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Патент USA US3083906

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April 2, 1963
E. z. GABRIEL '
3,083,901
COMPUTERS
Filed Jan. 25, 1960
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ATTORNEY
AApril 2, 1963
E. z. GABRIEL
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COMPUTERS
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Filed Jan. 25, 1960
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.INVENTOR
BY ‘im Übwubb
M P :Xg/v2(
ATTORNEY
April -2, 1963
E. z. GABRIEL
3,083,901
COMPUTERS
Filed Jan. 25, 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
ATTORNEY
United States Patent() ” ICÚ
1
A3,083,901
Èìatented Apr. 2, 1963
`2
,FIGURE l0 is a sectional _View online X-X of FIG. 9.
3,033,901
>In Íthe >specific embodiment of the 'invention illustrated
~in said drawings, lthe reference «numeral I in FIGS. 1, 5
Aand 6, `andnumeral 2t) vin FIGS. 9 and 10, designate a
»basal plateyof suitable size, shape and material, here shown
as substantially rectangular 'and preferably comprised of
„.amoderately stiff sheet of plastic or' the’like which may
contratistas
Edwin Z. Gabriel, St. Datfids, Pa.
«(91 Mount Tabor Way, Qeean Grove, NJ.)
Filed Jan. 25, 19.60, Ser. No.4,501
12 Claims. (Cl. 235..-561)
'_Ifhis >invention îrelates to computers and more partic
ularly ¿to >a manual type _of computer adapted to solution
>of variousproblems met ¥with in mathematics, Vergairiples
of which may tbe mentioned multiplication, division„solv-
-ibe ,transparent if so desired. .In conjunction with this
¿Ibasal plate or sheet, there are providedthree scale mem~
10
ingfor unknowns lin triangular _geometric problemsand
.attheupperpface of `saidxtuàsal plate andproyides a com
bined ihorizontal straight edge and a longitudinal scale
including solutions involving oblique triangles.
'the invention proposes _an instrument _from which
.readings m-ay be made witheorresponding accuracy aswith
¿the readings `from lslide rules so that ¿it maybe rusedin
_conjunction withta v`slide rule by interchange of readings
`«bers 2, -3 and >4, of ,whichmer‘nber' .4 extends alongthe
_bottom margin _and _is fixed with respectto and located
¿line xwith ¿traversingscale markings of smallincrements
15 of length, such as yshown inlarger detail in FIG. 2, ap
pearing ¿onthe upper ,face> of said member ¿tand inter
secting ¿said longitudinal _scale _line. In EIG. 9, the
.from one to the `other with equal dependability.
The invention contemplates _a computer which is usa
`straight,edge is constituted by a longitudinal slot '16 paral
Vlellirigítlle¿longitudinal scale line x, which, together with
4ble both for solutionïot problems Vinyolving‘rightI triangles 20 .scale markings gof ,small increments of _length are vim
and Voblique triangles.
y,printeddirectly on plate 2€?, ythus incorporating this par
A computer is provided l:by this invention capable of
ticular scale member as an integral part of the plate; t
Ychecking.results of trigonometric problems _initial solution
will tbe notedthatl whereas thestraight edge and longitu
of which hasibeen _rnade «by s__orne other method.
-Another object oftheinvention is toprovide ¿a simple
construction capable of readily _giving _answers in ,prob
lerns of multiplication and division,`»and with _equal ac
_dinal scale> line x are coincident in EIGS. 1V `and 5, this
circumstance is not to be considered ,aV necessary restric
,tion'as FIG. 9_illustrates them as distinctfroin each other
but parallel. In their entirety, the longitudinal and
ytraytnsing >markings lin vthe several illustrations will be
curacy as with a slide rule, and more quickly.
A furthervobject of the invention is to provide arne
<chanical structure usable Vforlaying out wotk andsolu
.tions with delineations -atdesired ‘angles and _prescribed
.designated-herein as the x-_scale, and it _will lbe observed
30
lengths.
.reading of unknowns of either or bothlinearorangalar
35
character.
It is _an objectiveto effect a savingoftimefeonsuming
Q_therßblects, `advantages _and novel structural vfeatures
skilledin the art to which it appertainsKV
40
thedesïc'ription
proceeds, both «by direct recitation «thereof andîbyinfer
'ence lfrom the context.
