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Патент USA US3083445

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Apr1l2, 1963
Filed Jan. 8, 1958
Eugene Co I717
Fro/2A? (?a fa //0
Jhseph (?o/1h
United States Patent C)
Patented Apr. 2, 1953
across its width at a ?rst speed, decelerating the fabric
across its width in a predetermined compressing zone
and subjecting the compressed fabric to localized pressure
in the presence of heat at the end of the zone. The
procedure and apparatus of the invention enables re
Eugene iSohn, Great Neck, Frank Cataiio, ?irnont, and
Eoseph (John, New York, Nit!? assignors to Qompax
markable pie-shrinkage results to be achieved by enabling
the fabric to be treated in substantially dry form, such
Corp, Woodside, N.Y., a corporation of New York
Filed Jan 8, 1953, Ser. No. 707,8lli
5 Claims. {C}. 26-185)
that fabric emerging from the treatment can be taken
directly to the cutting tables and does not require sub
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus
for preshrinking textile fabric, and more particularly to
improved and ef?cient arrangements for treating tubular
knitted fabric to provide a stabilized preshrunk fabric of
improved quality and appearance.
Preshrinking of fabric may now be successfully car
ried out by means of mechanical compacting methods and
apparatus, such as described and claimed in the copending
application of Eugene Cuba at al., Serial No. 638,154,
?led February 4, 1957 for ?Method and Apparatus for
Treating Web Materials, Such as Fabrics.? Mechanical
compacting, in accordance with the Cohn et al. applica
tion involves, in general, feeding the fabric at a predeter
mined speed between a set of compacting rolls, one of
sequent drying and ?nishing operations.
In accordance with another aspect of the invention,
the material is spread and steamed at a point preceding
the compacting station. if severe compacting is required,
steam may be applied to one surface only of the fabric.
Thus, it has been found that the application of steam to
the fabric prior to compacting, while desirable from the
standpoint of relieving some of the stresses in the material
and setting it to width, tends to increase the coe?icient
of friction of the material with certain parts of the com
pacting apparatus. In accordance with one aspect of
the present invention, if severe compacting is required,
steam is not applied to that surface of the fabric which
is passed in contact with a ?xed shoe in the compacting
apparatus. This avoids excessive friction between the
which is traveling at the feeding speed and the other of 25 fabric and the shoe while at the same time providing a
which is moving at a lower speed. The fabric entering
substantial amount of stress relief.
the compactin<7 rolls is con?ned longitudinally up to a
point immediately in front of the nip of the compacting
rolls, and the action of the compactor is such that the
fabric leaves the con?ned area at the feeding speed and
passes through the roll nip at a lower speed. Decelera
tion of the fabric takes place in a ?compacting zone?
immediately preceding the roll nip, and the fabric in this
zone is compressed longitudinally and thereby mechanical
ly preshrunk.
After compacting (and subsequent steaming, if de
sired), the preshrunk material may be, in accordance
with the present invention, passed between calender rolls,
which have the combined function of further stabilizing
the compacted fabric and of calendering the surfaces of
the material to give the material a ?nished appearance
and to further equalize the appearance of the opposite
sides of the fabric.
For a better understanding of the invention, reference
should be made to the following speci?cation and accom
The above described arrangements for mechanically
preshrinking fabric are entirely effective for their intended
panying drawing, in which:
purpose. However, mechanical compacting alone is not
PK}. 1 is a side elevation of an apparatus made in
a complete solution to the problem of delivering ?nished
accordance with the invention and adapted for use in
preshrunk cloth to the cutting tables of clothing manu 40 carrying out the method of the invention, and
facturers, etc. Thus, the ?nished cloth must not only
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary plan View of a modi?ed form
be shortened and stabilized longitudinally, but it must also
of the apparatus of FIG. 1.
be set to a desirable uniform width and must be uniform
Referring now to the drawing, the apparatus of the in
in appearance. Accordingly, the present invention pro
vention comprises several fabric treating stations, includ
vides improved methods and apparatus for handling tu 45 a spreading station it}, steamim station 11, compacting
bular knitted which are capable of delivering the fabric
station 12, steaming station 13, calendering station 14
in the desired ?nished form.
and conveying and folding station 15. The spreading
In accordance with one aspect of the invention the
station comp-rises means to receive tubular knitted fabric
16 from a suitable supply thereof, and means to spread
tened form, and steamed. This sets the fabric to pre 50 and flatten the fabric. For this purpose, a propeller
determined Width. In the treating of certain fabrics, a
apparatus of the type shown in United States Patent
rather severe compacting may be required, and if this
2,228,901 to S. Cohn et al., may advantageously be em
is done entirely at the compacting station the fabric may
ployed, it being understood, of course, that other pro
take on a different appearance on its opposite sides, which
pelling devices having similar operating characteristics
is to be avoided, if possible. In this respect, preshrink 55 may also be utilized.
