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Патент USA US3083595

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April 2, 1963
Filed Aug. 8, 1961
/45 4.9
#5 39
Patented Apr. 2, 1963
rock drill an improved and practical ri?e nut and hammer
piston association, in which the ri?e nut does not have
a threaded engagement with the hammer piston, and yet
Deloss Williams, New York, N.Y., assignor to Qirreago
not loosen in or back out of its socket regardless of
Pneumatic Toni Company, New York, N.Y., a corpo
the selected operation to which the drill is subjected.
ration of New .‘iersey
It is a further object of this invention to provide an
Filed Aug. 0, 1961, Ser. No. 1369,4983
unthreaded ri?e nut and hammer piston association in
9 Qlaims. (Cl. 74-4243)
which the ri?e nut is caused to become impacted in its
This invention is directed to improvements in ri?e nuts
socket under reciprocating ‘action of the piston, and
and in their arrangement in ri?e bar reverse rotation rock 10 wherein the ri?e nut is so arranged in its socket that it
drills of the type which are adapted for driving threaded
does not turn therein despite the application of adverse
sectional drill rod and threaded couplings.
strong torque ‘forces to it in one direction or the other.
Rock drills of this type are well known and are used
It is a still further object of this invention to provide
in drilling holes of various depths. In general, they in
an unthreaded ri?e nut for a rock drill, which will become
clude a striking bar which is threadedly associated with 15 tighter in its socket as the drill operates.
a threadedly coupled train of sectional drill red at the end
The foregoing as well as other objects and advantages
of which is threaded a drill bit. During the operation of
will appear more fully from the following description
the drill the striking bar is subjected to repeated pounding
taken in connection with the accompanying drawings:
by a reciprocating pneumatically powered hammer piston.
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary view of a rock drill embody
The operations of the drill are controlled by a conven 20 ing the invention;
tional ri?e bar reverse rotation mechanism associated with
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional view of the hammer
a ri?e nut mounted in the head of the piston.
piston with vthe ri?e nut press ?tted therein;
The rotation mechanism enables the operator to selec
FIG. 3 is a top end view of the ri?e nut including a
tively set the drill for normal drilling operation in which
fragmentary portion of the surface of the surrounding
the reciprocating piston is accompanied by intermittent 25 piston head;
turning thereof and of the striking bar to a limited degree
FIG. 4 is a vertical section of the ri?e nut itself taken
on the line 4-4 of FIG. 3; and
FIG. 5 is a View similar ‘to FIG. 2 but showing the ri?e
in a particular direction; or to set the drill for reverse
operation in which the reciprocating piston is accom—
panied by intermittent turning of the piston and of the
striking bar in the opposite direction; or to set the drill 30
for neutral operation in Which the reciprocating piston
is not accompanied by any compelling rotation thereof
nut tightened in a fully impacted ‘condition.
Reference is now directed to the several ?gures of the
drawings for a more detailed understanding of the inven
tion. The invention is illustrated as being incorporated
in a rock drill 10 of the drifter type using sectional drill
rod, such as the drill disclosed in US. Patent 2,910,046.
or of the striking ‘oar. These diiferent operations are used
at different times as required in Working the drill. In
general, the normal operation of the drill serves to e?ect 35 The drill is mountable in conventional manner upon a
drilling of the hole and rotation of the ‘bit to change the
guide shell, not shown, for relative axial movement along
biting relation of the latter to the ground. It also serves
the latter. The rock drill includes a housing 11 providing
in tightening the couplings of the drill rod train. Neutral
operation of the drill may be used in effecting a repeated
a piston cylinder 12 in which the enlarged head portion
13 of the hammer piston 14 is pneumatically reciprocable.
pounding action on the drill rod train so as to loosen the 40 Depending from the piston head is an elongated reduced
couplings preparatory to separating the train from the
cylindrical shank 15, the bottom end 16 of which serves
striking bar in order to add or retrieve ‘a length of drill
rod ‘from the train; or may be used as a means of retriev
ing or loosening a stuck drill rod train from its hole.
Reverse operation of the drill may be used in unscrewing
the striking bar from the drill rod train and in uncoupling
the sections of the latter.
All of the foregoing operations of the drill exert various
strong thrust and torque forces upon the ri?e nut. A ri?e
nut having a threaded periphery is known; ‘but if it is
used in a rock drill having a ri?e bar reverse rotation
mechanism, the various forces acting on the nut will tend
to unscrew and back it out of its socket, the result of
which may prove seriously damaging to various internal
parts of the drill.
A rock drill using sectional drill rod and having ri?e
bar reverse rotation mechanism is disclosed in US.