Referring to the accompanying drawings, in
like
numerals ¿of reference indicate Q-similarparts throughout
FIGURE 1 isaplan of av computer whereintheyfscale
member‘is arbitrarilyshown at right yangles to the ¿,x-scale
i' `
FIGURE _2 is van enlarged face View of the proposed
,ces‘sively from Zero Äto _the maximum number of such
_divisions,_¿f_or_instan-casero to twelve orfouxjteen or other
_chosen maximum. _All distances between each _of the
,main subdivisions _are equal to eachothergandthe scale is
_intended vto aiiord‘readings of _linear dimensions.
45
>the several ¿view/s;
member;
extentof thescale. `Desired `sub-_divisi_ional -inarkings may
,-"bsäPfQVídß‘diWWœn,Successive mais division markings t0
.fdivîde the mais .divisions into halves, tenths ,and twen
.Íìëfhfs @à ShQWß in @mil in ;.FIG- 2.0.1” íntoeny other
-_.'desiredÍincreinerits of length. The soalegmarkingsbegin at
,the leftl‘at_ageroloeation Eoraid to the user, the main
yrepetitive Iand fatiguing operations in solvingproblems.
_contemplated in :the invention .will appear _to Ipersons
kl and 9 and _fourteen indicated in FIG. Sjoretnphasizing
_that it is _amatter‘of ‘choice in Vmanufacture es to the
,Ina broad aspect, the invention may besaid-.to provide
a structure which will physically designate _lengths lof
_sides of triangles and angles lbetween ,sides Ítordireclt
îthat >there _are twelve main ydivisions indicated in FIGS.
Above-mentioned Ascale I_nemberß> is of transitional
character, being’mounted bothto be „swung and to be
_translationally movable, and thus capable of change in
augularity‘with _respect >to and `change in _its location
along _ñxedineinber Y4 and the x-,scalethereoí Asiused
50 4_h_ereiii,¿,translational location ot-„movement refers to se~
lectedpositioning without a changerof.angu1arity„while
scale delineations lo_rn’the movablevmemlbers, and which,
vtransitional movement designates leither a translational or
vFIGURES 3 kand_4_are >diagrammaticytriangulations
.an langular change,_or both. .Transitional mounting __for
scale member?, iswshown Aaccomplished in FIGS. 1, 5, 6,
>7 and 8 byainouuting assembly or_rider_.14 havingthe
because of >(_:loseness of lines, are only lslîiown‘in part in
FIG. l;
showing use oftheinvention _as ya multiplier and divider;
55
form of a T-head providing alegó of _»ñat transparent
¿FIGURE 5'is a plan, similar to` FIG. L_and _showingthe
movablernem-bers 'both makingangiesless than _90° ‘ with
vmaterialen end_margin of which overlaps the bottom
end'of scale member _3 lin ilat-,Wiserelation thereto so
vtirata pivot meansî9, in the form of. arivet orl itsequiva
the ‘base member 4for solution _of oblique triangleprob
lems;
'
¿FIGURE 6 is a _vertical section on line VIT-Vlor?
FIG. 5;
»FIGURE 7 isga sectional View of a part of> `and on
greater scale than FIGÃS, for more clearly indicating the
presence of a spring washer' onvthe pivotfor th'ernovable
member there shown, `on line YIIéVII;
‘
i FIGURE 8 is a plan of the under face ofthe slideand
Vpivoted «member the upper face of which is _shown ,in
60
_lent,..may'be passed, through the voverlapped portions and
tlterebyv secure Athe _sealemember pivotallytolsaidleg
Below _the end _of the scale member, on the same face
ofthe leg v_6 overlapped _by said scale member, is _a cross
65
piece .5'.which~is fixed toxsaid legin perpendicular rela
tion., thereto, and on _the opposite yface of the leg is a cor
responding ¿but shorter cross-piece >7 lalsoiixed in place
flaîtwiseof _the leg. Considering the mounting assembly
„orrider in _its entirety, the cross-pieces 5 and 7„_With the
portion _of _the-,leg.6__ineiuded therebetween, mayœ be con
FIGURE 9 is _a plan, siniilarrto FIGS. _1__and _5, Aand 70 _lveniently,designatedthefoon and itwillîbe observed
.showing the translational member guided by slot _engage
.thatthe bottom of__s_aid.fo__ot_is in _a plane perpendicular
ment; and
4tothe upwardly projectingportion of theleg. ’ l'lfherider
zFIGS. l and 5;
assess-.i
4
thus constructed may be used either face up, so that as
what will be herein designated a z-scale comprising a
shown in FlG. 1, the scale member 3 extends under leg
6, whereas in FlG. 8 the rider is turned the other side
longitudinal medial hair line z with traversing scale mark
ings corresponding in spacing and numerical indicia to
the `spacing and indicia of the other two scales. Said sole
ly swingable member 2 is also preferably transparent.
up so the scale member appears as overlapping said leg.
