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Патент USA US3084084

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April 2, 1963
R. D. WASSERMAN ETAL
3,084,974
COATED WELDING ROD
Filed Oct. 5, 1959
STAINLESS STEEL CORE
INVENTORS
RENE D. WASSERMAN
AND JOSEPHFQUAAS
ATTORNEYS
,
United States
3,084,074
.
1C.. _
7 Patented ‘Apr. _2, 1963
1
2
thin coating of a composition incorporating a non-hygro
scopic glass frit and a suitable binder. This outer coating
3,084,074
I
CDATED WELDING ROD
ranges in thickness approximately from 0.010 to 0.025
Rene D. Wasserrnan, Stamford, Conn, and Joseph F.
Quaas, Island Park, N.Y., assignors to Eutectic Welding
Alloys Corporation, Flushing, N.Y., a’ corporation of
New York
inch in radial dimension thereby, making itthick enough
to exclude moisture and thin enough to avoid interference
with the deposition of the metallic core.
_
Further in accordance with this invention, an electrode
for welding metals underwater includes a metallic core
and a primary ?uxing coating of a composition compati
‘
Filed Oct. 5, 1959, Ser. No. 844,585
17 Claims. (Q1. 117-404)
_ This is a continuation-in-part of US. patent applica .10 ble therewith. The primary coating is coated directly
over the core, and a relatively thin ‘outer coating of a sub
tron Serial Number 697,193, ?led November 18, 1957,
now abandoned.
stantially waterproof material is deposited over it to pro
tect it from the surrounding water prior to and during
-
This invention relates to a welding rod having a water
' proof coating, and more particularly relates to such a
welding rod in which this coating operates to prevent
moisture pick up during storage or to facilitate under
water welding.
Welding rods bearing conventional ?ux coatings are
. the welding operation. .A highly advantageous coated
15
electrode, for example, for welding ferrousmetals under
water includes a stainless steel core and a primary ‘coat
ing which cooperate to deposit weld metal having an
austenite-ferrite structure. An extremely effective water
_ prone to pick up moisture during storage which is likely
proof outer coating for this electrode is provided by, a
to cause substantial porosity in welds deposited from 20 composition including approximately 50% by» weight of
these rods if they have been continuously exposed to a
a non-hygroscopic glass frit. Electrodes made accord
relatively high humidity for periods of a month or more.
- ingly have'deposited weld metal having tensile strengths
This deterioration may be pronounced enough to cause
as high as 85,000 p.s.i. and 15-20% elongation before
‘ rods exposed to relative humidities in the neighborhood
failure. These electrodes can, therefore, he used to make
of 88% for any appreciable period of time to be com
permanent repairs under water. The aforementioned
pletely unusable. Attempts have, therefore, been made
highly effective glass frit outer waterproof coating also,
to incorporate substantial amounts of glass frit within ’ accordingly, enhances the operating e?iciency of other
the ?ux coatings themselves to exclude moisture. How
core metals when they are used in underwater electrodes.
Novel features and advantages of the present invention
ever, these glass ,frit additions generally interfere with
the ease of deposition of these rods.
30 will become apparent to oneskilled in the art fromv a
reading of the following description in conjunction with
Furthermore it has generally been the practice to utilize
the accompanying drawing wherein similar reference char
electrodes for welding under water which incorporate a
‘ core metal similar in composition to the type of metal
being welded, for example, a mild steel core for mild steel
_ plates. These cores have usually been coated with types
of flux coatings conventionally used‘ with these mild steel
compositions.
Attempts have been made to shield or
, protect these underwater electrodes from the surrounding
‘ acters refer to similar parts and in‘ which: 7
FIG. 1 is arperspective view‘ of ‘an embodiment} of
this
invention;
and
_
,
,
r
I
.
,
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectionalview taken through FIG, 1
I along the line 2—2.
.
