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Патент USA US3083709

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April 2, 1963
H. SCHANZ
3,083,694
FLUID PRESSURE SERVOMOTOR
Filed Feb. 18, 1959
C)
BEAKINsYT-EM
VACUM
S
UR
E
0
C
INVENTOR.
HANS
SCHANZ.
ATToRA/ZY.
United States Patent
3,683,694
Fine
Patented Apr. 2, 1953
2
1
plete description of the valve mechanism, reference may
3,083,694
be had to Ringer US. Patent No. 2,598,604. Suf?ce it
to say that piston 17 is biased toward its normal (inop
FLUID fRESS-URE SERVOMGTQR
Hans Schanz, Niederhochstadt, Taunus, Germany, as
erative) position by a return spring 21 compressed be
tween the valve housing and diaphragm 19.
The primary servomotor has a power-actuated movable
signor to Alfred Teves Maschinen- und Armaturen
fabrik K.G., Frankfurt am Main, Germany, a corpora
tion of Germany
Filed Feb. 18, 1959, Ser. No. ‘794,012
Claims priority, application Germany Feb. 21, 1958
6 (Zlaims. (Cl. 121-38)
The present invention relates to ?uid pressure servo~
motors and more particularly to combined differential
element which may be a pneumatic piston 23 connected
to the hydraulic piston 9 by a push-rod 25. In the re
leased position of the unit, communication is permitted
10 between follow-up chamber 13 and pressure chamber 11
air pressure servomotor-s and hydraulic master cylinders
operated thereby of the type used in automotive braking
systems which conventionally include hydraulic :?uid pres 15
sure motor operated brake structures.
The combined units of the above type which are in
current use comprise a servomotor in which a movable
wall separates a ?rst chamber communicating at all times
with a constant pressure source (such as atmosphere or
intake manifold of the vehicle engine) from a second
chamber wherein the pressure is controlled by a driver
operated control valve generally energized by hydraulic
by a compensating valve, of the type described in the
Ringer patent. When a force transmitted by the push
rod pushes the hydraulic piston forwardly, the compen
sating valve closes and separates the chambers.
The servomotor shown as an example is of the “vacuum
suspended” type, wherein vacuum of equal intensity is
normally present on both sides of the pneumatic piston:
the front side of the piston 23 is, in constant communica
tion with a chamber 24 of the control valve by means of
passage 26, and is connected through a check valve 27
to a vacuum source.
The valve control chamber 28 com
municates with the rear side of piston 23 through con
duit 39.
The secondary servomotor is located in the same hous
pressure from a primary, driver-operated master cylinder.
Unless the valve is provided with additional elements, the 25 ing as the primary servomotor, from which it is separated
unit presents a constant assistance rate from the “crack
by a partition Wall 2?. The pneumatic piston 31 of the
point” or, in other words, the amount of force delivered
secondary servomotor is rigidly connected to the pneumat
by the servomotor is in a constant rate with the pressure
ic piston 23 by means of a rod 33 which projects across
the partition wall 29 through a vacuum seal. An ex
In certain cases, it is advantageous to have a unit in 30 ternal conduit in communicates vacuum to the front
which the rate of assistance increases at a ?rst low rate
chamber 34 of the secondary servomotor by means of pas
for a predetermined range of control pressure, and at an
sage 36 and to the control valve associated therewith by
from the primary master cylinder.
increased rate for another range of control pressure:
The primary object of the invention is to provide a ?uid
means of conduit 1a, and passages 38, 40 and 42. Its
pressure servomotor wherein the rate of assistance is in
creased for a predetermined range of operating force.
side of the piston 31 through conduit 47. At rest, a
common return spring 32 compressed between pneumatic
piston 31 and partition wall 29 maintains the tandem
piston combination in the rearward position.
The two control valves are quite similar: The second
ary control valve comprises a valve operating piston 35,
A more speci?c object of the invention is to provide
a power actuated hydraulic master cylinder wherein a
plurality of servomotors are successively put into opera
tion responsive to increasing values of a manually-con
trolled pressure.
Another speci?c object of the invention is to provide
a power actuated hydraulic master cylinder provided
valve control member 46 communicates with the rear
the rear face of which is communicated to the common
inlet connection 7 by a conduit 37. Piston 35 is con
nected to a valve seat providing diaphragm 39 biased to
ward normal position by a return spring 41. Initial com
with a pair of servomotors each having a control valve,
one of said control valves being actuated responsive to
pression of spring 41 is higher than initial compression
low pressures from a drive-operated master cylinder while 45 of spring 21, so that the primary valve begins to operate
the other control valve has a delayed action resulting in
to energize the primary servomotor at a lower hydraulic
the two servomotors cooperating only for a predetermined
pressure than that for which the secondary valve becomes
range of hydraulic control pressures.