Patent 2,910,046, issued October 27, 1959 to E. B. Lear.
In this patent the ri?e bar is associated with a hammer
piston by means of a threaded ri?e nut, but a snap ring
is arranged in the hammer piston to vblock the ri?e not
from unscrewing or backing out of its socket during the
different operations of the drill.
as a hammer to pound a striking bar 1'7. The latter is
engaged in conventional manner for rotation with a chuck
member 18 of the rock drill. The striking bar has a
4.5 reversely threaded end, not shown, which is adapted to
‘be threadedly coupled in the usual manner to the usual
train of sectional threadedly coupled together drill rod.
The chuck 18 is engaged by means of longitudinal
splines 19 thereon with spline grooves 21 extending longi
50 tudinally along the lower portion of the piston shank 15'.
By means of this splined engagement the piston has axial
slidable movement relative to the chuck against the strik
ing bar 17; and by means of the splined connection 19
21 any rotation that may be imparted to the piston
in one direction or the other is transmitted by the chuck
18 to the striking bar '17 and to the associated drill rod
The piston has axial slidable movement along the usual
ri?e bar 22, and at predetermined times also has rotative
60 movement relative to the latter.
This mode of movement
is enabled ‘by a ri?e nut 23 press ?tted in a socket or recess
24 of the piston. The nature of the ri?e not as well as
the nature of the associated recess, and the manner in
A general object of this invention is to provide a ri?e 65 which the ri?e nut is associated with the recess represent
the improvement in rock drills which is provided by the
nut for use in rock drills using sectional drill rod and
I present invention.
having ri?e bar reverse rotation mechanism, which ri?e
The ri?e nut 23 has the usual axial bore 25 and helical
nut does not have the de?ciencies of a threaded ri?e nut
inclined splines 26 formed in the wall of the latter for
and which does not need a retaining ring to retain it in
its socket regardless of the direction of the forces applied 70 working reception of a ri?e bar therein. The ri?e bar 22
has the usual elongated shank 27 formed with elongated
to it during the various operations of the drill.
helical or inclined splines 28 slidably mated with the
It is another object of this invention to provide in a
splines of the ri?e nut. The piston has the usual elon
small diameter of the taper is at the junction B of the sur
gated ‘bore 29 which is coaxial with that of the ri?e nut
and is of such diameter that it is adapted to freely receive
face 39 with the coned surface 38‘. The taper of the body
the shank 27 of the ri?e bar as the piston reciprocates rela
proper ‘39 is slight; ‘here, it has a ratio of approximately
tive to the latter.
. Associated with the ri?e bar is conventional manipula
one inch per toot.
tive ri?e bar reverse rotation mechanism 31 (FIG. 1).
such as that described in US. Patent 2,910,046. In gen
eral, this reverse rotation mechanism includes a manipula
tive key 32 having three selectable positions. When the
key is ‘turned by the operator to a ?rst or normal posi
tion,- it acts through a pinion 32a and associated pawl
The ri?e nut 23 of the present invention is press ?tted
and frictionally retained in the axial recess 24 of the pis'
ton head 13. A coned surface 41 at the bottom of the
recess has an angle of slope corresponding to the coned
- surfaces 38 of the nut; and the upper annular wall sur
face proper 42 of the recess has a taper corresponding to
that of the main body portion 39 of the nut. When the
nut is received in the recess, the wall surfaces 38 and 39
of the nut are respectively parallel to the corresponding
shift mechanism 33 to shift an arrangement of pivoted
pawls 3.4 in such manner relative to a ratchet head 35 of
the ri?e bar so as to restrain rotation of the ri?e bar in a
» wall surfaces 41 and 42 of the recess.
restrained against rotation.
I of the recess, as in FIGS. 1 and 2.
The 'coned surface 41 of the recess 24 serves as a stop
certain direction, and to permit free rotation of the ri?e 15
or seat which limits the extent to which the ri?e'n-ut may
bar in the opposite direction. When the key is turned to
be forced down into the recess. It is to be noted (FIG.
a second ‘or reverse position, not shown, its effect through
2) that the vertical height of the recess, when measured‘
the shift mechanism and pawls on the ri?e bar is opposite
‘from the top edge A’ thereof to the seat at C, is a little
to that obtained in the ?rst position of the key. And,
greater than the vertical height A to B of the nut. The
when the key is turned to' a neutral or intermediate posi
nut is tightly press ?tted in the recess 24; and has a nor
tion, not shown, it acts througi the pinion 32a and shift
mal condition therein wherein a space 43 exists between
mechanism 33 to shift all of the pawls 34 clear of the
the coned surface 38 of the nut and the conical seat 41
ratchet head 35 of the ri?e bar so that the latter is un
In this normal con
. The splines 28 .of the ri?e bar cooperate with those 26 25 dition the top surface of the nut is ?ush with that of the
piston. In order to obtain a tight press ?t of the nut in
of the ri?e nut in conventional manner, so that when the
the recess, the large and small diameters A and B of the
taper of the body proper of the nut are slightly greater
than the corresponding diameters of the recess.