In FIG. 1 is shown an ‘electrode 10 for welding-under
water by covering them with waterproo?ng media such I water including, for example, a core 12 made of stainless
as varnishes, lacquers, rubber tape, cellulose acetate, and 40 steel of a composition which deposits weld'metalj having
austenite-ferrite structure. A primary coating 14 of weld
‘ other acetate derivatives; but known coatings are only
effective for limited periods of time.
ing ?ux ingredients which are compatible with thecom
position of core 12 is directly deposited upon core 12
, These known electrodes deposit weld metal under water
by conventional methods. A relatively thin outer coat
having only 80% of its normal tensile strength and as
little as 50% of its normal ductility. The reason for 45 ing 16 of substantially waterproof material is deposited
overlthe primary coating 14 in a manner later described
this is not completely understood, but it is suspected that ‘
in detail. Core 12 is, for example, approximately 1A; inch
this loss in ductility is due to the hardening effected by
7
the drastic quenching action of surrounding water} This
results in the physical properties of the deposited metal,
for example steel, being adversely affected to average
only 50,000 p.s.i. in tensile strength and only 10% elon
gation before failure. Underwater repairs up‘ until the
present have, therefore, been little more than temporary
in naturetrequiring later expensive and time-consuming
‘ drydocking and rewelding. Deposits of other weld metal
. compositions are, accordingly affected disadvantageously
underwater.
-
'
in diameter. Primary coating14, for example, range
from 3&2 of an inch to 1/16 of an inch in radial dimension,
and outer coating 16, for‘example, ranges from 0.010 to
0.025 inch in radial dimension.
A. UNDERWATER.WELDING RODS
(1) Electrodes Incorporating a Stainless Steel C0re=
‘
looms COMPOSITION
Core wire 12 is made, for example, of stainless steel
grades 309 or 312.‘ These grade designations are con
Anobject of ‘this invention is to provide an e?icient
and economical welding rod which is not susceptible to 60 currently used by the American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI), The American Society ‘for Testing Materials
moisture pick up even when stored under relatively high .
(ASTM) or the American Welding Society (AWS).
" humidity for considerable periods of time.
These particular stainless steel alloys provide a two-phase
Another object of this invention is to provide an elec
weld deposit with substantial percentages of ferrite in an
trode for metallic arc welding under water which deposits
austenite matrix. This type of weld metal, for reasons
' _weld metal having optimum physical characteristics to
which are not entirely understood, provides an unex
permit repairs of a permanent nature to be made under
pectedly strong weld under‘ water when deposited from
.mwatenlwmsa ..~
an electrode of the type herein described. Other stainless
In accordance with this invention, a welding rod hav
H steel compositions can also, be usedas long as they pro
ing a metallic corerand a primary flux coating compatible
vide the aforementioned austenite-ferriterstructure'in the
with it, is made moisture-proof by covering it with a
deposited weld metal, and illustrative ranges of composi
3,084,074
4
tions and preferred examples are indicated in the follow
ing tables:
As previously mentioned, the addition of icolumbium
to the coating formulation helps in forming the desired
austenite-ferrite structure.
Percent by weight
Constituent
OUTER WATERPROOF COATING
l,
‘Range
- Preferred
Outer waterproof coating 16 is relatively thin in com
Preferred
range
example
.20 max _____ __
.20 max _____ __
4.50 max1.00 max-
LOO/2.00LOO/max
1. 75
0. 70
400/20 no
800/1400
12.00
0.12
12.00/30.00___-_ 20.00/30.0
25.00
20/300
.20/1.00__
__
0. 30
Balance _____ . _
Balance ..... _ .
B alance
Percent by Weight
Constituent
Range
Preferred
range
parison to primary coating 14 and may range, for ex
ample, from .010 inch in radial dimension to 0.025 inch
in radial dimension. When its thickness exceeds 0.025
inch, the efficiency of the rod is adversely aifected.
A highly effective composition for outer coating 16 in
cludes a non-hygroscopic glass frit which is applied over
primary coating 14 and then ?red at 1200” F., for ex
ample, forten minutes to produce a smooth glazed ?nish. '
15 This glazed vor glass type coating effectively excludes '
moisture even when submerged for considerable periods
of time and it, therefore, prevents breakdownof the
primary ?ux coating before and during the welding op
eration. This protective coating, therefore, permits the
duration of continuous periods of underwater welding to
Preferred
example
‘ be unexpectedly prolonged.