No matter which side up the mounting assembly or rider
is positioned, its foot may be located in longitudinal slid
abe engagement with the straight edge of the fixed scale
member 4. Indicia line y’ from the pivotal center ex
tends to the bottom edge of the foot perpendicular there
to for translational location of the rider 14 and scale
member 3 with respect to scale member d. In conjunc
tion with, or in lieu of, said indicia line y' the mounting
assembly or rider 14 may be provided with a pointer y”
projecting from the lower end of leg 6 to in part overlie
The hair line z and other scale markings forming the z
scale, on this solely swingable member 2 are more de
sirably on the upper face thereof so as to avoid parallax
with the markings of the transitionally movable member
3 which in normal intended use overlies it.
The zero
markings of this z-scale registers with the axial center
of pivoting of solely swingable member 2, and the length
of member 2 and number of markings may accord with
lax in doing so.
llt will be readily appreciated that as the foot of rider
wishes of the maker.
Centered on the pivoting axis of pivot i3 for the solely
swingable scale member i2` and enscribed on the top sur
`face of basal plate 1 or 20, is an arcuate scale for con
'14 is slid along in contact with the straight edge of scale
venience designated the R-scale having transversal di
the x-scale for reading the scale without involving paral
visional markings representing a quadrant of degrees`
member 4, that the center or axis of pivot 9 will move
along a hypothetical line x’ in parallelism to said straight 20 starting at zero at the intersection with hypothetical line
x' so that the 90° transversal marking will lie upon a
edge and longitudinal scale line x. The pivoted and
line y’" perpendicular to hypothetical line x’ and crossing
transitionally movable scale member 3 has a longitudinal
that line at the center of curvature or" said arcuate R
hair line y extending longitudinally thereof from the piv
scale. An angle a between the hair line z of the solely
otal center to the outer end of »said member and shown
swingable member 2 and the hypothetical line x’ may be
directly made by swinging the said member to the cor
responding reading oi angle or degrees on the R-scale.
and numerical indicia to the spacing and indicia of the
ln FIG. 5, desired angle a2 between the hypothetical line
fixed x-scale markings so as to atïord like readings of
length. This longitudinal hair line y and its associated
x’ and translational member 3 is also made with respect
markings will be referred to as the y-scale. The zero 30 to the same arcuate R-scale by iirst locating the pivotal
axis of that member in coincident alignment with the
end of said y-scale thus provided starts at the center of
’pivotal axis of the solely swingable member so as to be
pivot 9, and the scale length may be made to meet de
medially between the side edges of said member and
with traversing scale markings corresponding in spacing
mands of use, and here shown as sufficient to provide
at the center of the arc of the R-scale.
With the struc
twelve main divisions. Preferably the scale member 3 is
ture of FIGS. l, 5 and 8, for any angle other than 90°
made of a transparent material and the scale and other 35 the mounting M and scale member 3 carried thereby has
markings are enscribed on what is normally the under
yto be first turned upside down, after which the axes are
face oi' said member so as to avoid parallax in making
aligned and, for an acute angle, scale member 3 is placed
readings on another scale appearing thereunder in use.
rotatively over the corresponding degree reading of arcu
Said pivoted and translational member 3 may be arranged
ate R-scale, after which the mounting is turned over to
to have a limited range of swing in one direction if so 40 its normal side up whereupon angle a2 is located as an
desired, and in the speciiic showing of FIGS. 1, 5 and
8, may be swung from juxtaposition with hypothetical
line x’ at the left of pivot 9 upward through an angle
«interior acute angle. Should an obtuse angle be required,
the angle set while the mounting is upside down and the
axes aligned will be to the number of degrees in the ob
of 90° so as to then be perpendicular to line x’ and
scale line x of the íixed scale member 4. ln 'said FIGS.
