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Патент USA US3084259

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April 2, 1963
J. GoUPlL
3,084,251
DETECTION OF BURST JACKETS IN NUCLEAR REACTORS
BY A PLURALITY oF GAsEoUs STREAMS
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APr11 2, 1963
J. GoUPlL
3,084,251
‘ DETEcTroN oF BURST JACKETS 1N NUCLEAR REAcToRs
cooLEn BY A PLURALITE oF GAsEous STREAMS
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed April 20, 1959
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April 2, 1963
J. GQUP".
3,084,251
DETECTION OF BURST JACKETS IN NUCLEAR REACTORS
COOLED BY A PLURALITY OF GASEOUS STREAMS -
Filed April 20, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
April 2, 1963
il. GOUPIL
3,084,251
DETECTION oF BURS JACKETS 1N NUCLEAR REAcToRs
cooLED BY A PLURALITY oF GAsEous STREAMS
Filed April 2o, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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April 2, 1963
J GouPn..
3,084,251
DETECTION OF BURSTIJACKETS IN NUCLEAR REACTORS
COOLED BY A PLURALITY OF GASEOUS STREAMS
Filed April 20, 1959
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3,084,251
DETECHON 0i? BURST JACKETS IN NUCLEAR
REACTQRS COÜLED BY A. PLLITY GF
GASEÜUS STREAMS
Jean Goupii, Fontenay-aux-«Roses, France, assigner to
Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique, Paris, France, an
organization of France
Filed Apr. 29, 195%, Ser. No. 807,458
Claims priority, appiication France Apr. 26, 1955
14 Claims. (Cl. Z50-83.3)
' ‘ce
3,684,251
Patented Apr. 2, 1963
2
resist poorly to the temperatures to which they are
brought during their functioning in the burst slug detec
tion devices.
The present invention has therefore for an object to
eliminate the previous drawbacks of the burst slug detec
tion devices comprising the switching of several gaseous
streams on a same radiation detector, by realizing a purely
static switching, i.e. without any mobile element in the gas
flow.
The invention takes advantage of the fact that, among
The present invention relates generally to the monitor
the fission products and their daughters, exist solid ions,
ing of nuclear reactors cooled by a plurality of gaseous
streams and more particularly to the detection of leaks,
or other failures, in the jackets or cans surrounding the
slugs or cartridges of nuclear fuel (including a fissionable
and/ or fertile matter) in such reactors.
A device, according to the invention, for detecting leaks
in the jackets surrounding the slugs of fuel elements in
The invention is particularly useful for monitoring
heterogeneous reactors, wherein elements or slugs in a
fissile or -ñssiona'ole matter (as uranium or a uranium
as rubidium and cesium ions which are the decay products
of the gaseous kryptons and xenons.
a nuclear reactor, cooled by at least one plurality of
gaseous streams circulating through said reactor in heat
exchange relationship with said elements, comprises, for
each of said pluralities: a detecting unit comprising: a col
compound or alloy, eventually enriched in the U235 iso 20 lecting conduit; a single nuclear radiation detector as
tope) are positioned in a plurality of channels (often more
than thousand channels) disposed in a block of solid mod
erator (as graphite), the heat released by the chain fission
reaction of the fissionable material being carried away by
a plurality of gaseous streams sweeping said channels in 25
heat-exchange relationship with said elements of fission
able material.
But the invention concerns also, more
sociated to said conduit; for each of said gaseous streams
of said plurality, a picking-up tube for picking up per
manently a sample of said gaseous stream; a decay cham
ber connected to said picking~up tube, an electrode dis
posed in said chamber and normally polarized to collect
the radioactive ions present in said chamber, and a chan
nel for connecting said chamber to said collecting cou
duit; and means for successively and cyclically grounding
generally, any type of nuclear reactor cooled by a plural
each one of said electrodes.
ity of gaseous streams.