A required feature of a useable glass frit is that this
4100/2000 ____ __
l2.00/30.00
' unvitri?ed material from which. the resultant glass is
formed must have a relatively low range of softening tem- '
.20/3.00 ______ __
peratures. This temperature range cannot be greater than
a predetermined maximum, or the components of the
As indicated in the above table, columbium is some
times found helpful either in the core or as an additive to
primary ?ux coating‘ 14 are adversely affected. This
softening temperature range, for example, must be main
tained between 1000 to 1200° F. inv order to prevent de
the coating'formulation because'of its ferrite-forming
tendencies.
V
'30
PRIMARY COATING
terioration'of the primary coating. Higher‘ temperatures
can deteriorate water-soluble binders which may be‘ used
in the primary coating, or they might decompose the
'various carbonates employed therein. An example of
ranges ‘or composition and speci?c examples of advan
Primary coating 14 includes conventional ?uxing in
gredients which are compatible with stainless steel core
'wire 12. Various ingredients that have‘been found ad
vantageous for ?uxing stainless steel core wires are de 35 tageous compositions for use in ‘the outer coating are
described in the following table:
scribed, for example in U.S. Letters Patent 2,632,835. In
that patent, ‘some vof the chromium deposited in the weld
metal is introduced from the ?ux, but this mode vof intro
duction is'not essential for underwater application even
thoughit may be utilized to provide the further advan
tages described therein. Some of the coating composi
Parts by weight
4:0
Constituent
'
.
Range
' tions described in Patent 2,632,835 'are' indicated in the
'
~ Preferred
I
,
example
following'tabl'e; but the chromium metal powder ‘content
Glass ma--.
_Bentonite_._
maybe eliminated-if the vchromium content of the core
wire is su?‘icie'nt to provide ‘a deposited austenite-fe‘rrite
‘structure.
‘
or sodium silicate or a mixture of the two. Mica, talc
50 or ‘a ?occulent may be employed, for example, instead of
bentonite.
Preferred
example
' Calcium ?uoride.-.
5 to 20
15
'. Calcium carbonate
7 to 25
20
'I‘itaniumdloxide~
Calcium silicate-_
20 to 45
5 to 14
43
11
Chromium metal powde
Ferro-sllicon alloy _______ __
37
The water-soluble silicate is, for example, potassium
Parts by weight
.
' so
, 3
20/50
:
Constituent
Range
46/70
2/12'
Water-soluble silicate-
Various compositions of glass frits having the afore
mentioned temperature softening range between 1000 and
1200° F. are listed in the following:
0 to 45 ____________ __
5 to
11
GLASS? FRITS
Constituents—-~
Other suitable ?uxing ingredients for the primary coat
ing are described in'U.-S.'Letters Patent 2,697,159 on
column 4, lines 38-59 and in the various examples in that 60
patent; and, any conventional ?uxing ingredients com
"patible with the vstainl'ess'ste'el core'wire may be‘ used
'
Percent by ‘Weight
Lithium oxide _________________________ __
4.0
Potassium oxide _______________________ .._
Sodium oxide _______ -_
9.0
15.6
Calcium ' 'oxide ______ __>
Aluminum
effectively.
~Silicon
oxide“;
7.7
-
dioxide___- _____________________ __
.
Titanium dioxide ______________________ __
"Fluoride salt.v _________________________ __
11.5
6.7
Total _______________________ __, ____ __
100.0
Parts by Weight
Constituent
'
.
Range
Preferred
example
Constituents—
'
Calcium ?uoride ___________________
Calcium carbonateTitanium dioxide."