iug of the material at the compacting station is accom~
As shown in FIG. 1, the spreadinc means extends to a
fabric, prior to compacting, is spread transversely, in ?at
plished by causing the compacting rolls to rotate at dif
ferent speeds, and when the speed differential is exces
sive, in order to obtain a large amount of compacting,
point designated by the numeral 13, which isadvan
tageously beyond the steaming station 11 in the direction
of travel of the material. Accordingly, the material pass-,
one side of the fabric (i.e. the side in contact with the 60 ing through the steaming station is in a transversely .
feed roll) may become glazed or scuffed. The new meth
stressed condition. in accordance with one aspect of the
od provides way to minimize or eliminate any differential
invention, steam is applied to the material by a steamer
in the appearance of the opposite sides of the fabric.
19 of a conventional type. in the illustrated form of the
In its broadest aspects, the present invention provides
a novel and improved method and apparatus for com
pressively treating tubular knitted fabric, to provide ?n
ished, pre-shrunk material suitable for manufacture into
invention, the bottom surface of the fabric is subjected
65 to steaming, if a substantial degree of compacting is re
quired. The proper surface to be steamed is dependent
upon the orientation of the subsequent processing ap
garments, the procedure of the invention comprising re
paratus, as will be explained.
ceiving the fabric in substantially dry state, setting the
After passing through the steaming station 11!, the ma
fabric to predetermined Width, steaming the spread fabric, 70 terial enters the compacting station 12 which is advan
immediately thereafter and in direct sequence compres
tageously an apparatus of the type described and claimed
sively shrinking the fabric lengthwise by feeding the fabric
in the aforementioned pending application of Eugene
roll 25? and adapted to con?ne the fabric closely against
tance between rolls 2%}, 21 and rolls 2'5, 26 and, accord
ingly, the steamers 23, 24 are offset below the straight
line path between the sets of rolls, so that the material
is permitted to sag in the unsupported area. In addition,
the how of steam upwardly from the bottom steamer 24
the surface of the feeding roll, up to a point a short dis
tends to support the material to a certain extent, so that
Cohn et al. A compacting apparatus of this type com
prises a fabric feeding roll 2% ?driven at a predetermined
speed, a retarding roll21 driven at a lower speed, and a
fabric con?ning shoe 22 positioned adjacent the feeding
the tensions thereon are maintained at a practical mini
tance above the nip of the feeding and retarding rolls 26*,
21. The feeding roll 2% is driven at a speed correspond
Since the appearance of the ?nished cloth is an im
ing to the reduced speed of the material through the last
portion?of the spreading station, so that the material is 10 portant consideration in the overall processing operation,
the material leaving the dual steaming station 13 is
not ?subjected to tension after steaming. 'l' .e material,
traveling at the speed of the feeding roll 20, is brought into
advantageously passed through a oalendering station 14
comprising the calendering rolls 25, 26. The construction
contact with the retarding'roll 21, and thereupon caused
of the calendering station may be substantially the same as
to assume the slower speed of the retarding roll. As set
forth in?greater detail in the application of Eugene Cohn 15 that shown in United States Patent 2,589,344 to S. Cohn
et al. In general, this apparatus comprises a lower calen
et al., the arrangement of the rolls 2t}, 21, and con?ning
dering roll 26 driven ataan adjustable but normally ?xed
shoe 22 is such that a compacting zone is de?ned between
speed with respect to the compacting apparatus and the
the lower end of the shoe and the nip of rolls 2?}, 21. De
material propelling apparatus, and an upper calendering
celeration of the material from the speed of the roll 29
to the speed of the roll 21 takes place in this compacting 20 roll 25 which is adjustably supported with respect to the
lower calendering :roll vand is adapted to be brought
zone, causing the material therein to be compressed longi
to bear thereon under accurately adjustable pressures.
tudinally and thereby mechanically preshrunk.
Thus, the upper roll 25 ?will be supported on a bracket 27
As will be understood, the material passing over the
pivoted at one end 28 to the frame of the apparatus and
feeding roll 29 and in contact with the shoe 22 is in con
stant motion relative to the shoe. Accordingly, it is de 25 adjustably supported at its other end by springs 29,, 30.
