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Патент USA US3084029

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t’ , if“ ‘it
a. a ‘a.
Apr. 2,
3 084 018
much higher temperatures required in the conventional
melt condcnsations used in preparing polyurethanes‘ For
example, in the usual Prepm?m of these Pdymm by
Robert E. Whit?eld and Lowell A. Miller, Walnut Creek,
and William L. Wasley, Berkeley, Calif., assignors to
the United States of America as represented by the
Secretary of Agriculture
No Drawing. Filed Mar. 29, 19611, ?er. No. 99,319
melt procedures, temperatures of over 200° C. are cus
tomarily employed.
As noted above, the treatment in accordance with
the invention renders the treated wool essentially shrink
proof so that garments produced from the treated wool
may be laundered in conventional soap and water or de
19 Claims. (Cl. 8-125}
(Granted under Title 35, US. Code (1952), see. 266)
10 tergent and water formulations with negligible shrink
ing or felting. Further, the treated Wool or garments
A non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free license in the
prepared therefrom are in the “easy-care” category in
invention herein described, throughout the world for all
that after washing and tumble drying, they are quite
purposes of the United States Government, with the
free from wrinkles so that they require only a minor
power to grant sublicenses for such purposes, is hereby
amount of pressing. An important point to be stressed
granted to the Government of the United States of 15 is that the shrinkproo?ng effect is secured without dam
age to the hand of the fabric. That is, the treated fabric
A principal object of this invention is the provision of
retains its normal hand so that it is useful for all the
new methods for shrinkproo?ng wool. Another object
conventional applications in fabricating garments as is
of the invention is the provision of the novel products so
produced. Further objects and advantages of the inven
tion will be obvious from the following description where
in parts and percentages are by weigh-t unless otherwise
untreated wool.
Other items to be mentioned are that
the treatment does not cause any degradation of the wool
so that there is so signi?cant loss of tensile strength,
abrasion resistance, resiliency, elasticity, etc. Moreover,
since the polymer is formed in situ on the ?bers-4n con
In the prior art it is suggested that the shrinkage proper
trast to systems wherein polymers are spread en rnasse
ties of wool can be improved by applying to the wool 25 over the face of a fabric—there is substantially no loss
?bers a high molecular weight polyamide such as poly
of porosity of the fabric. A further item is that the
hexamethylene adipamide or similar polyamide of the
treated wool may be dyed with conventional wool dyes
nylon type. This is accomplished in the following man
to obtain brilliant level dyeings.
ner: The selected polyamide is ?rst converted into sol
A particular feature of the invention and one that em
uble form, for example, by forming an N-methylol deriv 30 phasizes its simplicity is that no heat~curing step is re
ative thereof. The N-methylol derivative is applied to
quired. Following application of the two solutions, the
the wool and the treated wool is then immersed in hy
textile merely needs to be rinsed or washed. Then, after
drochloric acid whereby the N-methylol polyamide is con
drying, it is ready for use or sale.
verted to the unsubstituted polyamide. A primary dis
The invention is applicable to wool in any physical
advantage of this known process is that it is cumbersome 35 form, for example, bulk ?bers, slivers, rovings, yarns,
and ine?icient because it requires procurement of a pre‘
formed polyamide, conversion of this to a soluble form,
and ?nal reconversion to an insoluble form. Particular
trouble is encountered in the last step where extended
contact with acid is required to insolubilize the coating
of N-methylol polyamide. Unless this acid treatment is
complete, the polyamide will remain soluble and be re
moved from the textile when it is washed.
In accordance with this invention, a pro-formed poly
felts, woven textiles, knitted textiles, or even completed
garments or garment parts.