Calcium silicate _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
vChromlum'metal powder__
Ferro-slllcon alloy >
Ferro-c0lumb1u'm_
5 to 20
15
_
_
7 to 25
20 to 45
20
35
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
5 to l4
l1
_
0 to 45
____________ ._
_
__________ __
5 tom
4 to 12
11
8
70
‘Approximate percent by’ weight
Silicon dioxide _______________ __' _________ __
50
Potassium oxide..__'____.‘. _________________ __
10
Lead oxide-
30‘
Titanium dioxide__..__’__- _________________ __
Fluorine
(trace)g ____ _;_'_____- ___________ .._
10
‘
,Total, ; ________________________________ __ 100'
3,084,074
primary coating does not include cellulose or another
organic material which decomposes at temperatures in
the neighborhood of 1100° F., the temperature of ?uidity
of the glass frit. Useable primary coating formations
Parts byweight
Constituent
Range
Example
5 for these aforementioned mild steel cores are accordingly
Silicon dioxide: _____________________________ __
35-50
46.0
§gtlllgltgltg§xxilét~
Gig
gig
Calcium oxide___ '
3-10
910
calcium ?uoride and 30-40% by weight of calcium car
518
18-8
bonate with the balance including, for example, equal
5-13
1210 10 parts by Weight of fer~r0~alloys and aluminum silicates. ‘
Fluoride Stilt _____ __
of the low-hydrogen or basic types.
A ?ux formulation
of this type contains, for example, 30-40% by weight of
A preferred outer coating composition for these mild
‘Other suitable compositions for the glass frit are de-
sieel electrode? 15 mad‘? for example, of th? fiforemen'
scribed in the aforementioned Us‘ Letters Patent
tioned glass frit, bentonite and water-soluble silicate com
2,697,159. However, it Should he noted that the glass
position. _This highly effective waterproof outercoating
frit is used herein tO c0at the primary coating and not 15 permits mild steel electrodes to be effectively utilized un
merely to bond the particles of the primary ?ux to each
de-i' water even though submerged for considerable periods
other and to the welding electrode; but, if desired, the
O? "11mg; butfesults fire’ of coufse’ not qulie as strtlkmg
glass frit could also he used in the primary coating Within
the spirit of this invention.
The waterproof outer coating
as those achieved With the previously described stainless
'steel ‘core ,wlles'
l
'
forms aI_1d_ malntalns F1 PTOtEPtWt‘} thlmble amund the are 20 (3) Electrodes Incorporating Nickel Composition Cores
by providing a covering which 15 consumed at a slower
F
rate than the core and primary ?ux coating.
‘ 9r We. mt’ Su nierbe
1d. 0
b
a d
t .
t
t
. 1
.cas Iron Pare“ {Ha aria S’ an
Other hydrophobic compositions’ ‘Such as organic ma_
electrode incorporating‘a nickel, Monel or nickel-iron al
terials might be used for this substantially waterproof
{031mm W1? .15 permmed.m Operate effectlvely under
outer coating. However, materials should be used which 25 wa‘er by “t1 171mg a @mpatlble Bnmary ?u‘ coatmg and
do not contribute enough carbon to the weld deposit to
the aforempmloned 1“ gh.1y e?ectwe glass .f‘f‘t Waterproof
adversely affect the austenite-ferrite ratio.
miter coanllg.‘ C(.’mpat1b1e ?ux Composmons for core
T
wires containing nickel and covered by a glass frit outer
PREFERRED OVERALL “JMJCTRODE COMPOSITE“
_
w“
_
coating are, for example, described in U.S. Letters ‘Patent
An illustrative preferred overall composition for an 30 2,471,803. A particularly effective ?ux coating is de
embodiment of this invention incorporating a stainless
scribed in Example 1 of that patent, set forth in column
steel core includes, for example, the following:
Core wire
Const.
5, lines 25-62.
Primary coating
Percentby
weight
Const.
,1
Outer coating
Parts by
Const.
weight
Parts by
weight
0.12
1.75
Calcium ?uoride ____________ __
Calcium carbonate"
"
15
‘20
Glass frit __________________ __
Bentonite ___________ __
60
3
0.70
Titanium dioxide".
43
Water-soluble silicate _____ __
37
12.00
Calcium silicate.-.
25.00
Chromium metalp
0.30
Balance
Farm-silicon alloy____
11
________ __
11
A rod incorporating a ferrite content is made in accordance with the following:
Core wire
Const.
'
Primary coating
Percentby
weight
0.12
1,75
0.70
12. 00
25.00
0.30
Balance
Ccnst.