30
Due to this structure of the detecting unit, comprising
it is well known that the burst of the Huid-tight jacket
an electrostatic switching zone for the various gaseous
surrounding a lissionable fuel element in a nuclear reactor
streams and a common measuring zone, `the single radia
has very serious consequences and must, therefore, be
tion detector receives, successively and cyclically, from
detected very promptly; in fact, such a jacket has for an
the various picking-up tubes, radioactive ions, daughters
object to prevent, on the one hand, the fissionable element
surrounded thereby to be attacked by the gaseous stream 35 of the fission products eventually picked up by each pick
ing-up tube--i.e. the ions leaving the decay chamber with
in heat-exchange relationship therewith and, on the other
a grounded electrode (which therefore does not collect the
hand, the highly radioactive fission products (which are
radioactive ions)-and therefore delivers a signal which
released by the chain fission reaction in the fissionable
material of the fuel element) to reach said gaseous stream. 40 is a function of the fission product content of each gaseous
stream of said plurality.
It was proposed in French Patent No. 1,127,618 filed
But the radioactivity, at a given moment, of any gaseous
June 9, 1955, by Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique to
stream leaving the channel of a nuclear reactor is mainly
detect the bursts of jacketed slugs in gas-cooled nuclear
constituted by the sum of the radioactivities of:
reactors by measuring the radioactivity of the fission prod
(a) The radioactive isotopes formed in said gas from
ucts ejected through the bursts of the jackets in the cool 45
the non-radioactive constituents thereof under the in
ing gas, this measure being realized by one or several nu
fluence of the neutron lfiux existing -in the nuclear reactor
clear radiation detectors or counters, as scintillation coun
(for example argon 4l and nitrogen 16 result from the
ters, disposed along the passage of gaseous samples
neutronic bombardment or argon 4() -and nitrogen l5 of
picked-up from the cooling gas circuit of the reactor.
When the monitored nuclear reactor includes many 50 the air, respectively, e.g. when the cooling gas is air) and
(b) The fission products (which reached the _cooling
channels, it is advantageous, for economy reasons, to
gas through a burst in a jacket) which comprise on the
monitor with a single radiation detector, as suggested in
one hand, the long~lived fission products, which, when
the above-mentioned French Patent, a group of several
the cooling gas »is recycled through a nuclear reactor, have
channels, said detector receiving successively gaseous
samples from each channel in said group; preferably, oth 55 a radioactivity appearing in the cooling gas a long time
after »their ejection in said gas; on the other hand, the
er radiation detectors, followed by recorders, monitor con
short-lived fission products having a radioactivity limited
tinously the radioactivity of the efiiuents from the chan
to a 'very short period subsequent to their ejection in the
nels which have previously exhibited an alarmingly high
cooling gas, even if said gas is recycled, due precisely to
radioactivity.
The necessary switching for monitoring, with a single 60 their short half-life.
lt is easily understood that the aforementioned long
radiation detector, the efiluents from several channels
lived fission products, `as well as the radioactive isotopes,
have been realized, until now, by means of valves direct
falsify the radioactivity measures intended to detect burst
ing successively and cyclically on said single detector
slugs Vand ythat the sole radioactivity which has to be de
gaseous samples picked up from the gaseous streams leav
ing each channel monitored by said detector; these valves 65 tected and measured~-if the passage of fission products
in the cooling gas (and also if an increase of the quantity
are controlled either mechanically or preferably electrical
of said fission products in said gas) has to be detected
ly (electro-valves); but the known electro-valves have un
immediately, in order to detect promptly, a burst jacket
fortunately a certain number of drawbacks, the main
(and to follow the evolution of »the burst of said jacket
drawbacks being the following ones: their price is high;
their fluid-tightness is quite a problem; the mobile ele 70 in course >of time)-is the radioactivity of the short-lived
fission products.