A remarkable feature of the invention is that the poly
mers formed on the wool ?bers are not merely physical
coatings; they are chemically bonded to the wool, that is,
the added polymer is grafted onto the wool. The mecha
nism by which the graft polymerization occurs is believed
to involve a reaction of functional groups on the bis
chloroformate with the free ‘amino or hydroxy groups
mer is not used but a polyurethane is formed in situ on
present in the wool molecule, these reactions giving rise to
the wool ?bers. This is accomplished by serially apply
ing to the wool the complementary agents required to
such linkages as urethane or carbonate, which chemically
unite the wool with the polymer. Thus the products of
form the polyurethane, these agents—in the preferred
the invention can be postulated by the following idealized
modi?cation of the invention—being dissolved in mu
tually-immiscible solvents. Thus in a typical embodi 50 formulas:
ment of the invention the wool is ?rst impregnated with
an ‘aqueous solution of a diamine and then impregnated
with a solution of a bischloroformate in a water-immis
cible solvent such as carbon tetrachloride. Generally,
the solutions are applied in the order given above, how- '
ever, the reverse order gives good results and it is within
the ambit of the invention to apply the solutions in either
sequence. By serial application of these solutions to the
In the above formulas, W represents the polypeptide chain
fabric, each ?brous element is coated with a two~phase
system, for example, an inner layer of diamine in water 60 of the wool, containing prior to the reaction, free amino
(—-NH2) or free hydroxy (-—OH) groups. R and R’
and an outer layer of bischloroformate in water-immis
are bivalent organic radicals (representing in this case the
cible solvent. Under these conditions the diamine and
residues of the diamine and bischloroformate, respective
bischloroformate react almost instantaneously at the in
ly) and n represents the number of polyurethane repeating
terface between the phases, producing in situ on the ?bers
a high molecular weight resinous polyurethane which
The above formulas are obviously simpli?ed and ideal
coats the ?bers and renders them shrinkproof. The poly
ized as the polyurethane chains may be attached at both
mer formed is insoluble so that the shrinkproo?ng effect
their ends to a single wool molecule or they may cross
is durable; it is retained even after repeated washings
link together different wool molecules through urethane
A feature of the invention is that the high molecular 70 or carbonate linkages. The important point from a prac
tical and realistic view is that chemical bonding of the
weight resinous polyurethanes are formed at ordinary
polyurethane to the wool has been demonstrated and the
(room) temperature, which is in sharp contrast to the
with soap and water or detergent and Water formulations.
theoretical nature of the mechanism of bonding is not of
real concern to the invention.
It will be evident from the description herein that the
invention is of great latitude and versatility and can be
employed for forming on and grafting to wool ?bers a
wide variety of condensation polymers, particularly and
preferably those condensation polymers wherein the re
curring structures contain at least one urethane group,
that is, a group of the structure
wherein Z is sulphur or oxygen.
ponent A and Component B—-are serially applied to the
textile dispersed in solvents which are substantially
mutually immiscible. The nature of the solvents is of
no consequence as long as they are essentially inert and
possess the above-stated property of substantial immisci
bility. Usually volatile solvents are preferred as they
may be removed from the treated textile by evaporation.
However, non-volatile solvents can be used, in which
case they may be removed from the product by extraction
10 with suitable volatile solvents therefor or washed out
with soap and water or detergent and water formulations.
In many cases the ingredients of Component A are solu
ble in water and may thus be applied to the textile in
aqueous solution. In such case the solvent for Com
General Considerations
15 ponent B may be any inert, essentially water-immiscible
organic solvent. Typical illustrative examples thereof
In the practice of the invention, selection is ?rst made
are benzene, toluene, xylene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl
of the appropriate complementary agents——herein termed
ene dichloride, chloroform, hexane, octane, petroleum
Component A and Component B—required to form the
ether or other volatile petroleum fraction. It is, how
desired polymer on the wool ?bers. The interrelationship
between the nature of the agents to be used as Components 20 ever, not essential that Component A be employed in
aqueous solution. Thus, one may utilize a system of two
A and B and the type of polymer produced is explained
essentially immiscible organic solvents, Component A be
in detail below in connection with the various modi?ca
ing dispersed in one solvent and Component B in the
tions of the invention. However, it is apropos to men
other. As an example, Component A may be dispersed
tion at this point that Component A may be a diamine or
a mixture of different diamines and Component B may be 25 in 2-bromoethyl acetate and Component B dispersed in
a bischloroformate or a mixture of different bischloro
benzene. Another example involves using formamide,
dimethylformamide, or diethylformamide as the solvent
for Component A and using n»hexyl ether as the solvent
for Component B. A further example involves a system
ponents may be aptly termed as complementary organic
polyurethane-forming intermediates. They may further 30 of adiponitrile as the solvent for Component A and ethyl
ether as the solvent for Component B. Examples of
be appropriately designated as fast-reacting‘ or direct-acting
other pairs of solvents which are substantially immiscible
because they form the resinous polyurethanes rapidly and
formates. Since components A and B may be selected to
form any desired type of urethane polymer, these com
directly on contact without requiring any after-treatments,
such as treatment with curing agents, oven cures, etc.
with one another and which may be used for preparing
the solutions of the respective reactants are 2-bromo
Having selected the desired Components A ‘and B, these 35 ethyl acetate and n-hexyl ether, ethylene glycol diacetate
are formed into separate solutions for application to the
and n-hexyl ether, adiponitrile and n-butyl ether, adipo
wool to be treated.
nitrile and carbon tetrachloride, benzonitrile and form
An essential consideration in the
amide, n-butyl ether and formamide, di-N-propyl aniline
preferred modi?cation of the invention is that the solvents
used in the respective solutions of‘ Components A and B 40 and formamide, isoamyl sulphide and formamide, ben
zene and formamide, butyl acetate and formamide, ben
be substantially mutually immiscible so that a liquid-liquid
zene and nitromethane, n-butyl ether and nitromethane,
interface will be set up between the two solutions on the
carbon tetrachloride and formamide, dimethyl aniline
wool ?bers. Thus, for example, Component A is dissolved
and formamide, ethyl benzoate and formamide.
