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Патент USA US3083876

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April 2, 1963
M. M. SEES
3,083,863
FLANGE CONSTRUCTION
Filed Jan. 29, 1959
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mm‘ “59" 'PLZZ'E L426
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43w INVENTOR.
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55:5
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United States Pat-6m: OFF C6
3,083,863
Patented Apr. 2, 1963
2
1
the exterior ?anges, and retaining means for supporting
the locking member and causing it to engage the internal
3,083,863
FLANGE CONSTRUCTION
Myron M. Sees, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignor to General
projections.
While the speci?cation concludes with a claim specifi
cally pointing out and distinctly claiming the subject mat
Electric Company, a corporation of New York
Filed Jan. 29, 1959, Ser. No. 790,010
1 Claim. (Cl. 220—80)
ter which I regard as my invention, it is believed the in
vention will be better understood from the following
description taken in connection with the accompanying
My invention relates to a ?ange construction, and more
drawings in which:
particularly, to a ?ange construction for use with high
FIGURE 1 is a pictorial view of my ?ange construction
pressure Vessels where lightweight, low circumferential dis 10
in an assembled relationship and,
tortion, and prevention of leakage are of prime impor
FIGURE 2 is an exploded view of the ?ange construc
tance.
tion and,
In the construction of high pressure vessels it is often
FIGURE 3 is an exterior view directed interiorly of
necessary, or desirable, to “split” the outer shell or casing
of the vessel longitudinally into two or more sections.
Some means must then be utilized to securely fasten to
the casing along the exterior seam formed by the abutting
gether the casing sections when the vessel is in use. A
Referring now more particularly to FIG. 2, 10——10 refer
generally to the walls or" two sections of a high-pressure
casing ?anges.
preferred means for joining the casing sections in high
pressure applications is to provide a pair of externally
projecting ?anges which extend along the casing “split”
vessel having a “split” outer casing. The casing sections
are joined by means of outwardly-projecting ?anges
line and which are adapted to abut each other.
It is also well known that the most e?‘icient external cas
adapted to abut each other. When abutted, the ?anges
ing ?ange design is one employing a large number of rela
form an exterior casing seam, indicated generally at 13
in FIG. 3.
12--12 which extend along the’ casing “split” line being
tively small bolts located as close as possible to the cas
ing Wall. However, in high-pressure applications the
separation forces existing at the junction of the abutting
25
?anges make necessary to the use of relatively [large bolts
which cannot be located as close to the casing wall as
would be desirable. In addition, a large exterior bolt
Extending interiorly of the casing are a pair of projec
tions, or tangs 14, which may comprise partial extensions
of the ?anges by being formed integrally therewith as
shown in the drawing. Each tang is shown as being
approximately 1/2 the width and 1A the length of its cor—
requires a larger, radially-extending ?ange surface, with 30 responding exterior ?ange projection. The tangs 14 may
be constructed to abut each other, as shown in the draw
ings, in the same manner as do the ?anges 12—12, to
the result that the ?ange moment arm is greater, i.e., the
distance between the casing wall-to-?ange connection and
the bolt center line is increased. This construction is
‘undesirable since the greater the moment arm the greater
form an interior seam of the casing. The outer or non
the tendency towards angular ?ange rotation at the junc
tion of the casing wall-to-?ange correction. Since angular
?ange rotation will tend to separate the abutted ?anges,
it is to be avoided in high-pressure vessels where leakage
and hence form- convergent walls ‘when the tangs are
in abutment.
Referring again to FIG. 2, I provide means for engag
ing the tangs to maintain them in a ?xed relationship,
abutting walls 16—16 of each of the tangs are tapered
pre-load the casing ?anges, and prevent gas leakage, in
is detrimental, or even dangerous. For example, in a jet
the form of a solid locking-bar 18. In the embodiment
engine combustion chamber utilizing an axially-split, cylin
drical casing having abutting ?anges, separation of the
shown, the locking-bar has a generally rectangular shape
having approximately the same Width as the ?anges 12,
?anges will allow leakage of hot gases which could result
when abutted, but extending interiorly of the casing for
‘in a ?re hazard.