ments of the valves are generally delicate; the high power
required for their control demands important relays; they
Therefore, in the preferred embodiment `of the inven
3,084,251
3
4
tion, the measure of the radioactivity concerns mainly the
radioactive ions, as the rubidiurn and cesium ions,
daughters of the gaseous kryptons and xenons, having a
half-life of a few seconds. Accordingly, the ions arriving
plurality of parallel channels, for example of horizontal
channels, only four of which were' shown, i.e. the channels
4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, whereas in fact a nuclear reactor with solid
through the common collecting conduit, after having
passed through the above-mentioned electrostatic switch
slugs 5 of íissionable fuel material (for example uranium
ing unit with decay chambers, are collected in said con
duit by a collecting element, as an electrode maintained
at a negative high potential. These ions loose their
charge, whereas -new ribidium and cesium ions continue
to be collected. The ion concentration on the collecting
electrode increases and would reach, for a very long
collecting period, a limit for which the ion collecting is
is counter-balanced by the decay or de-activation of the
collected ions. The ion concentration reached on said
negatively biased or polarized electrode «after a deter
mined period Vis then proportional to the actual ejection of
of 4fission products in the monitored cooling stream and
moderator may comprise more than a thousand channels.
In each channel are inserted one or several elements or
or an uranium compound, or alloy, eventually enriched
in the U235 isotope), isolated from the gaseous streams
6, circulating through the channels 4 in order to carry
away the heat generated by the nuclear fissions in slugs
5, by a fluid-tight jacket, constituted by a sheath 7 (for
example in magnesium, aluminum, a magnesium-alumi
num alloy or stainless steel). The cooling gas (con
stituted for example, by air, carbon dioxide or helium,
generally under pressure), which is in heat-exchange
relationship with the jackets or sheaths 7, arrives by
a duct 8 and, after having passed through all channels
4, leaves reactor R by a duct ‘9 from which it may be
recycled by a fan 10.
_
is therefore representative of the evolution of a brust in
A burst jacket in one of the channels 4 allows the
a jacket; in fact, said concentration is measured by the 20
radioactive fission products of the burst slug to reach the
single radiation detector, as a scintillation counter.
gaseous stream 6 which passes through said channel. For
In order to discard :the previous radioactivity of the
detecting such a burst slug, a device according to the
collecting element and ofthe gas surrounding said ele
invention comprises:
ment, there is provided, yaccording to a further feature
(a) A switching zone, which, for each gaseous stream
of the invention, an electronic memory device perform 25
6, includes-a picking-up tube 11a, 11b, 11C, 11d, picking
ing a differential measure between the beginning and the
up permanently a representative sample »from the effluents
end of the ion collection from the eiiluents of each decay
chamber, thereby eliminating lthe continuous radioactivity
component, corresponding to the normal radioactivity of
the gas leaving saidV decay chamber and Vcirculating in the
of the corresponding channel 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d; a decay
chamber 12a, 12b, 12e, 12d wherein ends the correspond
ing picking-up tube and having a suñicient volume (about
collecting conduit.
one to two cubic decimeters) so ‘that during the transit
Y
Due :to this design of the measuring zone or unit, with
an ion collecting element (as an electrode) and to the
discarding of the continuous component, the measured
time therein (for example of about l to 4 seconds) of
the sample of said gaseous stream 6 picked upy by tube 11,
an appreciable fraction (for example of about 20 to 30%)
activity is essentially :the -activity of the particles which
of the short-lived Xenons and kryptons (having a half
life of about a few seconds) decays with beta rays emis
are precipitated by the switching electrodes when they are
polarized. The collecting or precipitation process of both
types of electrodes, i.e. the switching and the collecting
electrodes, is in fact the same.
ì
Of course, it is possible to provide, in the measuring
unit, other means for realizing such a selectivity towards
the short-lived fission productsV (only such a selectivity
allowing to detect rapidly -a >burst in the sheath of a fuel
slug and to follow the evolution of said brust) and here
under, at the end of the detailed description of the inven
tion, several examples of such means -will be given.