in water and Component B is dissolved in benzene, carbon
Moreover, the solvents used for Component A may
tetrachloride, toluene, xylene, ethylene dichloride, chloro
form, hexane, octane, petroleum ether or other volatile 45 contain hydroxy groups. Because amine groups are so
much more reactive than hydroxy groups, there will be
petroleum distillate, or any other inert water-immiscible
little if any interference by reaction of the hydroxy
solvent. The two solutions are then applied to the wool
groups of the solvent with the active agents of Com
serially, that is, the wool is treated ?rst with one solution
ponent B, particularly if the solutions of the reactants are
then with the other. The order of ‘applying the solutions
is not critical. Generally, the solution of Component A 50 at ordinary temperatures. In such event, then, solvent
pairs of the following types may be employed: Diethyl—
is applied ?rst and the solution of Component B is applied
ene glycol monomethyl ether‘and n-hexyl ether, diethyl
next; however, the reverse order gives. good results and it
ene glycol monoethyl ether and n-hexyl ether, 2-ethyl
is within the ambit of the invention to apply the solutions
hexanol and adiponitrile, isoamyl alcohol and adipo
in either sequence.
The solutions may be applied to the wool in any desired 55 nitrile, glycerol and acetone, capryl alcohol and form
amide, ethylene glycol and benzonitrile, diacetone alco
way as long as they are applied serially. A preferred
hol and di~N-propylaniline, Z-ethylhexanol and form
method involves immersing the wool in one solution, re
amide, triethylene glycol and benzyl ether.
moving excess liquid as by use of squeeze rolls, immers
ing the wool with the second solution, again removing
The concentration of active materials (Component A
excess liquid, rinsing the treatedfabric in water and then 60 and Component B) in the respective solutions is not criti~
cal and may be varied widely. Generally, it is preferred
drying it. Conventional. ‘apparatus consisting of tanks,
that each of the pair of solutions contains about from 1
padding rolls, squeeze rolls and the like are generally used
in applying the respective solutions. The amount of each
solution applied to the textile may be varied by altering
the residence time in the solutions, the pressure exerted
by the squeeze rolls and by varying the concentration of
the active materialsin the respective solutions. To de
to 20% of the respective active component. In applying
the process of the invention, enough of the respective
solutions are applied to the wool to give a polymer de
posit on the ?bers of about 1 to 10%. Such amounts
provide a substantial degree of shrinkproo?ng with no
signi?cant reduction in hand of the wool. Greater
crease carry-over ofthe solvent ‘from the ?rst treating solu
amounts of polymer may be deposited on the ?bers if
tion to thesecond solution, the wool after its immersion
but tend to change the natural hand of the wool.
in the ?rst solution may be subjected'to drying conditions
Also, thicker deposits are likely to contain substantial
such as a current of warm air to concentrate the solution
amounts of non-grafted polymer. The relative amounts
carriedby the wool.
of Component A and Component B applied to the wool
As noted above, a critical factor in the preferred form
may be varied as desired for individual circumstances.
of the invention is that the complementary-agents—Com
Generally, it is preferred to apply the components in
equimolar proportions, that is, the amounts are so se
lected that there are the same number of functional
groups provided by Component A as provided by the
functional groups of Component B.
ponent A-—dispersed in an inert volatile solvent. The
wool is then subjected to drying as by subjecting it to a
current of hot air. The wool ?bers which are now cov
ered with a deposit of the ?rst component in a solid state,
are then impregnated with the complementary agent
It is often desirable to add reaction promoters or cat Cl
Component B, in this case, dispersed in an inert, prefer
alysts to either of the solutions of Components A or B
ably volatile solvent. In this Way the ?bers are layered
in order to enhance reaction between the active agents.
with a superposed system of solid Component A and a
For example, it is desirable to add to either of the solu
solution of Component B. Under these conditions po
tions, preferably to the solution of Component A, a suf
takes place rapidly forming the polymer in
?cient amount of alkaline material to take up the HCl 10 situ on the ?bers and ‘grafted thereto. ‘In this system it
formed in the reaction. For such purpose one may use
is not essential that the respective solvents be immiscible.
a tertiary amine such as pyridine, dimethyl aniline, or
Thus, for example, Component A may be applied in water
quinoline or an alkali-metal hydroxide, or, more prefera
solution and Component B in a water-miscible solvent
bly, an alkaline material with buffering capacity such
such as dioxane or acetone. A typical example of prac
as sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, trisodium 15 ticing this modi?cation involves immersing the wool in
phosphate, borax, etc. Another plan which may be used
involves supplying the diamine in excess so that it will
act both as a reagent and as an HCl-acceptor.