Calcium ?uoride ____________ __
Calcium carbonate“
I Outer coating
Parts by
Const.
weight
15
20
Titanium dioxide.“
__
35
Calcium silicate _____________ __
11
Chromium metal powder..___ ________ __
Form-silicon alloy ___________ __
11
Ferro~Columbium __________ __
(4) Elect’ odes lncorpomtmg Cores Includmg Copper
For welding submerged copper and copper alloy parent
- Parts by
Weight
Glass trit __________________ __
Bentcnite ___________ ._
__
60
3
Water-soluble silicate _____ __
37
8
OPERATION
During the welding operation, the waterproof outer
coating or protective thimble effectively excludes water
from interfering with the fluxing and deposition of weld
metal incorporating ferrite in an austenite matrix. The
ferrite content is, for example, maintained between 101 to
materials, an electrode incorporating an aluminum bronze
or copper alloy core wire is made extremely effective by
utilizing the aforementioned glass frit waterproof outer
coating together with a compatible outer flux coating.
A compatible primary ?ux coating for this type of elec
trode is, for example, described in US. Letters Patent
2,731,373, and particularly in column 3, lines 10-40 of
20% by weight. An unexpectedly strong and ductile
70 that patent.
'
weld metal is, therefore, deposited under water.
B. WELDING RODS FOR GENERAL USE
(2) Electrodes Incorporating a Mild Steel Core
The aforementioned outer water-proof coating incor
Mild steel cores, for example, conforming to AWS
porates a non-hygroscopic glass ?rit and a suitable binder,
Classi?cations E 7016, E 8016, E 9016, and E 10016, can
also be used in underwater electrodes as long as their 75 which coating ranges in thickness from 0.010 to 0.025
‘8,084,074
8
inch in radial-dimension, is remarkably effective for ex
eluding’ moisture from a ?ux coated welding rod during
in no way interferes with normal deposition of the weld
ing rod either by arc welding or by torch application.
>Although this coating is rather thin, it does not burn
off so quickly that it leaves the primary coating unpro~
tected which is not so important in normal atmosphere,
but this property is highly bene?cial under water.
storage even under relatively high humidity for extended
periods of time. An example of such a welding rod may
‘be obtained by covering the coated rod described in US.
Letters Patent 2,632,835 with a thin outer coating of the
aforementioned type which includes the following con
What is claimed is:
stituents in the indicated ranges of parts by weight.
Constituents—-
water essentially consisting of a stainless steel core hav
Range
10 ing a chromium content of approximately 12 to 30 per
Glass frit ____________________________ -_ 40/70
Bentonite ____________________________ __
Water-soluble
'
1. A Welding rodv for welding ferrous metals under
cent by weight and a nickel content of approximately
-4 to 20 percent by weight, a primary coating of welding
\2/12
silicate __________________ __ 20/50
?ux ingredients which are compatible with said core
The aforementioned glass frit may be essentially com
composition, said core and said primary coating being of
posed of the following constituents in the indicated ranges 15 a composition which deposits weld metal having an
of parts ‘by weight:
austenite-ferrite structure, and a relatively thin outer coat
ing ranging approximately from 0.010 of an inch to
approximately 0.025 of an inch in radial thickness
Constituents1
'
Range
Silicon dioxide ________________________ .._ 35-50
Titanium dioxide ______________________ __
A10
Manganese oxide ______________________ __
2-10
Calcium oxide ________________________ __
Aluminum oxide ______________________ __
Potassium oxide _______________________ .._
Fluoride salt __________________________ __
non-hygroscopic glass deposited over said primary coating.
2. A Welding rod as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
core alone is of a composition which deposits weld metal
having a substantially austenite-ferrite structure.
3. A welding rod as set forth in claim 2 wherein said
5-10
5-10
10
5-13
core is essentially composed of the following constituents
1
25 in the indicated ranges of percentages by weight:
A speci?c embodiment of this form of the invention
is, therefore, formed in accordance with the following.
Constituents-
A stainless steel core having a diameter of 14; inch
and the following composition:
ConstituentsChromium
19
Nickel _____________________________ __
9
Manganese _________________________ __
2
Carbon ____________________________ __
0.15
______________________________ .._
35
Balance
6
10
23
6
Chromium metal powder _________________ __
Ferro-silicon alloy _______________________ ___
40
7
1.00 max.