. only about 1/2 the length that the ?anges project outwardly
of the casing. The locking-bar 18 contains an exteriorly
Angular ?ange rotation is also undesirable in that it
can cause circumferential de?ection, or deformation, in
facing, longitudinally-extending groove, indicated gen
erally at 20. The groove 20 has oppositely disposed
a ‘high-pressure cylindrical vessel having a “split” outer
casing. Circumferential casing de?ection can be particu
larly destructive of the rigidity essential for bearing align
ment andv support in a jet engine, for example, since the
divergent walls 22—22l spaced wide enough apart to enable
them to encompass the abutted tangs 14. The tapered
outer walls 16-16 of the tangs are adapted to coact with
the ‘divergent groove walls 22-22 to insure a proper
.outer casing of such an engine also serves to support the
main bearings, thus providing both support and align
?t without the necessity ‘for excessively close tolerances in
the groove and tang construction.
ment for moving parts of the engine.
I
A further disadvantage encountered with use of a large
I provide retaining means for supporting the locking
bar and drawing it into engagement with the tangs in
cluding: ‘a tapped‘hole 24 positioned in the bottom of
the groove 20; a smooth bore 26 extending completely
through the abutted ?anges 12 and the tangs 14, the bore
age in a high-pressure casing. '
‘ ' Accordingly," it is an object of
invention‘ to ‘provide 60 axis lying completely within the casing “split” line and
normal to the casing walls; and a bolt 28 adapted to
a ?ange construction for a high-pressure vessel having
be received in the bore 26 and the tapped hole 24. It
a “split” outer casing, which employs relatively light ex
will be noted that the bore 26 actually comprises two
terior ?ange members and relatively small ?ange fasten
semi-cylindrical grooves 29—29 in the abutting surfaces
ings, yet provides su?icient locking force to withstand high
of each of the ?anges 12-12. The bore 26 may be
internal pressures and temperatures and substantially elim 65 counterbored at 36 to aid in seating the bolt 28. Any
inates casing distortion and leakage.
other suitable means for drawing the locking-bar into
Brie?y, in accordance with one aspect of my invention,
engagement with the abutted tangs could be used in
I provide a ?ange construction for a “split” outer casing
keeping with the spirit of my invention, however. For
of a high-pressure vessel, the construction having relative
example, instead of the single bolt 28, smaller bolts could
ly light exterior ?ange members and ?ange fastenings
be used with smaller openings provided wholly within
which are made possible through use of a pair of internal
each of the ?anges 12—-12, the smaller openings extend
ing in the same direction as the smooth bore 26 and
projections, an internal locking member for pre-stressing
bolt and ?ange combination, particularly with respect to
jet engine design, is the increase in‘ weight, since in the past
it has usually required a ‘relatively massive external ?ange
construction to completely eliminate’ distortion and leak
55
8,083,863
3
4%
adapted to be aligned with tapped holes which would be
treated alloys are desirable casing materials, particularly
for jet engine casings, since the alloys have very favorable
strength versus weight properties. However, to obtain
the maximum mechanical and manufacturing advantages
provided in the locking-bar on either ‘side of the groove 20.
As stated above, my ?ange construction is particularly
useful and bene?cial where the prevention of leakage and
circumferential casing distortion is highly vdesirable. At
‘least one of these factors is usually considered in the
design of say, a jet engine combustion chamber having
‘an axially-split, generally cylindrical casing. One way to
to be gained by use of these materials, the material sec—
tions utilized must have certain thicknesses, dependent
on the alloy being used. If these materials were to be
employed in jet engine construction, for instance, with
assemble a casing such as this utilizing my invention would
out utilization of my invention obvious design limitations
be ‘to partially thread a number of the bolts 28 into the 10 would present themselves, such as, for example, the opti
tapped holes 24 in the locking-bar 18, bring the locking
mum thickness of a certain alloy section being too heavy
bar into position interiorly of one of the casing sections
for practical engine application.