The re
an aqueous solution of a diamine and an HCl-acceptor,
removing the wool from the solution, squeezing it through
rolls to remove excess liquid, subjecting it to a draft of
action of Components A and B may also be catalyzed
[hot air until the wool is dry to the touch (about 10-20%
by addition of such agents as tributyl tin chloride, stan
moisture in the impregnated wool) and then immersing
nous tartrate, ferric chloride, titanium tetrachloride,
the Wool in a solution of a bischloroformate dissolved in
boron trifluoride-diethyl ether complex, or tin salts of fat
an inert, volatile solvent. The wool is then removed
acids such as tin laurate, myristate, etc.
from this second bath, squeezed through rollers to remove
Where one of the solutions of the reactants contains
excess water, rinsed, and dried in
Although this sys
water as the solvent, it is often desirable to incorporate 25 tem is operative, it is not a preferred technique because
a minor proportion of a surface-active agent to aid in
the polymerization at the solid-liquid interface is slower
dispersing the reactant and to assist in penetration of the
and less uniform in degree of polymerization and the de
solution into the textile. For this purpose one may use
gree of shrinkproo?ng afforded to the wool per unit
such agents as sodium alkyl (Ca-C18) sulphates, the sodi
weight of polymer formed on the ?bers is less than with
um alkane (C8—C18) sulphonates, the sodium alkyl
the system of mutually-immiscible,solutions.
(C8—C20) benzene sulphonates, esters of sulphosuccinic
acid such as sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate, and soaps,
typically sodium salts of fat acids. Emulsifying agents
of the non-ionic type are suitable, for example, the re
As noted brie?y above, the selection of Components A
and B depends on the type of polymer desired to be
action products of ethylene oxide with fatty acids, with 35 formed on the wool ?ber and grafted thereto. Typical
polyhydric alcohols, with partial esters of fatty acids and
examples of compounds which can be employed as Com
polyhydric alcohols or with alkyl phenols, etc. Typical
[ponent A in a practice of the invention are described
of such agents are a polyoxyethylene stearate containing
about 20 oxyethylene groups per mole, a polyoxyethylene
As the diamine one may employ any of the aromatic,
ether of sorbitan monolaurate containing about 16 oxy
aliphatic, or heterocyclic compounds containing two pri
ethylene groups per mole, a distearate of polyoxyethylene
mary or secondary amine groups, preferably separated
ether of sorbitol containing about 40 oxyethylene groups
by at least two carbon atoms. The diamines may be sub
per mole, iso-octyl phenyl ether of polyethylene glycol,
stituted if desired with various non-interfering (non
etc. Generally, only a small proportion of surface-ac
functional) substituents such as ether radicals, thioether
tive agent is used, on the order of 0.05 to 0.5%, based on 45 radicals, tertiary amino groups, sulphone groups, ?uorine
the weight of the solution. In addition to, or in place
atoms, etc. Typical compounds in this category are
of the surface-active agent, a supplementary solvent may
listed below merely by way of illustration ‘and not by way
be added to the primary solvent (water) in quantity suf
of limitation: Ethylene diamine, trimethylene diamine,
ficient to disperse the active reactant. 'For such purpose
tetramethylene diamine, hexamethylene ‘diamine, octa
one may employ acetone, or other inert volatile solvent, 50 methylene diamine, decamethylene diamine, N,N'~dimeth
particularly one that is at least partially miscible with
yl-l,3-propanediamine, 1,2-diamino-2-methylpropane, 2,7
water. It is evident that the solutions of Components A
diamino-2,6-dimethyloctane, N,N'-dime-thyl-1,6ehexanedi
and B need not necessarily be true solutions; they may be
amine, 1,4-diamino cyclohexane, 1,4-bis (aminomethyl)
colloidal solutions, emulsions, or suspensions, all these
cyclohexane, 2,2’-diaminodiethyl ether, 2,2'-diaminodi
being considered as solutions for the purposes of the 55 ethyl sulphide, bis (4-aminocyclohexyl) methane, N,N'
present invention.
Ordinarily, the treatment of the wool with the solutions
dimethyl - 2,2,3,3,4,4 - hexa?uoropentane - 1,5 - diamine,
ortho-, meta-, or para-phenylene diamine, benzidine, xylyl
ene diamine, rn-toluylene diamine, ortho-tolidine, pipera
zinc, and the like. If desired, mixtures of different di
place very rapidly, that is, in a matter of a minute or 60 amines may be used. It is generally preferred to use
less. If, however, a higher rate of polymerization is de
aliphatic alpha, omega diarnines, particularly of the type
sired—-as in continuous operation on long lengths of
cloth-the second solution may be kept hot, for example,
of the complementary agents is carried out at room tem
perature as at such temperature the polymerization takes
at a temperature up to around 150° C.
wherein n has a value of 2 to 12, preferably 6 to 10.