A lock pin 44, ?tted in part in a longitudinal groove 45
of complementary radius formed in the wall of the recess,
and ?tted in part ina longitudinal groove 46 of comple
mentary radius in the nut, further secures and restrains
key 32 is in its ?rst position for normal operation of the
drill the ri?e bar 22 rotates freely as the piston 14 moves
forwardly on its impact stroke, and the piston turns or ro
tates relative to the restrained ri?e bar during the return
stroke of the piston. This action is accompanied during‘
the return stroke of the heavy piston by the transmission
of considerable torque force to the ri?e nut. The tool is
set for normal operation when drilling a hole; and the
rotation of the piston which is transmitted through the
chuck means 18 to the striking bar 17 serves to tighten
the couplings, not shown, in the sectional drill rod train as
well as to change the ‘biting position'of the usual drill bit at
the end of the train relative to the earth.
The reverse .action takes place in the operation of the
' drill when the key .‘32 is in its reverse position.
In this
case the forward stroke of the piston is accompanied by
the transmission of considerable torque force to the ri?e
nut in a direction reverse to that which takes place in the
~ the nut against rotation relative to the piston head, re
gardless of the direction of torsional thrusts imparted to
the nut by rotary action of the piston. The groove 45
opens through the top surface 40 of the piston head, and
provides a shoulder 47 at its bottom end as a stop for the
3 lock pin. The groove 46 opens through the coned sur~
‘face {38 at one end, and is closed over by an overhanging
lip 48 at its upper end, which lip serves as a stop for the
upper end of the look pin. The lip 48 and shoulder 47
prevents endwise escape of the lock pin 44 relative to the
‘ piston head.
normal position of the key. Reverse operation of the 45 When the ri?e nut is, as in FIGS. 1 and 2, ?tted in the .
recess 24 of the piston head, the bore .25 of the nut is
drill may be used for unscrewing in conventional manner
the striking bar 17 from the drill rod train and in ‘uncou
pling the latter.
When the key {32 is in its neutral position for neutral
operation of the drill, the ri?e bar is unrestrained and ac
cordingly the piston is not compelled by its association
with the ri?e 'bar to rotate in either direction. Neutral
operation of the drill is usually employed to apply re
peated pounding action of the piston against the striking
bar so vas to .iar a stuck drill rod train loose ‘from its hole,
or to loosen the couplings when building up the drill rod
train or when retrieving it from a’ hole. The repeated
pounding vaction of the piston is accompanied by the
transmission of considerable thrust forces in various direc-'
coaxial with the lower bore 29 of the piston and has a
diameter slightly less than that of the latter, whereby the
' splined shank 27 of the ri?e bar may, in moving through
the nut, be freely admitted into the bore 29 of the piston.
The necessity of the lock pin 44 and the associated
grooves 45 and 46 may be dispensed with by roughing
the tapered outer surface 39 of the nut. The tight press
" ?t of the nut in its recess, together with the added fric
tional engagement offered by, the roughened surface of
the nut, would securely restrain the nut against axial
movement as Well ‘as against rotation, regardless of the
direction of torsional thrusts imparted to it by the ham
' mer piston. It is understood that the wall surface 24 of
tions to the ri?e nut.
60 the recess may also be roughened. The ri?e nut 23 is '
preferably made of bronze metal. .
The ‘improved nature of the ri?e nut 23 of the present
invention and its particular manner of association with
The difference in length between the ri?e nut and the’
recess whereby the space 43 is normally provided between
the nut and its seat is of decided'advantage. During
applied to it during the dilferent operations of the drill,
in such manner that the ri?e nut not only remains fast 65 pounding actions ‘of the hammer piston there is a reac-,
tionary downward thrust imparted to the ri?e nut due to
in its socket but also becomes tighter therein.