'
with the groove 20 facing the tang, and then place the
I have therefore provided a ?ange. construction ‘which,
bolts 28 in the ‘semi-circular groove 29 of the ?ange
with its internal locking-bar as a load-carrying member,
12, while making sure that the bolts 28 protrude from the 15 ‘lessens the external ?ange load, improves casing section
tapped holes 24 far enough to enable the locking-bar to
sealing, and, with proper design (dependent on mate
clear the tang 14. The ?ange 12 of the second casing
rial, temperature and pressure factors’), completely coun
section would then be brought into abutment with the
teracts the circumferential casing distortion tended to be
?rst-mentioned casing ?ange, the semi-circular grooves 29
‘caused by angular rotation of the external ?ange mem
in the second ?ange being aligned with the grooves 29 20 bers. In addition, by providing means for lessening the
in the ?rst ?ange to form the smooth holes 26 to en
external ?ange load, I permit the use of small, more
compass the bolts 28. With the casing sections now
closely-spaced exterior ?ange bolts which makes possible
mated, preloading of the ?anges is accomplished by draw
a lighter, more e?icient exterior ?ange.
ing up on the bolts 28, which causes the locking-bar to
My invention should not be taken as being limited to
move outwardly of the casing interior to securely engage
the exact embodiment shown and it is my intention to
the abutted tangs.
cover all changes and modi?cations which do not depart
To complete the casing assembly, external fastenings
from the spirit and scope of my invention, herein claimed
are used to securely clamp together the external ?anges
as follows:
'
12-~12. These fastenings may be of any suitable type,
I claim:
such as the bolts 30, adapted to pass through aligned 30 In combination; a high-pressure, thin-walled casing,
holes 32 in the ?anges, being secured therein by the
said casing being axially split to comprise a pair of easing
nuts 34.
Although the smooth bores 26 are shown as being
sections; a pair of externally-projecting ?anges a?ixed
to the casing section Walls at the edges thereof, said ?anges
provided between every 5th and 6th ?ange bolt hole 32,
being in abutment along the casing split line to form
this exact numerical relationship is not critical. It has 35 an exterior seam; a plurality of external fasteners extend
beenfound, however, that relatively few locking-bar bolts
ing transversely through said ?anges and maintaining
are required to enable the bar to perform its “pre-load”
the ?anges in abutment to form a gas-tight seal along
and sealing function.
said exterior seam; a rigid, internally-projecting tang 0p
While I'have shown the ?anges, tangs and locking~bar
posite each of said external'?anges and integral therewith,
as having certain relative physical dimensions, the exact 40 said tangs being in continuous abutment internally of
size relationships are not limited to those shown. How
the casing to form an interior seam thereof; internal lock
ever, it should be noted that my ?ange construction em
ing means comprising a bar co-extensive with said tangs,
‘ploys a dualfload carrying system consisting of the ex
said ‘bar including a groove having oppositely-disposed
terior ?anges 12 and the interior locking-bar and tang
divergent walls, said tangs in abutment having convergent
‘combination. The locking-bar part of the system func 45 outer walls whereby the convergent outer tang walls and
tions to eliminate distortion by actually introducing a
the divergent groove walls cooperate to pre-load the ex
counteracting moment on the casing to oppose the in
ternal casing ?anges and provide a gas-tight seal for the
herent tendency for angular ?ange rotation of the exterior
interior seam; and means for retaining the locking-bar
?anges, in other words, in my ?ange construction, this
inside said casing comprising a plurality of partially
‘inherent tendency for angular ?ange rotation is minimized
.threaded mounting bolts supported in bores in the abutting
by having low-mass ?anges which are made possible only
external ?anges and received in tapped holes in said lock
by use of my locking-bar vacting as a load carrier. There
ing-bar, said bolts being operable to draw said locking
fore to the extent that both ‘portions of the system‘ should
bar groove into engagement with said tangs, the bolts
be matched to give proper load distribution, obtain mini
also supporting the locking-bar When said groove is out
"mum casing weight, and minimize ?ange rotation, size
of engagement with said tangs.
relationships are important. The exact design of my
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?ange construction will also depend, however, on such
‘factors, as the pressures expected to be contained within
UNITED STATES PATENTS
vthe ‘casing, the operating temperatures, and the type
429,660
Sullivan _____________ __ June 10, .1890
of materials available from which the casing’may be
514,822
Gennert ______________ _._ Feb. 13, 1894
constructed. For example, in certain temperature and
2,128,093
James _______________ __ Aug. 23, ‘1938
pressure ranges, it is known that high-strength, heat
7 2,673,659
Moore ______________ __ Mar. 30, 1954
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