4.00/20.00.
Cr ____________________________ .._
1200/3000.
MO ____________________________ _.
.20/3.00.
Fe ____________________________ __
Balance.
4. A welding rod as set forth in claim 2 wherein said
in the indicated percentages by weight:
Constituent's—
Percent by weight
Parts by weight
Calcium ?uoride ________________________ __
Calcium carbonate ______________________ __
Titanium dioxide ________________________ _...
Calcium silicate _________________________ .._
Si _____________________________ __
Ni ____________________________ __
core is essentially composed of the following constituents
is coated with a coating composition composed as follows:
Constituents—
Range
Mn_.... _________________________ _. 4.50 max.
Percent by weight
_________________________ __
Iron
1
.C ___________________________ _..'__ .20 max.
40
C __._.._' _____________________________ __
Mn
Si
_____
0.12
-
1.75
________________________________ _'_
' 0.70
Ni ________________________________ __
12.00
Cr ___________________________ __,_..___
25.00
Mo
_______________________________ __
0.30
Fe , _______________________________ __ Balance
A water-proof outer coating having a radial thickness 45
of 0.020 inch is applied over the primary coating and
5. A welding rod as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
incorporates the following constituents in the indicated
primary coating is essentially composed of the ‘following
parts by weight:
constituents ‘in the indicated ranges of parts by weight:
Constituents—
Parts by weight
Glass frit ______________________________ __
Bentonite ________________ _.._'__' __________ __
Water-soluble
silicate ____________________ __
Constituents—
60
3
.
37
.The aforementioned glass frit is made in accordance 55
with either of the speci?c examples previously mentioned
in this application, and the core and primary ?ux coating
are merely representatives of any useful type of such
elements.
.
'
F
<
Range
Calcium ?uoride ____________________ __ 5 to 20
Calcium carbonate __________________ .._ ‘7 to 25
Titanium dioxide ___________________ __ 20 to 45
Calcium silicate _________________ .__'_.._
5 to'14
Chromium metal powder ____________ __
Ferro-silicon alloy __________________ __
0 to 45
5 to 15
6. A welding red as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
primary coating is essentially composed of the following
Welding rods coated in this manner may be stored 60 constituents in the indicated parts by weight:
Constituents7
Parts by weight
without deteriorating to any discernible degree. This is
Calcium ?uoride ________________________ __ ‘15
inde?nitely under conditions of relatively- high humidity
demonstrated by the fact that electrodes coated accord~ '
Calcium
carbonate ______________________ __
20
ingly were stored at a relative humidity maintained at
88% at 75° F. for as long as 60 days without causing 65
Titanium dioxide ________________________ __
Calcium silicate _________________________ __
43
11
Perm-silicon alloy ________ __' _____________ __
11
any porosity in weld beads ‘deposited thereby. This is
highly remarkable in view of the marked degree of poros—
ity displayed by uncoated electrodes having a similar core
and primary coating after storage under such condi
tions for only 15 days. Furthermore, after 60 days
under high humidity storage, the coating bonds of unpro—
tected' electrodes were substantially destroyed making
them entirely unusable.
