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Патент USA US3083417

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April 2, 1963
Filed June 8, 1959
United States Patent Of
Patented Apr. 2, 1963
a closed pass 14 formed by grooves 15 in respective
Turk’s head rolls 16 when the rolls are screwed down to
closed position. The exiting green clad rod portion 110
Francis E. Leib, Mount Lebanon Township, Allegheny
County, Pa., and John F. Freeman, Worthington, Ohio,
assignors, by direct and mesne assignments, to Copper
with ?ns thereon enters a ?n shaver 17 where the ?ns
‘are removed and .then a roll guide 18 from which the
de?nned compacted green clad rod portion 11b moves
on to heating, reduction and ?nishing stages. The axis
of the work rod portions 11, 11a and 11b is the axis of
the pass line through the respective equipment items com
prising the plant and at the conclusion of such stages, the
composite clad rod or wire end product 19 having a
ferrous core 20 and a continuous coherent cladding 21,
the original powder particles of which are bonded to
each other and the cladding of which is bonded to the
weld Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of
Filed June 8, 1959, Ser. No. 818,808
6 Claims. (Cl. 18--9)
This invention relates to improvements in the cladding
of a core rod or wire ‘by the application of powder to
the core surface. More particularly, this invention per
tains to compacting of powder cladding material against
a core surface in graduated thickness for the controllable 15 core without, in the case of aluminum cladding on a
elimination of air or gas that might otherwise be trapped
ferrous core, any continuous layer or detrimental quan
in the cladding material.
tity of brittle aluminum-iron compound at the interface.
In the production of clad rods and wires such, e.g., as
the “Alumoweld” aluminum cladding of a ferrous core
The invention is applicable to powder cladding whether
or not the core material is rod or wire or of other shape
by the system described in United States patent applica 20 and of the same or dissimilar composition to the cladding
tion Serial No. 773,125, ?led June 16, 1958, which appli
cation is owned by the assignee of the present applica
Pursuant to this invention, the powder cladding ma
tion, we have discovered that it is desirable to inhibit
entrapment of air which may occur on occasion in the
terial is densi?ed as core and cladding go through com
pacting pass 14 to produce a cladding layer of graduated
thickness as shown by the contour of pass 1-4 and the
shape of the green cladding on the illustrative clad rod
shown in FIGURE 3. Thus, the radial thickness at
course of the application of powder cladding material to
the core surface during the continuous manufacture of
such clad rods and wires. The powder material as pur~
chaseable commercially is in a dry condition in sealed
containers. In the course of the handling of the powder
and the application thereof to a core rod or wire, air may
sometimes be entrained or entrapped in the compacting
stage of the manufacturing operation to an extent which
upon heating in the heating stage may cause some local
crown point 22 of each are pressed ‘by a particular groove
15 of the four mating Turk’s head rolls 1-6 is radially
nearer to surface 23 of core 11 than ‘are the portions 24
of the cladding segment produced by the sides near the
edges of the respective groove 15, irrespective of whether
or not the rolls are contoured with corner V’s 25 at the
blistering, or a bursting in some cases, to the detriment
of the quality at that particular locality of the end product.
This invention remedies the foregoing difficulty and
inhibits such entrainment or entrapment by a transverse
graduation of the thickness, re?ecting pressure graduation,
during roll compacting of the cladding powder against
the core surface to achieve what appears to be a rela 40
tively very dense and a somewhat less dense area trans
versely, with enough porosity in the latter portion that
air or gas may readily escape in the course of heating
without localized blistering or bursting. Thereby, the
quality of end product clad rods and wires free of local
defect is enhanced and promoted.