The aforesaid and other objects, features and advan
tages of »the invention will be more easily and fully under
sion and production of the daughter radioactive rubidi
um+ and cesiurnt ions, an electrode 13a, 13b, 13e, 13d
located in the corresponding decay chamber and normally
polarized or biased by a voltage source I1, through a
lead 14a, 14b, 14e, 14d, at a negative high potential
V1 (of about -LOOO to _2,000 volts according to the
gaseous pressure in chambers 12, for example -1500
to ~2000 volts for a pressure of l5 atmospheres) ensur
ing Ithe collection or precipitation of Vsubstantially all
radioactive ions (as the rubidium and cesium ions) pres
ent in chamber 12, i.e. produced in chamber 12 and
upstream thereof; and a short connecting duct 15a, 15b,
15e, 15d for circulating the effluents of each chamber,
stood from the illustration of several embodiments of a
burst jacket detection device according to the invention, 50 i.e. the products which were not retained therein by
electrode 13;
being understood that 4the invention is not restricted »to-the
-(b) A measuring zone comprising, »for the plurality of
details of the illustrated and described embodiments, but
the gaseous stream 6 which are monitored, a collecting
that it is susceptible Ito -modilica-tions and adaptations.
conduit 16 located in the vicinity of -a radiation detector
In the attached drawings:
D and comprising, just in front of said detector, a col
FIG. l shows schematically a device according to the
lecting electrode 17 brought, by a lead 81 connected to
invention.
'
a current source I2, to a negative potential V2 of about
FIG. 2 illustrates 'the curves giving ythe variation, in
_1060 to -4000 volts according to the pressure of the
course of time, of the various electrical magnitudes in
Vcooling gas (for example -‘-4000 volts for a pressure of
volved in the device according to FïG. l.
FIG. 3 shows a preferred embodiment of the switching 60 l5 atmospheres).
This detector D is advantageously constituted, as shown,
and `measuring units of the device according to FIG. l.
'by a scintillation counter selectively sensitive tto the -beta
FIG. 4 is a section along IV.-IV of FIG. 3.
rays and comprising a scintillating lsubstance or “phos
FIG. 5 shows schematically a device according to the
phor” 18 (for example an organic substance as tetra
the invention comprising several units of the type shown
phenyl-butadiene in polystyrene), and, for such a de
in FIGS. 3 and 4.
'
tector, >it is advantageous .to cool the gaseous samples
FIG. `6 illustrates the curves giving .the variation, in
picked -up by tubes 11 by cooling means (not shown);
course of time, of the various switching electrical mag
to said scintillating substance is associated, in the known
nitudes used in the functioning of the device of FIG. 5.
manner, a photomultiplier 19 and a preamplifier 20, the
FIGS. 7, -8 and 9 show three modifications of »the meas
output of detector D being applied by a lead 21 to an
uring unit, in a device according to FiGS. l or 5.
amplifier 22, a pulse Shaper 23 and a ratemeter 24, which
On FIG. 1 was shown a nuclear reactor R, of the type
delivers a signal representative of «the number of scintilla
comprising a moderator block 1 (eg. in graphite) sur
tions produced in the substance 18 by the radioactive
rounded, in the known manner, by a thermal shield 2
products in the collecting conduit 16, particularly by the
(eg. in steel) and a biological shield 3 (e.g. in heavy
radioactive >products collected on electrode 17.
concrete). The moderator block >1 is traversed by a
3,084,251
5
6
.