tuse angle in excess of 90° or number of degrees less
than 180°. Since the R-scale starts at the x’ line, direct
l, 5 and 8, the leg 6 to which said member 3 is pivoted
reading thereon in setting the y-scale hair line -is to men-`
tally subtract the degreesof the obtuse angle from 180°
is provided at one side thereof with a stop 10 in the path
of swing of Isaid member in exact position to limit the
angularity of the member with respect to the straight
edge of the foot of the mounting to exactly 90°. If 50
an obtuse angle of more than 90° is desired, the assem
bly is turned upside down. The assembly may be used
and use the resultant as the degree marking on the R
scale over which the z-scale hair line is placed. Then,
without returning the mounting to its normal right-side
up position, it is merely slid along to desired position with
respect to the x-scale where it presents the desired in
terior obtuse angle. With the construction of FIG. 9,
maintain the transitional member 3 vat whatever angle it
where there is no stop limiting the swing of the y-scale
may be intentionally swung to, suitable frictional retain 55 member 3, it is not necessary to invert the assembly to set
ing means are provided, such as a spring washer l2 in
the obtuse angle, but as with previous outline it is in
dicated in FIG. 7 as applied to pivot 9 under the head
verted to set an acute angle.
thereof and against the proximate face of the leg 6 of
In order to consolidate and elaborate on the specific
the movable mounting y1d.
»
description of the structure shown in FIGS. 9 and 10,
The third scale member 2 is pivoted only, and isnot 60 even though in part repetitions, it is pointed out that
translationally movable. Pivoting means, such as rivet
therein is shown a rectangular basal plate .'20 which may
13, attaches this solely swingable member 2 directly to
conveniently be composed of moderately stili transpar
the top face of basal plate 1 or 20, the center or axis of
ent sheet of plastic or the like in conjunction with which
said pivot being directly above the zero marking of the
are provided three scale members 2, 3 and d of which
`lixed x-scale and on hypothetical line x’. If occasion in 65 member 4 is an integral part of said sheet included be
use ari-ses, the transitional or slidable and swingable scale
tween the bottom edge thereof and a slot 16 parallel and
member 3 may be slid to a position at which its pivot 9
proximate thereto. A basal x-scale appears on portion
`may overlie and register axially with the pivot 13 of the
or member 4 with a longitudinal scale line x and travers
solely swingable member 2 so as to locate both pivots in
ing scale markings providing small increments of Scale
axial alingment. The solely swingable member 2 is pro 70 divisions and indicia beginning with zero at the left end
vided with suitable frictional retention in order to main
of the scale. The above-mentioned scale member 3 is
tain it at any angular position to which it is set, which
of transitional character, being both swingable and trans
may be accomplished by predetermined tightness of riv
lationally movable, and is pivoted at 9 proximate to its
eting or by a spring washer as above described for pivot
lower end to a rider or mounting 14a which is. composed
9, or otherwise. Said solely swingable member 2 has
of a top plate or leg 6a that overlaps the lower end por
as a T-square when at the 90° position.
In order to
3,083,901
tion of transitional scale member 3 so as to receive said
that repetition of that description is deemed unnecessary.
pivot 9, and extends therefrom substantially to the x-scale
Likewise the arcuate R-scale centered at the axis of pivot
»13 f_or the solely swinga-ble member 2 is the same as
heretofore described so that repetition will .be here
omitted. Frictional detaining means is provided in con
line x where it bends toward «the basal plate to provide
a lip 15 the lower edge-of which rides .close to said scale.
An indicia line y' extends -from the center of pivot 910
said lip and dow-nwardly on-the lip so as to lenable »read-y
junction with each pivotal mounting.
'
The computer as above described is capable of solving
setting and to avoid parallax »in doing so. A cross-piece
various problems of which several may be outlined for
a fuller understanding ofthe utility of the invention. For
extend longitudinally thereof -beneath the full width -of 10 instance, to obtain the length of hypotenuse C and angle
a of a right triangle, given the length of its ,legs A and
top plate or leg 6a. Presence and-thickness of this lcross
B, the indicia y’ of the lrider is set on 'the x-scale at a
piece or spacer 5a elevates the swingable and transla
reading corresponding to `the length of leg given in the
tional scale member 3 sufficiently above -the surface of
problem, namely distance A from the Zero reading of
the base plate 20 to enable said scale member «to over
ride the solely swingable sc-ale member Z as required 15 that scale. Scale member 3 is placed in its right-angle
position with respect to theV x-scale. Solely swingable
1n use.