the inertia or mass of the nut. This thrust tends to force
The improved ri?e nut 23 of the present invention
the nut downwardly in ‘the recess toward its seat. Any
(FIG. 4) has a ?at circular top ‘face 36, and has parallel
slight downward movement of the nut from the initial nor- 7
to the latter a ?at relatively reduced circular bottom face
37. Adjacent the latter is a short coned‘ annular surface 70 anal position in FIG. 2 causes the nut to become tighter
and more ?rmly impacted in the recess, so that it W?l re
or shoulder 38, the taper of which is relatively steep. The
sist all vibratory, torsional and other adverse forces ofthe
body proper 39 of the ri?e nut extends from the upper
drill, ri?e bar, and piston acting upon it, and will ‘be '
end B of the coned shoulder surface 38 to the top edge A
?rmly held against endwise escape from the recess as
of the ‘nut; and :has a .coned taper. The large diameter of
thetaper'is' de?ned at the top edge A of the nut; and the 75 well as against rotative movement relative to the recess.
the piston enable .it to resist the various adverse forces
FIG. 5 shows the ri?e nut tightly impacted in its recess
and moved down upon its seat. The space 49 (FIG. 2)
the other, the pin serving to lock the ri?e nut in the recess
against relative rotative movement.
normally existing between the pin 44 and the lip 48 is
4. In a rock drill as in claim 3, wherein the pin is nor
sufficient to enable the nut to move downward relative to
mally seated upon said abutment of the groove. and is
the pin to its seat 41, as appears in FIG. 5.
spaced from the overhanging lip a distance at least equal
While an embodiment of the invention has been illus
to the clearance normally existing between the shoulder
trated and described in detail, it is to be expressly under
at the bottom of the nut and the seat of the recess.
stood that the invention is not limited thereto. It is my
5. A ri?e nut of the character described having a thick
ened body provided with an axial bore designed for work
intent, therefore, to claim the invention not only as
shown and described herein but also in all forms and 10 ing movement therein of a ri?e bar; characterized by trun
modi?cations thereof as may reasonably be construed to
cated top and bottom end wall surfaces, and by an annular
fall Within the spirit of the invention and the scope of the
body surface intermediately of said ends having a coned
appended claims.
taper, the large diameter of the taper being at the upper
What is claimed is:
end of the nut.
1. In a rock drill including a ri?e bar, a hammer piston 15
‘6. A ri?e nut of the character described having a thick
reciprocable relative to the ri?e bar having an axial bore
ened body provided with an axial bore designed for work
in its head for reception of the ri?e bar as the piston re
ing movement therein of a ri?e bar, and having top and
ciprocates, and a recess formed in the piston immediately
bottom parallel end walls, the bottom end wall being rela
above and coaxial with said bore, the recess having an
tively reduced as compared to the top end wall; charac
internal wall surface of coned taper, the large diameter of 20 terized by a main body portion having an outer surface of
the taper being at the top end of the piston, and the recess
coned taper, the upper end of the nut de?ning the large
having an annular seat de?ning the bottom end thereof;
diameter of the taper, a relatively steep coned surface
a ri?e nut in the recess having an axial Working engage
adjacent the bottom wall and the main body portion, and
ment with the ri?e bar, the ri?e nut having an outer body
the small diameter of the taper of the nut being de?ned
surface of coned taper corresponding to that of the internal 25 by the junction point of the steep coned surface with the
outer surface of the main body portion.
7. A ri?e nut as in claim 6, wherein a keyway is formed
longitudinally of the tapered surface of the main body por
soulder of the nut is normally clear of the seat below;
tion, the keyway opening through the steep coned sur
wherein the shoulder and seat respectively of the nut and 30 face at its bottom end, and a lip forming part of the upper
recess have a coned surface relatively steeper than the said
end of the nut closing over said end of the keyway.
tapers of the nut and recess.
8. A ri?e nut as in claim 6, wherein the outer surface
wall of the recess, and having a shoulder at the bottom end
thereof complementing the seat of the recess, and the nut
having a predetermined press ?t in the recess wherein the
2. In a rock drill as in claim 1, wherein at least one of
of coned taper is roughened.
the surfaces of coned taper is roughened whereby the ri?e
'9. A ri?e nut as in claim 6, wherein the ri?e nut is
nut is frictionally restrained in the recess against relative 35 formed of bronze metal.
rotative movement.
3. In a rock drill as in claim 1, wherein the ri?le nut
has a longitudinally extending groove in its tapered sur
face, the groove opening through the shoulder of the nut
at one end and having an overhanging lip at its upper end; 40
a mating groove is formed in the corresponding wall of
the recess having an abutment at its bottom end and open
ing through the piston at its upper end; and a pin disposed
in part in each of the grooves and locked therein against
escape by the said abutment at one end and the lip at 45
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Githens ______________ __ May 5,
Beaudin _____________ __ Aug. 11,
Nell _________________ __ Aug. 16,
Curtis _______________ __ Aug. 5,
Mosby ______________ __ July 17,
Lear _________________ __ Oct. 27,
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