The springs 29, 30 may be adjusted by means of a nut
sirable to maintain friction between the shoe and the
31 in such a manner that the'roll -25?is held resiliently in
material at'a minimum, and, for thisreason, the present
a precise relationship to the roll 26. Thus, the material
invention contemplates ?that, if severe compacting is re
passing ?between the calendering rolls may be subjected
quired, nojsteam'will be applied to the surface of the ma
30 to a precise calendering pressure which may be very light,
terial contacting?the shoe.
if desired. Advantageously, although not necessarily, the
As a general rule, the rolls 2t), 21 of the compacting
calendering rolls 25, 26, may be heated, as by a suitable
apparatus have specially prepared surfaces adapted to
steam supply, not shown.
grip the material in a desired manner, certain assemblies
The operation of calendering the material in the man
thereof being described in detail in the Eugene Cohn et a1.
application. In the illustrated apparatus, it is contem 35 ner described, following compacting and dual steaming,
is advantageous in that it tends to ?further equalize the
plated that the surface of the feed roll 29 will be provided
appearance of the opposite sides of the fabric and also
with ?diamond knurls approximately .068.? of an inch deep,
imparts to the fabric a smooth, calendered appearance
while the'ret'arding roll will be similarly knurled to a
which is desirable in the ?nished product.
depth of approximately .O30'ofan inch, the foregoing
being merely by way of example. The arrangement is 40 After passing through the calendering station, the
material moves to the conveying and folding station 15,
such that the retarding roll 21 has a greater frictional grip
comprising a conveyor 32 and a folding mechanism 33.
upon the-fabric than the feeding roll 26? whereby the
The particular construction of theconveying and folding
fabric is caused to assume the peripheral speed of the re
station does not ?form any part of the present invention.
The material leaving the compacting station 12 is 1on 45 However, apparatus such as shown in the aforementioned
gitudinally compressed, as explained in the Eugene Cohn
Patent 2,589,334 to S. Cohn et a1. may be advantageously
et al. application. However, the material at this stage
employed for this purpose.
may not be in the desired ?nished form, since the op
Various alternatives for the specific apparatus illus~
posite surfaces of the material may have different ap
tratedin FIG. 1 may be utilized in carrying out the in
pearances, due to the speed differential between the feed 50 vention. Thus, by Way of example only, a wicket spreader
ing and retarding rolls 20, 21, particularly if a substantial
of the type shown in FIG. 2 may be utilized in place of
degree of compacting has been effected. Moreover, the
the propeller apparatus shown in FIG. \1. A spreader of
material may not be sufficiently stabilized in its preshrunk
this type includesa frame 34 adapted to be received inter
condition to withstand necessary further processing opera
nally of 'a'length of tubular fabric 16. One end of the
tions without some stretch. Accordingly, in the new
frame 34 is positioned adjacent the nip of a pair of rolls
method, the material leaving the compacting station .12
36, '37, the roll- nip beingof smaller dimension than the
is passed through a steaming station 13-, comprising
frame 34, so that the ?frame cannot pass therethrough.
steamers 23, 24, wherein a certain amount of moisture is
The material 16 is fed over the frame in a direction from
imparted to the ?bers of the material. In this respect,
right to left, as shown in FIG. 2, so that the material is
at least one of the rolls of the compacting apparatus is 60 spread transversely and then carried through the nip of
heated, as a general rule, so that considerable moisture is
rolls '36, 37. The material leaving the roll nip passes
driven off the fabric during the compacting operation.
directly to the compacting appanat-us, substantially as in
Restoring moisture to the fabric following the compacting
dicated in FIG. 1. Suitable steaming means, not shown,
operation tends to enlarge or puff up the ?bers, so that
are placed adjacent the frame 34 so that the fabric is
both sides of the material assume the same appearance, 65 steamed while the fabric is in atransversely stretched
and also seems to stabilize the fabric'in its compacted
condition and before the fabric passes to the compacting
tar-ding roll 21 at the roll nip.
state so that such further processing operations as are re
quired may be carried out without material loss of shrink
As shown in FIG. 1, the material passing through the
steaming station 13 is supported at one point by the rolls
20, 21 of the compacting apparatus and at another point
by rolls 25, 26, of a calendering apparatus, to be de
scribed. It is desirable that thee-material be subjected to
a minimum of tension throughout the unsupported dis 75
TOther alternative spreading and propelling arrange
ments for tubular material are exempli?ed by the appa
ratus of Patent 2,391,547, to S. Cohn et al.