member 2 is swung on its pivot ‘13 to a position at which
Continuing description of FIGS. 9 and l0, attention
the hair line z thereon of its z-scale crosses the hair line
is called to »the fact that rider or mounting 14a is -con
y of the y-scale at exactly the reading on the said
structed to >have slidable and guided engagement with
liixed scale 4a by making suitable contact with the longi 20 y-,scale corresponding to the length B given as one of the
known parameters of the problem. Reading on the z
tudinal edges of slot v16. One means of accomplish
scale at the point of crossing of the ,hair-lines may then
ment of this purpose, is to provide tubular or other posts
be read directly as solution/for the length C of hypot
17 near the side edges of the -rider Vand projecting from
enuse desired, and the angle a can be directly read on
the top of top plate or »leg 6a and from the bottom of
the arcuate scale R where crossed by the hair-line z of
said cross-piece or spacer 5a and held inplace by press
or `spacer 5a underlies leg 6a »next to said lip and has
adequate dimensions so as to straddle the slot 16 -and
fit, screw threads -or otherwise.
the solely swingable member. The -length C will of
With 4the rider posi- '
course 'be in the same units as the units of measure given
tioned either side up, the said posts therefore provide
protruding ends of which a >pair will be located in said
in the problem yfor legs represented by lengths A and B.
slot 16 and of commensurate dimension therewith for
,In a similar manner, given any two parameters of a right
sliding engagement with both edges of the slot. Snap 30 triangle, solution for the remaining two lmay »be readily
obtained by my improved computer.
buttons ZZ'may be inserted in the ends of the posts that
Another use for this computer, ,is to perform multipli
are riding in said slot to maintain the posts therein both
cation, and for explanation, Yreference is Vhere vmade to
while sliding and when the rider is located at its desired
FIGURES 3 and 4. >In this type of calculation, rider
position along the iixed scale. -Frictional means-in the
nature of spring washers, conveniently comprised of 35 14 is first set at 10 on the x-scale for always first estab
lishing a factor of 10. That havingV been done, reading
plastic strips 19, may be included under the heads of
of the multiplier as given by the problem is the distance
the snap buttons to retain the _rider from inadvertent
B on the y-scale, and as a speci-tic example Alet >us say
sliding when once positioned where desired, and also to
enable the user to pry the button loose when occasion
that tbe problem calls for ten as the multiplier, which
40 ymeans in this instance, B is equal to ten, so Anow the z
arises for inverting the rider on the base plate.
scale of the solely swingable member Z is swung `to a
it will be recognized, by the construction shown in
position where 4its hair-line crosses the hair-line of the
FIGS. 9 and l0, that the rider is slidable in parallelism
y-scale at distance B, namely for this problem on scale
to iixed scale line x, and that the center of pivoting of
scale member 3 will be moved along a hypothetical line
x’ paralleling said scale line. It is preferable to establish
reading of ten on the y-scale.
in manufacture such a relationship that when the rider `
14a is as far to the left as it will go, the left-end lpost
for Vthis lparticularproblem is 45°, The s_olely swingable
»17 then engages the left end of slot 16, and the indicia
line y’ on the rider will then register precisely with the
is moved to a distance M (FIG. 4) on the x-scale equal
zero reading on the fixed x-scale.
This of course sets the
solely swingablepmem‘ber 2 at a deíinite angle a which
member ~is then heldvfastat that angle and the rider 14
Vto .the numerical value of the multiplicand >given in the
problem which is here designated asilive for ¿an example.
If so desired, the zero
The answer or >product is then >read ñas_ten times the read
ing of distance P on the y-Scale where its hair-line y
again crosses the hair-line; of the sloping z-scale, so it
Scale line may be extended upwardly of plate 2d a-s a
hair line y’" perpendicular to scale -line x, this arrange
ment being conducive to setting the swingable scale
any stop for locating the swingable member 3 at »such
a perpendicular position, and that said member may be
will be found »for the lparticular problem here given, Vthat:
P is equal to tive and vthe `answer sought is `live, times
the factor of ten, which _of course is fifty.