*
Despite the remarkable pnotection endowed by the coat
ing of this invention against moisture pickup, this coating
7. A welding rod as set forth in claiml wherein said
waterproof coating is essentially composed of the fol
lowing constituents in the indicated ranges of parts by
weight: ‘
ConstituentsGlass
Range
frit_1 ___________ __' _____________ __ 40/70
Bent-onite
___________________________ __
2/ 12
Water-soluble silicate _______________ -1--- 20/507
3,084,074
10
said waterproof outer "coating is essentially composed of
8. A welding rod as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
the following constituents in the indicated ranges of parts
waterproof coating is essentially composed of the fol
lowing constituents in the indicated parts by weight:
Constituents—
Parts by weight
Glass
by ‘weight:
Constituents~
Glass
frit _______________________________ __ 60
Bentonite
_
a-
_
___
Bentonite
3
Range
frit ____________________________ __ 40/70
___________________________ __
2/12
silicate _____________________ __ ‘37
Water-soluble silicate __________________ __ 20/50
9. A welding rod as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
14. A welding 'rod as set forth in claim 12 wherein
Water-soluble
relatively thin outer coating incorporates a glass frit 10 said Waterproof outer coating is essentially composed of
the following constituents in the indicated parts by
essentially composed of the following constituents in the
weight:
indicated parts by weight:
Constituents--
Constituents-
Range
Silicon dioxide ________________________ __ 35—5O
Titanium dioxide ______________________ __
10
Manganese oxide ______________________ __
2-10
Calcium oxide ________________________ __
5-10
Aluminum oxide ______________________ __
5-10
Potassium oxide _______________________ __
Fluoride salt __________________________ __
5-13
Glass
15
Lithium
oxide ________________________ __
4.0
9.0
Sodium oxide _________________________ __
Calcium oxide ________________________ __
Aluminum oxide ______________________ __
Silicon dioxide ________________________ __
Titanium dioxide ______________________ __
Fluoride salt __________________________ __
15.6
7.7
6.1
39.4
11.5
6.7
Total
_____________________________ __ 100.0
glass frit and a suitable binder, and said outer coating
weight:
30 Constituents—
Range
Glass frit ____________________________ __ 40/70
Bentonite ___________________________ __
2/ 12
Water-soluble silicate __________________ __ 20/50
17. A welding rod as set forth in claim 15 wherein said
35 relatively thin outer coating incorporates a glass frit es
sentially composed of the following constituents in the
indicated parts by weight:
relatively thin outer coating incorporates a glass frit es
sentially composed of the following constituents:
-Constituents-—
Approximate percent
40
by weight
Silcon dioxide __________________________ __
Potassium oxide ________________________ __
Lead oxide _____________________________ __
Titanium dioxide ________________________ __
50
10
30
10
Fluorine
(trace) ________________________ __
__
Total _______________________________ __
100
3
ranging in thickness from approximately 0.010 to ap
proximately 0.025 ‘inch in radial dimension.
25
16. A welding rod as set forth in claim 15 wherein said
waterproof outer coating is essentially composed of the
following constituents in the indicated ranges of parts by
11. A welding rod as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
Constituents-
______________________________ __
15. A welding rod essentially consisting of a metallic
core, a primary coating of welding ?ux ingredients which
are compatible with the composition of said core and
susceptible to deterioration upon absorption of water, an
outer waterproof coating incorporating a non-hygroscopic
10. A welding rod as set forth in claim 1 wherein said
relatively thin outer coating incorponates a glass =frit es
Potassium oxide _______________________ __
Bentonite
Water-soluble silicate _____________________ __ '37
10
sentially composed of the following constituents:
Constituents—
Percent by weight
Parts by weight
frit _______________________________ __ 60
45
12. A welding rod essentially consisting of a metallic
core, a primary coating of welding ?ux ingredients which
are compatible with said core compositions and suscepti
Range
Silicon dioxide ________________________ __ 35-50
Titanium dioxide ______________________ __
Manganese oxide ______________________ __
Calcium oxide ________________________ __
Aluminum oxide ______________________ __
Potassium oxide _______________________ __
Fluoride salt _________________________ __
10
2-10
5-10
5-10
10
5-13
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,992,792
2,436,867
2,544,000
Weed _______________ __ Feb. 26, 1935
Lee ________________ __ Mar. 2, 1948
Wasserman __________ __ Mar. 6, 1951
waterproof coating incorporating a non-hygroscopic glass
2,552,176
Hummitzsch __________ __ May 8, 1951
frit and a suitable binder, said outer coating being thick 55
2,632,835
Wasserman __________ __ Mar. 24, 1953
enough to protect said primary coating from moisture
pick up, and said outer coating being thin enough to
avoid interference with the operating ef?ciency of said
2,697,159
Donahey ____________ __ Dec. 14, 1954
rod.
13. A welding rod as set forth in claim 12 wherein
563,251
Canada _____________ __ Sept. 16, 1958
ble to deterioration upon absorption of water, an outer
FOREIGN PATENTS
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