As has been explained above, in the preferred modi? 65 Typical examples of compounds which can be em
cation of the invention the solutions of Components A
ployed as Component B in a practice of the invention are
and B—-the complementary condensation polymer-formin g
described below.
intermediates—are serially applied to the wool in the
As the bischloroformate one may use any of the ali
form of mutually-immiscible solutions to provide a liquid
aromatic, or heterocyclic compounds containing
liquid interface between the solutions as they are serially 70
laid onto the ?bers. In a less preferred modi?cation of
the invention, a system is used which utilizes a solid-liquid
two chloroformate groups
interface. Such a system is established in the following
way: The wool is ?rst impregnated with a solution of
one of the complementary agents-—for example, Com 75 preferably separated by 'at least two carbon atoms. The
bischloroformates maybe substituted if desired with non
chloroformate. A typical example of procedure in this
interfering (non-functional) substituentssuch as sulphone
groups, ether groups, thioether groups, etc.
area would be. to use as Component A a prepolymer of
Typical ex
the type
amples of compounds in this category are listed below
merely, by way of illustration and not ‘limitation: Ethylene
glycol bischloroformate, diethylene glycol bischlorofor
mate, 2,2-dimethyl propane 1,3-diol .bischloroformate,
propane-1,3-diol- 'bischloroformate, butane-1,4-diol bis
and to use as Component B a bischloroformate
chloroformate, , hexane-1,6-diol bischloroformate, octane
1,,8-diol bischloroformate, decaneJ?O-diol bischlorofor 10 thus to produce a polymer containing repeating units of
the type
mate, bIltane-LZ-dioL 'bischlorofonnate, hexane-1,2-diol
bischloroformate, 2 -methoxyglycerol - 1,3 - bischlorofor
mate, glycerol-1,Z-bischloroformate, glycerol-1,3-bischlo
rotor-mate, diglycerol bischloroformate,v hexanetriol his?
chloroformate, pentaerythritol bischloroformate, cyclo
hexaneJA-diol bischloroformate, hydroquinone, bischlo
roformate, resorcinol bischloroformate, catechol bischlo:
rofofrmate, bischloroformate of‘ 2,2 - bis(parahydroxy
phenyl)‘ propane, bischloroformate of. 2,2-bis(pa-rahyr
droxyphenyl) butane, bischloroformate of 4,-4’-dihydroxy
'benzophenone, bischloroformate of 1,2+bis(:parahydroxy
phenyl) ethane,’ naphthalene-1,5-diol bischloroformate,
(In these formulas, R, R’, and R" represent bivalent or
ganic radicals.)
Inlthe alternative, one may prepare a prepolymer con
taining internal urethane units and external
Such:a prepolymer used as Component B in
conjunction with adiarnine-as Component A would yield
biphenyl-4,4’-diol bischloroformate, etc. If. desired, mix
a polyurethane similar to that shown above.
tures of different bischloroformates may be used.
Among-the preferred compoundsare the-aliphatic bis
chloroformates, fort example, those of the type:
—NH~R—NH— —O—R’-O- —NH-R‘NH—C—O—R”-O~ -
It is evident .frorn'theforegoing description that there
25 is a very wide choice available in the selection of the
complementary agents (diamine and bischloroformate)
wherein n hasa, value from.2 to’ 12. Another preferred 30
category of compounds are the bis-chloroformates de
so'that generically. the- polyurethanes deposited on the
wool and’ grafted thereto willcontain repeating units of
the type
rived from polyethylene-glycols, e.g.,
wherein nshas a value from zero_to_10,. A useful category
35 wherein-R and 1R’ are bivalent’organic radicals; Z repre
sents an-oxygenor sulphur atom; and the x’s taken sep
arately represent two hydrogen atoms or two monovalent
organic radicals, or, taken together the x’s represent a
single bivalent organic radical which links the two nitro
gen atoms to which they are‘attached.
of, aromatic, bischloroformatesare:the. bisphenol chloro
formates, that is, compounds of the type:
0 R!Dig
(Jr-QI 0_
‘ o
In the preferredlmodi?cations of the invention, Z is
0 I]; -0l
oxygen;- R- and.R-’ represent bivalent’hydrocarbon' radi
cals or‘ bivalent hydrocarbonlradicals interrupted by in
ternal ether (—-0-‘-) linkages and 'x is hydrogen. In the
represents an- aliphatic‘ hydrocar
bon group containing 1 to 12 carbon atomsand Rf ishy
drogen or. a low alkyl radical.
It; is also evident‘ that the‘. sulphur analogues of the
especially preferred modi?cations of the invention, the
reactants are so chosen that R and R’ represent bivalent
bischloroformates may be. used and such- are included
hydrocarbon radicals containing at least two carbon
within the ,spiritof the invention. Thus; instead ofusing
the compounds containing two‘
Coming under special condition particularly because of
exceptionally high shrink resistance imparted with a
very small proportion of polyurethane, are the use of the
following materials as-the complementary agents.