Other objects, ‘features and ‘advantages of this inven
tion will be apparent from the following description and
accompanying drawings, which are illustrative of one
embodiment only, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a view in side elevation of a portion
of a powder applying compacting roll stand embodying
this invention;
FIGURE 2 is an end view of a portion of the appa
ratus shown in FIGURE 1 to illustrate, schematically, a
roll pass for practicing this invention in the illustrated
inner ends of mating parting surfaces 26, to produce
triangular over?lls integral with the ?ns. The remainder
27 of such over?lls are shown in FIGURE 3 following
de?uning by a shaver 17, one embodiment of which is
more fully described in United States patent application
Serial No. 818,715 ?led June 8, 1959, for “Shaver,”
which application is owned by the assignee of the present
In other words, by ?attening the arcs of the grooves 15
de?ning pass ‘14, it is possible to graduate the compaction
of cladding from a more dense condition intermediate the
parting planes de?ned by each pair of mating parting sur
faces 26 to a still compact but somewhat less dense con~
dition adjacent those parting planes with su?icient poros
ity in the cladding areas 28 adjacent the base of each ?n
location in radial alignment with the over?ll portions 27
as shown in dotted outline for one of such ?ns 274. It
appears that as a consequence, during roll compacting by
mill 1!) of the power cladding to produce the compacted
green clad rod portions 11a and [1b, any air or other gas
or vapor in the powder tends to migrate to areas 28 where
porosity is su?icient for that air or gas or vapor to escape
readily from the cladding. Hence, entrapment is inhibited
along with blistering and bursting upon heating and hot
FIGURE 3 is a cross section of a compacted and de
working, with consequent bene?t to the quality of end
?nned green clad rod taken along line III—III of FIG 60 product, such as that illustratively shown for example, in
URE 1, and
FIGURE 4. In such heating and hot working treatment
FIGURE 4 is a cross section of an end product clad
rod following heating, hot reduction and ?nish operations
on a green clad rod, as shown in FIGURE 3, of a nature
described in the aforesaid United States patent applica
Referring to the drawings, which are not to scale,
FIGURE 1 illustrates :a compacting rolling mill stand
10 having a metal core rod or wire 11 moving along a
work or pass line in the direction of arrow 12 through
a powder applicator 13 where a concentric layer of clad
ding powder is applied thereto at the entry thereof into
of a. de?nned compacted green clad rod, such as that
shown in FIGURE 3, the respective areas 28 are densi?ed
and the cladding bonded for the production of the rela
tively uniform end product clad rod or wire.
Various changes may be made in details of the illus
trated embodiment, and other embodiments provided,
without departing from the spirit of this invention or the
scope of the appended claims.
We claim:
1. In a metal powder cladding device to clad a metal or
wire core moving along a pass line with metal powder ma
one place transversely of the direction of said longitudi
nally moving of said elongated core member to compact
terial, apparatus comprising, in combination, a plurality
of mating Turk’s head rolls the axes of which lie in a
said particulate material against said cladding surface
plane perpendicular to the axis of said pass line, each roll
with a density after compacting which will vary trans
having a circumferential groove therein to provide a closed
circular pass in the nip of said rolls, each of said grooves
versely and inversely relative to said progressively fur
ther spacing of said pressing surface for readier escape
presenting a smooth continuous arc in cross section the
edges of which are substantially equidistant from the re
of gas from a portion of lesser density in said compacted
spective axis of rotation thereof, the radius of curvature
of the center of said are being slightly greater than the
particulate material cladding.
5. Rolling process to densely compact powder metal
substantially circular but slightly ?attened arc, whereby
powder cladding compacted by said rolls will be some
ture, against solid metal work, comprising, in combina
radius of curvature at the ends of said are to provide a IO cladding, relatively non-extrudable at ambient tempera
tion, moving said work in a selected direction with a layer
of said powder metal of appreciable predetermined thick
what more dense in portions thereof opposite to the centers
of the groove arcs in said rolls, respectively.
ness thereon, rolling in said direction said layer against
said work with a selectively and transversely varied roll
2. In powder cladding, the steps comprising, in com
ing pressure to compact said layer of powder metal
bination, moving a rod or wire core along a pass line,
against said work with correspondingly transversely
concentrically feeding a substantially uniform layer of
varied densitication, said rolling pressure being varied
powder cladding material in the direction of movement
progressively and transversely of said direction of rolling
of and into engagement with the surface of said core,
to force air or gas transversely from a portion of said
compacting and densifying said layer so that the radial
cladding of greater compaction toward a portion of said
thickness thereof is graduated transversely around suc
cladding of lesser compaction, said portion of said clad
cessive portions of said core to vary the density of said
ding of lesser compaction having su?icient porosity for
layer with sul?cient porosity in a thicker area in said por
tions for escape of gas.