As an alternative to the speci?c compacting apparatus
illustrated in FIG. 1, it is contemplated that other me~
chani'cal'compacting apparatus may be utilized in the
overall process. By way of example only, it may be ad
vantageous, in connection with certain fabrics, to utilize
the compacting apparatus and/or method described in
United States Patents 2,765,513 and 2,765,514 to Richard
R. Walton.
The method and apparatus of the invention are advan
tageous in that materials processed thereby have desirable
improved characteristics, particularly in respect of its
stabilized condition, uniform width and uniform ?nished
appearance. The stabilized condition and uniform ap
surface moving at a predetermined ?rst speed while main
taining substantial control over the dimensions of the
fabric, ?and forcibly compressively shrinking the spread
and steamed fabric lengthwise by feeding the fabric across
its width on said surface and at said predetermined ?rst
speed into a predetermined compressing zone, decelerat
ing the fabric across its width ?in said zone, and subject
ing the compressed fabric to localized pressure in the
presence of heat at the terminal end of said zone.
pearance of the material resulting from the new treatment 10
2. The method of claim 1, in which said fabric is sub
is advantageous in that the treatment may be used as a
jected to the action of external heat substantially simul
?nishing process.
For example, the material may be
steamed and set to predetermined width, and then corm
taneously with the application to said fabric of said local
ized pressure.
pacted to a relatively small degree. Where the compact
3. The method of claim 1, in which the fabric is con
ing apparatus is of the type described ?and claimed in the 15 veyed, in the absence of any substantial tension, following
before-mentioned co-pending application of Eugene Cohn
the application of said localized pressure, and the con
et al., Serial Number 638,154, the material issuing from
veyed fabric is controllably gathered in a series of adjacent
the compacting rollers is substantially in a calendered con
layers in the absence of any substantial tension.
dition and in a substantially ?nished form suitable for
4. Apparatus for ?nishing substantially dry tnavelling
delivery to the cutting tables. Where a larger degree 20 tubular knitted fabric comprising means for ?attening and
of compacting is effected it is usually desirable and ad
spreading the fabric and setting it to predetermined width,
vantageous to steam and calender the material after com
pacting. Any tendency for the material to assume a
means for steaming the fabric during its passage along said
?attening and spreading means, and fabric treating means
two-sided appearance as a result of severe compacting
positioned to receive fabric substantially directly from
treatment may be offset substantially by steaming the 25 the ?attening and spreading means and while maintaining
material on one side only, prior to compacting, and steam
substantial control over the dimensions of the fabric,
ing both sides of the material and calendering it follow
said treating means being adapted to forcibly compres
sively shrink said fabric lengthwise and comprising a pair
of nip rollers forming a portion of a compression zone,
herein shown and described is intended to be representa 30 one of said nip rollers being positioned to receive fabric
ing the compacting.
It should be understood that the speci?c apparatus
tive only, as many changes may be made therein without
departing from the clear teachings of the invention. Like
wise, the various steps of the new method may be com
bined in various ways differing somewhat from the exact
substantially directly from said ?attening and spreading
means and being driven to propel said fabric across its
width at a predetermined speed, the other of said nip
rollers being positioned directly adjacent the ?rst, to form
method described. Accordingly, reference should be 35 a nip, and being driven to decelerate the fabric across its
made to the following appended claims in determining the
width to a predetermined decelerated speed.
full scope of the invention.
5. Apparatus according to claim 4, which includes
The present application discloses in part subject matter
means for controllably gathering the material delivered
previously disclosed in our prior application Ser. No.
from? said zone, said gathering means being driven at a
638,154, ?led February 4, 1957 (now U.S. Patent No. 40 predetermined speed in relation to said nip rollers Where
3,015,145), and the bene?t of the ?ling date of said pre
vious application Ser. No. 638,154 is claimed with re
spect to the subject matter hereof which is disclosed in
said prior application.
We claim:
by to controllably gather said fabric in the absence of any
substantial tension.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
1. The method of treating substantially dry tubular
knitted fabric to provide ?nished, pre-shrunk material
suitable for manufacture into garments which comprises,
receiving the fabric in a substantially dry state, setting the
fabric to predetermined width by spreading the fabric
to substantially ?attened form, steaming the spread fabric,
discontinuing the spreading step and bringing the spread
and steamed material into edge to edge contact with a
Cohn et ?a1 ______________ __ J an. 7, 1941
Wrigley et al __________ __ Nov. 25, 1941
Cohn et al ____________ __ Dec. 25,
Chat?eld ____________ __ Sept. 19,
Cohn et al ___________ __ Mar. 18,
Cohn et 'al _____________ __ Apr. 1,
Walton _______________ __ Oct. 9,
Walton _______________ -.. Oct. 9,
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