The fact that multiplication is performed can be dem
onstrated mathematically through the geometry of similar
swung to any desired angle from» ° to 180°, namely,-from
triangles. Hence, by geometry, they following mathe
juxtaposition with line x’ at the left of pivot 94 upward
and across yits 90° position, and downward through the
remaining part of »the 180° angle to register with said
line x’ at the right of the pivotï9. To the rear of sheet
20‘ is cementedelongated member 18 as shown in FIG.
matical .relation is true:
members veryaccurately at right-angle positions relative
to »theñxed scale.
It is appropriate to here `observe that
»in this speciíic showing, the rider 14a does not provide
1(1), running the full length of thefsheet to thereby provide
a mechanical structure-for laying out work. Also, mernber 1S lifts sheet >29 to enable rivet head 13 toclear the
"
surface on which the computer rests. This corresponds
By ,a procedure similar `to the` above, division may be
to the showingk in FIG. 6 wherein metal strip »11, in addi
performed. -For example, if the Vdividend of fifty and
tion to its yother functions, lifts sheet -1 «to enable rivet 70 divisor of ten were given data, then, _as in multiplication,
rider 14 _would be yset on the x-scale at the reading of the
head 8 -from the surface on which Ythe „computer rests.
factor, of ten, namely at position of distance A, after which
The construction and attachment of the solely swing
_the solely swingable member 4would >be swung to bring
able scale member f2 providing the z-scale as illustrated
in FIGS. 9 vand l0gis in agreement with the description
of the `showing thereof in preceding ligures herein, so
itshair-line z to cross hair-line y at the dist-ance B repre
senting the numerical value of the divisor in» therproblem,
aosaeoi
‘ï
namely in this case, to the ten digit on the y-scale. ri'his
establishes angle oc for the sloping member which is
maintained as the rider is next moved to position of one
tenth on the x-scale of the dividend in the problem, and
as that has been given as fifty, the rider is set at reacting
tive or distance M on the scale. Then the quotient may
be read on the y-scale where the z hair line crosses and
which -is the distance P in the drawing and is the answer
sought, which in this particular problem is the amount
of five.
ln addition to the examples of uses given above the
improved computer of this invention has other uses such
as solution of oblique triangles, checking results of tri
gonometric problems that have been solved by another
method, and for other 4utilitarian purposes which will be
come evident to mathematicians, engineers, teachers,
S
y-scale member pivotally mounted on said rider between
the under face of said rider and facial area of said plate
and translationally movable with said rider with its pivot
center above said area and otlset laterally at a constant
Ídistance from. said straight edge margin, a solely pivoted
z-scale member having its pivot center fixed on said basal
plate on said facial area thereof oifset laterally at a
distance from said straight edge margin the same as said
constant lateral olfset distance of the y-scale pivot from
said straight edge margin and on Va line perpendicular to
vthe said x-scale from the Zero reading of said .r-scale,
yand an arcuate scale on said basal plate facial area cen
tered thereon at the said pivot center of said solely
swingable z-scale member.
2. A computer in accordance with claim l, wherein
said y-seale member and said z-scale member are trans
`students and others versed in the art to which it appertains.
parent throughout the lengths and breadths thereof and
As a final observation, it will be ‘found to enhance ease
wherein longitudinal and transverse scale markings are
and accuracy of readings, to enscribe the scales that
provided on the surfaces of each ywhich are normally in
cross each other with different colors, for example, the 20 «Contact with each other when one member crosses 'the
arcuate scale R might be enscribed with black inlt, the z
-other thereby avoiding parallax in making settings and
scale with green ink, and the y-scale with red ink.
readings involving both of said scales and affording full
An additional feature of computer shown in FlGURES
view of the crossing portions of said scale markings of
l5 and 6, is the alnico V magnet 2l attached to the base ,
`both of said scale members.
of member 14. To enable cross-piece S to be drawn to
3. A computer in accordance with claim l, wherein
edge as it is slid along straight edge of the fixed scale
said swingable and translational member has its pivotal
member d, member 11 cemented underneath member ii
mounting at an elevation above said basal plate and at
is strip of ferrous metal. Thus, member 1i not only lifts
an elevation higher than the pivot of said solely pivoted
base of mem-ber 11 suñieiently to enable rivet head to clear
scale member whereby said translational member is
surface on which computer rests, but also enables it to 30 movable both to a position of juxtaposition of its pivot
be magnetically attracted to the permanently magnetized
center to the center of said arcuate scale and to position
magnet 21. In FIGURE 5 the semi-circular magnet is
of superposition in axial alignment with said pivot center
shown centrally located at base of member id and having
of the solely swingable member.