3. In a powder cladding device for compacting a sub
readier escape of said air or gas.
stantially uniform layer of metal powder material as
cladding against an elongated harder metal core, appara
tus comprising, in combination, means for relatively
6. In a metal powder cladding device to compact a
layer of powder metal cladding against an elongated
metal rod or wire core member moving axially along a
pass line, apparatus comprising, in combination, a plural
ity of rolls each having a peripheral groove therein to
moving said core axially through said device, means for
provide a closed pass for said pass line in the nip of
feeding a layer of said material of substantially uniform
said rolls, each of said grooves presenting a transversely
thickness against said core, means for rolling said ma
continuous concave surface corresponding generally to
terial into relatively dense compaction against said core
the shape of a transverse peripheral portion of said core
substantially in the direction of said moving, said lastmember
radially spaced from said concave surface to
named means having a continuous roll surface extending
ward the axis of said pass line, each of said peripheral
in the direction of movement of said core and symmetrical
grooves having a generally central element lying in a
to each side of a plane normal to the axis of rotation of
passing through the axis of said pass line, said
said roll surface and passing through the axis of said core,
central element being spaced a predetermined distance
said roll surface being in graduated spatial relation to the
from the axis of said pass line, parallel elements in each
surface of said core in a transverse direction to each side
groove to each side of said central element being spaced
of said plane relative to the direction of said movement,
farther from the axis of said pass line as
said compaction approaching the density of solid metal in
the distance from said central element increases, and
denser portions of said cladding material nearer said plane
means for feeding powder metal positioned against said
whereby powder cladding of said material compacted by
core member to said nip of said rolls for relatively dense
said roll surface will be transversely graduated in thick
ness for readier movement of any gas toward and escape
thereof from a relatively thicker portion of said compact
ed cladding material.
4. In a device for compacting relatively continuous
particulate material, which is relatively nonextrudable at
ambient temperature, as cladding against an elongated
core member having a cladding surface beneath a layer
of said particulate material in relatively uncompacted
form, apparatus comprising, in combination, means for
longitudinally moving said elongated core member and
a substantial peripherally continuous layer of particulate
material against said cladding surface through said device,
a pressure member having a pressing surface for said
layer of particulate material movable to a predetermined
close distance from said cladding surface to cause said 60
particulate material to be relatively densely compacted
thereagainst by said pressing surface of said pressure
member, means for so moving said pressing surface of
said pressure member, said pressing surface in operative
position being spaced nearer to said cladding surface at
at least one place on said pressing surface and progres
sively farther from said cladding surface to the side of said
compaction of said metal powder by said rolls against
said core member with elements of said grooves farther
from the axis of said pass line at said nip providing trans
versely spaced portions of said compacted powder metal
cladding of corresponding lesser density and greater
porosity, whereby, gas which may be in said cladding is
forced toward and into said portions of lesser density
and greater porosity for readier escape of such gas from
said compacted powder metal cladding.
References Cited in the file of this patent
Wadsworth ___________ __ Oct. 12,
Montgomery __________ __ Oct. 7,
Fisher _______________ __ Jan. 30,
Hardy ______________ __ Oct. 25.
Allen _______________ __ Dec. 26,
Goetzel ______________ __ Oct. 9,
Colinet ______________ __ July 15,
Cryor et al. ___________ __ Dec. 9,
Cheney et al. _________ __ Aug. 28,
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