. Oct. 26,
King ________________ __ April 6,
Hussey ______________ __ June 12,
Umbarger et a1. ______ __ Nov. 11,
Read ________________ __ Aug. 5,
1915
1943
1951
1952
1958
2,907,943
Orvis ______ --‘. _______ __ Oct. 6, 1959
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