the same thickness as leg 5. lts diameter lies in the
4. A computer in accordance with claim 2, wherein
plane of the bottom edge of the cross-piece or foot 5. 35 said rider provides a projection on its reverse side enabl
Now when vfoot 5 is slid along the straight edge of the
ing said rider to be applied either face up on said basal
iixed scale member 4, the magnetic pull oi the strong
alnico magnet will cause base of cross-piece 5 to be con
strained to continually ride against the straight edge.
plate and in both positions to have sliding engagement
with said straight edge.
‘
5. A computer of the character described, comprising
The alnico V magnet could have other dimensions 40 a basal plate having a top face providing a facial area,
and shapes than the semi-circular shape shown. For
an x-scale member extending across ysaid basal plate
example, it could be an elongated or a rectangular magnet
providing a straight edge margin located in contact with
fastened to the center section of the foot. Also it could
and projecting upwardly from said facial area and ter
be two rectangular, two circular or semi-circular pieces
minating said »facial area thereat, a rider having sliding
fastened to the lower ends of the foot.
45 guided engagement against said facial area and having
The innovation of introducing the feature of magnetic
a foot edge slidable against and guided by said straight
attraction between two metallic materials for constrain
edge margin, a swingable and translational y-scale mem
ing the motion of the y-scale’s base along a straight edge
ber pivotally mounted on said rider and in normal posi
could also be an added feature of a mechanical corn
tion projecting beneath the under face of said rider be
puter in which y-scale member 3 is fixed to leg 6 and foot 50 tween said under Aface of the rider and facial area or"
5 so that a fixed 90° angle is maintained between hair.
said plate and translationally movable with said rider
line of members 3 and base of member 6. lt will be
with its pivot center above said area and offset laterally
apparent from the construction described, that both the
to a position over said area at a constant distance from
ferrous metal member v11 of FIG. 6 and corresponding
said straight edge margin, a solely pivoted z-scale mem
member l1’8 of FIG. 10 on the reverse or under face of 55 ber having its pivot center ñxed on said basal plate on
plate or sheet 1 and Ztl respectively, are usable as straight
the facial area thereof and oiîset laterally at a distance
edges if the user chooses to employ the said plate with
thereon from said straight edge margin the same as said
its reve'i'se side upward for laying out work. When using
constant lateral offset distance of the y-scale pivot from
the rider 14 in conjunction with use of the reverse face
said straight edge margin and on a line perpendicular to
of said plate and said straight edge as a mechanical 60 said x-scale from the zero reading of said x-scale, and
structure for laying out work and for solutions with
an arcuate scale on said basal plate facial area centered
delineations at desired angles and of prescribed lengths,
thereon at the said pivot center of said solely swingable
the foot 5 of said rider M» will be magnetically attracted
z-scale member.
to said member v11 by magnet 2l.
6. A computer of the character described, comprising
65 a basal plate having a top face and a longitudinal slot
l. A computer of the character described, comprising
therein extending across said face and providing a straight
a basal plate providing a top facial area and having an .r
edge, an x-scale on said top face proximate and parallel
scale extending across said plate proximate to the bottom
to said slot on said top face, a rider having guided slid
edge thereof and directed toward said facial area, means
ing engagement against said top face and having means
in parallelism to said x-scale inwardly on said area from 70 slidable against and guided by said straight edge, a swing
said bottom edge and providing a straight edge margin in
a-ble and translational y-scaie member pivotally mounted
a plane perpendicular to and intercepting said area
on and ti‘anslationally movable with said rider with its
throughout the length of said margin, a rider having
pivot center over said face and offset laterally from said
slidable guided engagement both on said area and against
slot at a constant distance from said straight edge, a
said straight edge margin, a swingable and translational
:solely pivoted z-scale member having its pivot center
3,083,901
10
fixed on said basal plate on said face thereof and offset
laterally from said slot at a distance -frorn said straight
the vertical scale at the value of the multiplicand and
while keeping the radial member Íìxed the vertical mem
edge the same as and in the same direction as said constant
ber is slid so that its reference line crosses the value of
oiîset distance of the y-.scale pivot from said straight edge
the horizontal scale corresponding to the multiplier,
thereby indicating the product as ten times the value on
the vertical scale when intersected by the reference line
of the radial member.