operative. Operation of the unit is as follows: the op
It is still another object of the invention to provide a 50 erator actuates the master cylinder (not shown) to de
tandem-type air pressure operated unit comprising a pair
velop a hydraulic pressure and as soon as the hydraulic
of operatively connected servo-motors each having a con
force developed on the rear face of the piston 17 exceeds
trol valve, said control valves being operated by the pres
sure in a common line and one at least of the valves
the initial compression of the return spring 21, the dia
phragm is displaced from its rest position into engage
having a return spring with a progressively increasing 55 ment with the vacuum poppet of a valve head 43, thereby
stiffness.
immediately cutting off communication between the two
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be
apparent from a consideration of the following descrip
tion which refers to the annexed drawing which‘ shows
faces of pneumatic piston 23. Upon a further slight in
crease of the hydraulic force, the atmospheric poppet of
In the drawing, numeral 1 designates the complete unit
valve head 43 is lifted from its seat whereby air is ad
mitted against the rear face of the pneumatic piston to
which is the combination of a secondary hydraulic master
cylinder indicated generally at 3 and of servomotors in
dicated generally at 5. An inlet connection 7 communi
cates the secondary master cylinder with a primary, driver
rating pressure chamber 11 from follow-up chamber 13.
a longitudinal section of an embodiment of the invention.
operated master cylinder (not shown). A hydraulic pis
develop an actuating force. The tandem piston assembly
and the hydraulic piston 9 move and the compensating
valve closes as soon as the stroke initiates, thereby sepa~
65 F or a more complete description of the above recited op
ton 9 slidably received in the hydraulic cylinder separates
eration, reference may be had to the above referred to
a pressure chamber 11 from a follow-up chamber 13 in
which the inlet opens. A passage 15 formed in the hous
Ringer Patent 2,598,604.
As long as the hydraulic force on piston 13 does not
ing communicates the follow-up chamber with the rear
balance the initial compression of spring 41, the pneumat
face of a valve operating piston 17 adapted to cooperate 70 ic piston 23 alone is operated and drags piston 31. For
with a valve seat providing diaphragm 19. For a com
a given value of the inlet pressure, valve 45 is actuated
3,083,694
3
4
open and the pneumatic pistons 23 and 31 cooperate for
or spring rate while the other of said spring means has a
actuating the hydraulic piston.
changing stiffness or spring rate.
3. In a braking system and the like having a driven
When the driver wishes to relieve the braking force he
has only to lessen the foot pressure on the master cylinder
pedal: the ?uid pressure decreases against the pistons 17
and 35 and the valve return springs cooperate with the
pressure force on the diaphragms for moving backwards
the movable assembly into a new balance position. Suc
member: a ?rst ?uid pressure servomotor having a mov
able wall connected to said driven member; a ?rst con
trol valve actuating element which increasingly supplies
differential pressure to said movable wall of said ?rst
servomotor as increased force is applied to said control
element in an actuating direction; a second ?uid pressure
cessively the secondary control valve and the primary
control valve return into inoperative positions, responsive 10 servomotor having a second movable wall connected to
to lower and lower values of the hydraulic control pres
said driven member; a second control valve actuating
sure.
element which increasingly supplies differential pressure
In order to achieve a more progressive change of the
to said second movable wall as increased force is applied
to said control element in an actuating direction; means
assistance rate, one or the other of the return springs
may be formed so as to have a stillness which increases 15 for simultaneously applying actuating force to said ?rst
with the amount of compression.
' As a further re?nement of the invention the ?rst con
and second control elements; said second control element
differing from said ?rst control element in that a greater
predetermined actuating force is required to actuate it than
trol valve may be rendered inoperative responsive to a
is required to actuate said ?rst control element, and said
violent application of the brakes from rest: under such
conditions, the vacuum poppet of the valve head 43 20 second control element staying in its nonactuating posi
tion until after said ?rst control element has at least par
traverses its complete stroke under the action of dia
tially actuated said ?rst servomotor.
phragm 19 and closes the atmospheric valve seat, thereby
4. In a braking system and the like having a driven
preventing air from entering the rear chamber of the
member; a ?rst ?uid pressure servomotor having a mov
primary servomotor.
It will be apparent that the objects heretofore enumer 25 able wall connected to said driven member; a ?rst con
ated as Well as others have been achieved; While the in
trol valve actuating element which increasingly supplies
vention has been described in considerable detail, I do
not wish to be limited to the particular construction shown
and described: particularly it is obvious that means other
differential pressure to said movable wall of said ?rst
servomotor as increased force is applied to said control
element in an actuating direction; ?rst spring means op
posing actuating movement of said ?rst control element;
than those described can betused for rendering the two
valves operative for different values of the control pres
sure, as for instance valve actuating pistons with different
diameters, etc. It is my intention to cover by the follow
ing claims all adaptations, modi?cations and changes in
design which come within the practice of those skilled
in the art to which the invention relates.