Component A: Xylylene diamines or aliphatic alpha,
omega diamines, particularly those of the type
groups one maynse any_.o£ the compounds containing the
sulphur analogues oflthese groups, for example,_the com
pounds containingtwogroups of the formula
wherein n has a value from 6 to 10.‘
whereintone Xis sulphur and the other is oxygen or
Component B: Ethylene glycol bischloroformate, di
ethylene glycol bischloroformate, ,orthe aliphatic alpha,
wherein bothX’svare sulphur. Moreover, although the 60. omega bischloroformates, particularly those of the type
bischloroformates. are?preferred because they are. reactive
and relatively inexpensive, it is not essential that’ they
contain chlorine and .onemay use the corresponding bis
bromoformates .or bisiodoformates.
wherein n has a value from 2 to 10.
Typical examples are the conjoint use of (A) metaxyl
Numerous variations of the basic procedure herein. de-v
scribed will suggest themselves to those skilled in the art 65 ylene diamine or hexamethylene diamine and (B) ethyl
> ene glycol bischloroformate, diethylene glycol bischloro
in the application of the invention without departing from
formate, or hexane-1,6-diol bischloroformate.
the fundamentals of the invention. Some of these varia
tions are explained below.
If desired, one may prepare a prepolymer containing‘ 70 The invention is further demonstrated by the following
internal urethane units and terminal amino groups; Such
illustrative examples.
prepolymers can be prepared, for example, in known man
Standard shrinkage test.-—The tests ‘for shrinkage re
ner by reacting a molar excess ofrdiamine with a bischloro
ferred to below were conducted in the following way:
formate. Theprepolyrner would then be used as Com
The wool samples were milled at 1700 r.p.m. for 2 min
ponent A while for Component B one would use a bis 75 utes at 40~42° C. in an Accelerotor with‘ 0.5% sodium
3,08 4,018
A 4% hexamethylene diamine in water and as solution
oleate solution, using a liquor-to-wool ratio of 50 to 1.
After this washing operation the samples were measured
B, a 3% solution of diethylene glycol bischloroformate
in carbon tetrachloride. The following results were ob
to determine their area and the shrinkage was calculated
from the original area. With this washing method, sam
ples of control (untreated) wool gave an area shrinkage
of 47%. The Accelerotor is described in the American
resin deposited
Dyestu? Reporter, vol. 45, p. 685, Sept. 10, 1956.
on wool, percent
A. A solution was prepared containing 2% of meta
xylylene diamine in water.
B. A solution was prepared containing 3%
glycol bischloroformate in benzene.
A sample of Wool cloth was immersed in solution A
4.0 ___________ __
3. 0
None (control).
47. 0
The process of Example 1 was repeated using as solu
for 30 seconds, run ‘through squeeze rolls to remove excess 15 tion A 2% hexamethylene diamine in water and as solu
liquid, immersed for 310 seconds in solution B, run through
tion B, a v3% solution of diethylene glycol bischloro
squeeze rolls to remove excess liquid, rinsed in water, and
formate in carbon tetrachloride. The following results
dried in air at room temperature. The treated wool had
were obtained:
a polyurethane resin uptake of 1.6% and on washing
exhibited an area shrinkage of 10.7%. These results are 20
resin deposited
tabulated below, together with the shrinkage of the un
‘treated wool sample:
on wool, percent
resin deposited
on wool, percent
1.6 ___________ __
10. 7
None (control).
2.8 ___________ _-
4. 0
None (control).
47. 0
The process of Example 1 was repeated using as solu
tion A 2% metaxylylene diamine in water and as solu
30 tion B, a 3% solution of diethylene glycol bischloro
tormate in benzene.
The procedure of Example 1 was repeated using as solu
tion A 3% ethylene glycol bischloroformate in benzene
The following results were ob
and as solution B, a 4% solution of hexamethylene dia
mine in water. The following results were obtained:
resin deposited
on w 001, percent
resin deposited
on wool, percent
0 . 1 _____ - _‘ ____ _ _
22. 6
None (control) .
47. 0
1 _____________ __
7. 8
None (control).
A. A series of solutions were prepared containing 4%
hexamethylene diamine (or 4% metaxylylene diamine),
The process of Example 1 was repeated using as solution 45 4% Na2CO3, and 0.1% of a commercial wetting agent
A 4% hexamethylene diamine in water and as solution B,
(the iso~octyl phenyl ether of polyethylene glycol) in
a 3% solution of ethylene glycol bischloroformate in
carbon tetrachloride. The following results were ob
B. Another series of solutions were prepared contain
ing 3% 1,'6.-hexanediol bischloroformate in benzene or
50 carbon tetrachloride.
resin deposited
on wool, percent
Wool cloth was treated with the solutions in the fol
lowing manner: The cloth was immersed in solution A
2.5 ___________ __
11. 6
None (control)_
for a predetermined time, squeezed to remove excess liq
uid, immersed for a predetermined time in solution B,
55 squeezed to remove excess liquid, rinsed in water, and
dried in air.