10. A device orp the character described, comprising a
basal plate having a flat -face provided with a superposed
and on a line perpendicular to the said »scale from the
Zero reading of the x-scale, and an arcuate scale on said
top face of the 4basal plate thereon at the said pivot center
of said solely swingable z-scale member.
7. A computer in accordance ywith claim 6, wherein
said means projects from opposite faces of said rider lO straight edge near to and parallel with but facing in a
and selectably insertable and slidable in said slot for en
direction opposite from direction of one edge of said
abling said rider and y-scale mem-ber pivoted thereto to
flat face, a rider having sliding engagement against said
be used either side up.
8. A computer comprising a basal plate, an x-scale
member of material magnetically non-attractive secured to
face and provided with a foot with an edge slidable
against said straight edge, a permanent magnet carried
by said foot for maintaining contact between said rider
foot and said straight edge, and a magnetically attractive
strip proximate to ‘but spaced from said magnet when
:said plate and providing a straight edge directed inwardly
of -said plate at the top thereof, a rider mounted for
guided sliding movement against said edge, a y-scale
the magnet is attracted toward the same as to maintain
mem-ber pivoted to said rider a predetermined distance
the magnet out of contact from said strip during en
inwardly of said plate from said straight edge, a z~scale 20 gagement of the foot with said straight edge for permitting
member pivoted to said platek inwardly thereor" at the'
sliding of said foot on said straight edge.
same predetermined distance from said straight edge as
11. A device in accordance with claim 10, wherein
said pivoting of the y-scale member therefrom, a per
said strip is located underneath said plate at the part
manent magnet carried by said rider directed toward said
thereof having the superposed straight edge.
x-scale member and straight edge, and a fixed metallic 25
12. A device of the character described comprising
member extending longitudinally of and proximate to and
otïset from said straight edge in a direction outwardly
a basal plate, a first scale member of non-magnetic ma~
terial ñxed with respect to said plate and providing a
therefrom so as to be out of Contact from said magnet
`straight edge parallel to and facing inwardly with respect
for maintaining slidable guided contact between said rider
to a proximate outer edge therebehind of said plate, a
and said straight edge during transitional setting of said 30 translationally movable second scale member having a
rider to desired scale setting along said x-scale member.
foot toward and slidable against said straight edge, a
9. A mechanical computer for multiplying two quanti
permanent magnet carried by said foot, and a magnetically
ties tby physically presenting triangular ccniigurations
attractive strip proximate to but offset from said straight
of a geometric problem, said computer comprising a base
edge in a direction away from said `foot and toward said
member containing a straight edge, an arcuate linearly 35 outer edge of the plate behind said straight edge, for
graduated scale and a linear horizontal scale with gradu~
maintaining contact between Said foot and straight edge
ations, a translationally movable member providing a
and at the same time retained out of contact from said
linear vertical scale and means including a permanent
magnet.
magnet and a cooperating metal element to which the
magnet is attracted for maintaining contact between the 40
References Cited in the file of this patent
bottom edge of said translationally movable member
UNITED STATES PATENTS
and said straight edge, non-magnetic means being pro
vided to maintain separation of said magnet and element
for permitting sliding of said movable member on said
straight edge, and a third member providing a radial 45
linear scale and pivoted at the center of curvature of
said arcuate scale, each said scale having a longitudinal
reference line and numbered graduations therealong;
whereby multiplication is performed by ñrst positioning
the member containing the vertical scale with its refer 50
ence line passing through the number ten graduation of
the horizontal scale of the base member and then posi
tioning the radial member so that its reference line crosses
200,060
875,783
Hitt ________________ __ Feb. 5, 1878
Cote ________________ _.. Jan. 7, 1908
1,639,580
Thompson __________ __ Aug. 16, 1927
Bolton ______________ __ NOV. 8, 1932
1,886,370
2,306,677
2,403,614
2,701,096
2,822,736
Ross ________________ __ July 9, 1946
133,577
Great Britain __________ __ Oct. 16, 1919
Ward ______________ __ Dec. 29, 1942
Wattier ______________ _.. Feb. 1, 1955
Padgett ______________ __ Feb. 1,1, 1958
FOREIGN PATENTS
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