What I claim is:
a second ?uid pressure servomotor having a second mov
able wall connected to said driven member; a second con
trol valve actuating element which increasingly supplies
differential pressure to said second movable wall as in
creased force is applied to said control element in an
actuating direction; second spring means opposing actu
ating movement of said second control element; means for
simultaneously applying actuating force to said ?rst and
second control elements, said second control element stay
member connected to said driven member; a ?rst control 40 ing in its nonactuating position until after said ?rst con
. In a braking system and the like having a driven
member: a ?rst servomotor having a power actuated
trol element has at least partially actuated said ?rst servo
element which increasingly power actuates said power
motor; and one of said spring means having a generally
actuated member as increased force is applied to said
- constant sti?’ness or spring rate while the other of said
control element in an actuating direction; a second servo
spring means has a changing stiffness or spring rate.
motor having a second power actuated member connected
5. In a braking system and the like having a driven
to said driven member; a second control element which 45
member: a ?rst servomotor with a power chamber having
increasingly power actuates said second power actuated
a ?rst movable wall therein dividing said power chamber
member as increased force is applied to said second con
into opposing chambers, a second servomotor with a power
trol element in an actuating direction; means for simul
chamber having a second movable wall therein dividing
taneously applying actuating force to said ?rst and second
control elements; said second control element differing 50 said second power chamber into opposing chambers; each
of said movable walls being connected to said driven mem
from said ?rst control element in that a greater prede
ber; 21 ?rst constant pressure source in continuous com
termined actuating force is required to actuate it than is
munication with corresponding ones of said opposing
required to actuate said ?rst control element, and said
chambers of said ?rst and second servomotors; ?rst and
second control element staying in its nonactuating posi
tion until after said ?rst control element has at least par 55 second control valves each having a control element which
when in a normal position communicates said ?rst con
tially actuated said ?rst servomotor.
stant pressure source to the other of said opposing power
2. In a braking system and the like having a driven
chambers of a respective one of said servomotors, and
member: a ?rst servomotor having a power actuated
each of said control element when moved in an actuating
member connected to said driven member; a ?rst control
direction communicating a di?erent source of pressure to
60
element which increasingly power actuates said power
respective ones of said other opposing power chambers in
actuated member as increased force is applied to said con
a manner causing each of said movable walls to actuate
trol element in an actuating direction; ?rst spring means
said driven member; means for simultaneously applying
opposing actuating movement of said ?rst control ele
actuating
force to said ?rst and second control elements,
ment; a second servomotor having a second power actu
ated member connected to said driven member; a second 65 ?rst and second biasing means urging respective control
elements to their normal positions, said second biasing
control element which increasingly'power actuates said
means exerting an initial force which holds said second
second power actuated member as increased force is ap
element in its normal position until said ?rst control
plied to said control element in an actuating direction;
element has been actuated, whereby said second servo_
second spring means opposing actuating movement of said
motor is deenergized until said ?rst servomotor is at least
second control element; means for simultaneously ap
partially actuated.
plying actuating force to said ?rst and second control
v6. In a braking system and the like having a driven
elements; said second control element staying in its non
actuating position until after said ?rst control element has
member: a ?rst servomotor with a power chamber having
a ?rst movable wall therein dividing said power chamber
at least partially actuated said ?rst servomotor;rand one
of said spring means having a generally constant stiffness 75 into opposing chambers, a second servomotor with a power
8,083,894
6
5
chamber having a second movable wall therein dividing
said second power chamber into opposing chambers; each
. their normal positions, said second spring means exerting
an initial force which ho‘ids said second element in its
of said movable walls being connected to said driven mem
ber; a ?rst constant pressure source in continuous com
munication with corresponding ones of said opposing
chambers of the ?rst and second servomotors; ?rst and
second control valves each having a control element which
when in a normal position communicates said ?rst con
stant pressure source to the other of said opposing power
chambers of a respective one of said servomotors, and each 10
control element when moved in an actuating direction
communicating a differing source of pressure to respective
ones of said other opposing power chambers in a manner
causing each of said movable walls to actuate said driven
member; means for simultaneously applying actuating 15
force to said ?rst and second control elements, ?rst and
second spring means urging respective control elements to
normal position until said ?rst control element has been
actuated and one of said spring means having a spring
rate change as said control force increases; whereby said
second servomotor is deenergized until said ?rst servo
motor is at least partially actuated.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,393,524
2,404,932
2,587,404
2,705,402
2,719,405
2,797,665
Pant _________________ _- Jan. 22,
Stelzer ________________ __ July 39,
Stelzer _______________ __ Feb, 26,
Stelzer ________________ __ Apr. 5,
Ringer _________________ __ Oct. 4,
Chouings _______________ __ July 2,
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