The conditions used and the results obtained are
The process of Example 1 was repeated using as solution
tabulated below:
of im-
First treating solution
Second treating solution
1 __________ __ 4% hexamethylene diamine, 4% N M103,
0.1% of the iso-octyl phenyl ether of
in each on
Wool, age,
solution, percent
3% 1,6-hexanedlol bisehloroformate in
4. 6
1. 0
4. 4
polyethylene glycol in water.
3- _ _ _
_____ __
3%C1johexanediol bischloroformate in
4 __________ __ 4% metaxylylene diamine, 4% N??OOS,
0.1% of the iso-octyl phenyl other of
polyethylene glycol in water.
5 (Control)__
3% 1,6-hexanediol bischloroiorrnate in
This application is a continuation-in-part of'our co
tile; essentially‘water-immiscible solvent, the said diamine
pending application Ser. No. 98,718, ?led March 27, 1961,
and‘ bischloroformate reacting to form in situ on the wool
?bers a resinous polyurethane.
2. The process of claim. 1 wherein the diamine has the
entitled shrinkproo?ng Wool With Polymers, wherein is
disclosed the broad concept of grafting condensation poly
mers-particularly polyamides—-to wool. Said applica
tion is a continuation-in-part of the following applica
tions: Serial No. 90,604, ?led February 20, 1961, en
wherein‘n ‘has a value from 6 ‘to 10.
3. The process of claim 1 wherein the bischoloroform
ate has the formula:
titled Shrinkproo?ng of Wool With Polyamides (which
in turn is a continuation-in-part of ‘Ser. No. 22,651, ?led
Apr. 15, 1960); Serial No. 83,848,- ?led January 19, 1961, 10
entitled shrinkproo?ng of Wool‘ With Polyurethanes;
Serial No. 85,438 ?led January 27, 1961, entitled Shn'nk—
proo?ng of Wool With Polyureas; Serial No. 88,232, ?led
wherein n has a value ‘from 2 to 10.
February 9, 1961, entitled shrinkproo?ng of Wool With
Polyesters; and Serial No. 88,233, ?led February 9, 1961, 15 4. The process of claim 1 wherein the diamine is hexa
methylene diamine.
entitled shrinkproo?ng of W001 with ‘Polycarbonates. 0f
5. The process of claim l'wherein the diamine is meta
the applications referred .to above, the following have been
abandoned: Ser. No. 22,651, Ser. No. 83,848, Ser. No.
85,438, Ser. No. 88,232, Ser. No. 88,233, and Ser. No.
xylylene diamine.
6. The process of claim 1 wherein the bischloroformate
is ethylene-glycol bischloroformate.
7. The process of claim 1 wherein the bischloroformate
Attention is called to the fact that the present applica~
is diethylene glycol bischloroformate.
tion is one of a series of applications ?led by us generally
8. The process of claim 1 wherein the bischloroformate
concerned with ‘shrinkproo?ng wool~wherein various types
is 1,6-hexanediol bischloroformate.
of condensation polymers are formed on and grafted to
9. A process for shrinkproo?ng wool‘ without signi?
the wool ?bers. Polyurethanes are the subject of the 25
present application; polyureas are th'e'subject of Serial No.
100,476, ?led April 3,1961; polyesters are the subject of
Serial No. 101,599, ?led April 7, 1961; polycarbonates
are the subject of Serial No. 102,323, ?led April 11, 1961;
interpolymers are the subject of Serial No. 109,229, ?led
May 10, 1961.
cant impairment of its hand which comprises serially im
pregnating wool with two'solutions, one containing a di~
amine in a ?rst solvent, the other containing a bischloro
Condensation polymers broadly and
polyamides speci?cally are the subjects of the‘parent ap
plication referred to above, of which this application is a
formate in a second solvent, the ?rst and second solvents
being substantially mutually immiscible, the said diamine
and bischloroformate reacting to form in situ on the wool
?bers a resinous polyurethane.
10.‘ A modi?ed‘ wool ?ber which exhibits improved
shrinkage properties as-compared with the unmodi?ed
Although the present invention ?nds its greatest ?eld 35 wool'?ber comprising wool ?ber having a polyurethane
formed in situ thereon and chemically bonded to the wool.
of utility in the shrinkproo?ng of wool and is peculiarly
11. A modi?ed wool ?ber which exhibits improved
adapted for such use because of a combination of im
shrinkage properties as compared with? the unmodi?ed
portant factors——including the advantages that a high de
wool ?ber comprising'wool ?ber having a polyurethane
gree of shrink resistance is imparted with a minor amount
of polymer, that thehshrinkproo?ng treatment does not 40 formed in situ thereon and chemically bonded to the wool,
said polyurethane containing recurring structural groups
signi?cantly impair the hand of the wool, that the treat
of the formula
ment does not impair‘ other'desirable ?ber characteristics
such as tensile strength, elasticity, porosity, etc., that the
polymer is grafted to .the wool molecules so that the
shrinkproo?ng elfect is exceedingly durable and is re 45
wherein R is the bivalent radical -—(CH2)m— in which m
tained even- after long wear and repeated laundering‘—it
has‘ a value from 6 to 10 and n has a value from 2 to 10.
is evident that the invention may be extended to other
12. The ‘product of claim-11 wherein R represents the
areas.v Thus the principles ‘ofsthe invention may, be ex
metaxylylene radical.
tended to vforming polymers in situ on other substrates
13. A modi?ed wool ?ber which exhibits improved
besides wool, particularly substrates of a ?brous structure. 50
shrinkage properties as compared with the unmodi?ed
Typical examples of such materials are animal hides,
wool ?ber comprising wool ?ber having a polyurethane
leather; animal hair; cotton; hemp; jute; ramie; ?ax;
formed in situ thereon and chemically bonded to the wool,
wood; paper; synthetic cellulosic?bers such as viscose,
said polyurethane containing recurring structural groups
cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate-butyrate; casein ?bers;
polyvinyl alcohol-protein ?bers; aliginic ?bers; glass ?bers;
asbestos; and organic non-cellulosic ?bers such as poly
of the formula0
(ethylene glycol terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile, poly
ethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, etc.
Such applications of the teachings of the invention may be
wherein R is the bivalent radical —-(CH2)m- in which
for the purposes of obtaining functional or decorative 60 m has a value from 6 to 10.
effects such as sizing, ?nishing, increasing gloss or trans
14. The product of claim 13 wherein R is the metax
parency, increasing water-repellancy, increasing adhesion
ylylene radical.
or bonding-characteristics of the substrates with rubber,
15. A process for treating a ?brous material which
polyester resins, etc. It is not claimed that in such ex
comprises ‘applying serially to said material in interfacial
tensions of our teachings shrinkproo?ng would be at 65 relationship, a pair of complementary direct-acting organ
tained nor that graft polymers would ‘be produced. How
ic polyurethane-forming intermediates.
ever, it might be expected that graft polymers would be
16. A'process'for treating a’ ?brous material which com
formed with proteinous substrates such as animal hair, ani
prises serially applying to said-material a pair of comple
mal hides, and the like.
mentary direct-acting organic polyurethane-forming inter
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed ‘is; 70 mediates in searate phases of limited mutual solubility.
1. A process for shrinkproo?ng wool without signi?cant
17.’ A process for treating a ?brous material which com
impairment of its hand, which comprises serially im
prises serially distributing on the surface of the ?brous
pregnating wool with two solutions, one solution con
elements of said material a pair of complementary direct
taining a diamine dispersed in Water, the other solution
acting organic polyurethane-forming intermediates in
containing a bischloroformate dispersed in an inert, vola
superposed'phases of limited mutual solubility, the said
said conditions to form in situ ‘on the ?bers a resinous
tributing on the surface of the wool ?bers a pair of com
plementary direct-acting organic polyurethane-forming
intermediates in superposed liquid phases of limited mutual
solubility, said intermediate reacting rapidly under said
conditions to form a polymer in situ on said ?brous ele
ments and grafted thereto.
19. A process for treating a ?brous material which 10
comprises serially impregnating a ?brous material with
two solutions, one solution containing one member of a
pair of complementary direct-acting, organic, polyure
thane-forming intermediates in a ?rst solvent, the other
solution containing the complementary member of said 15
pair of complementary direct-acting, organic, polyure
thane-forming intermediates in a second solvent, said ?rst
and second solvents being substantially mutually immis
cible, the said pair of intermediates reacting rapidly under
intermediates reacting under such conditions to form a
polymer in situ on said ?brous elements.
18. A process for treating wool which comprises dis
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Angus et a1 ___________ _._ Sept. 12,
Himel _______________ __ Oct. 24,
Kropa et a1 ____________ __ Jan. 9,
Nyquist et a1. ________ __ Aug. 21,
Hammer et a1. ________ __ July 7,
Quinlivan ____________ __ July 20,
Hammer et a1. ________ __ Dec. 7,
Oosterhout __________ __ Dec. 2, 1958
Gensel et al ___________ __ Dec. 30‘, 1958
Tischbein ____________ __ Mar. 22, 1960
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