The channel constituted by detector D and electronic
13b, 130 and 13d. In the shown position of arm 28, the
units 22, 23 and 24 is well known in the art of radiation
detection and no further description of said elements is
therefore deemed necessary; anyhow such detector and
electronic units are fully disclosed in one or several of
armatures 3S occupy the position shown in full lines and
therefore electrode 13a is grounded, whereas electrodes
13b, 13e and 13d yare polarized, at the high negative
potential V1. Under these conditions: the gases, perma
nently picked up by tubes l1, pass freely through cham
the following publications: J. Sharpe: Nuclear radiation
detectors (2nd ed. 1957; Methuen & Co. Ltd., London);
D. Taylor: The measurement of radio isotopes (2nd ed.
1957; Methuen é’: Co. Ltd., London); I. Cork: Radio
activity and Nuclear Physics, chapter 3 (3rd ed. 1957;
Van Nostrand Co. Inc., Princeton, New Jersey); Report
by duct 26; the solid ions, and especially fthe rubidium
and cesium ions, arriving through picking-up tubes 11b,
on “Scintillation Counting 1956,” pp. 33 to 64 in the
through picking-up Itube 11a pass freely through charn
bers 12, ducts 15, collecting conduit 6 and are recycled
11C and 11d are attracted by the polarized electrodes
13b, 13C and 13d; on the contrary, the solid ions arriving
ber 12a, Áas electrode 13a thereof is grounded, and reach
monthly review “Nucleonics” of April 1956 (a McGraw
Hill publication).
After detection, the gaseous samples picked up by tubes
by duct 15a the collecting conduit 16; in this collecting
conduit, rsaid ions are attracted Áby collecting electrode 17,
.permanently polarised `at a high negative potential V2.
1l are recycled, by means of a fan 25 and a duct 26, in
Consequently, the radiation detector D, which essen
tially detects the activity of the ions collected on electrode
17, `detects then the presence of radioactive ions result
the various picking-up tubes 11a, 11b, 11e, 11d, means
are provided for successively and cyclically interrupting 20 ing from the ejection of fission products in channel ¿la
`and therefore an eventual burst slug in said channel.
the polarization, i.e. the feeding, of each electrode 13a,
When arm 28 of switch S successively reaches Contact
13b, 13e, 13d.
studs 3112, 31e, 31d, detector D determines the eventual
ln the embodiment .shown in FlG. l, these means in
passage in conduit 16 of radioactive ions arriving succes
clude essentially a rotating switch S, driven by an alternat
ing motor M, and a relay unit L. More precisely, motor 25 sively from chambers 12b, 12e and 12d, and consequently
the ejection of fission products in the gaseous stream 6
M drives at a constant speed, through reduction gear
duet 9.
In order to realize a purely »static switching between
passing through `channels 4b, de and 4d successively, and
27 (comprising for example an endless screw and a
so on.
toothed wheel), a metallic arm 2S which cooperates with
On FIG. 2, the voltages Va, Vb, Vc and Vd (applied
a circular conducting Zone 29, fed by one of the ter
minals of a current source Sil by a lead S2, and with four 30 to electrodes 13a, 13b, 13C and 13d respectively) are
plotted against the `time t; further curve I shows the out
put (in counts n per minute) of ratemeter 24 in course
contact studs 31a, 31h, 31C, 31d, connected each one
through a lead 83a, Sâb, 83e, 83d to one of the terminals
of the winding of a relay 32a, 32]), 32e, 32d respectively,
the other terminal of said relay winding being grounded
in 33, whereas the other terminal of source 30 is grounded
of time t. Said curve I comprises active periods la, Ib,
in 34.
Each one of the windings 32 controls an armature 35a,
íâSb, 35C arid 35d which, in the rest or oil position of the
corresponding relay, is biased by a spring ‘35i so as to con
electrodes 13a, 13b, 13C, 13d respectively) during which
Ic and Id (having each a' duration Ta eg. of about
2O to 30 seconds «and corresponding to the grounding of
to a lead'37 connected to one of the terminals of source
are collected, by electrode 17, successively the ions arriv
ing through the channels 15a, 15b, 15C, 15d, as the cor
responding electrode 13a, 13b, 13C, 13d is grounded, i.e.
at a Zero potential. During the inactive periods Il' (hav
ing each ya duration Ti at lleast equal to 1,5 Ta), elec
J1, the other terminal of said source being grounded, but
which, for the lactive or on position of said relay connects
`active ions reach conduit -16 during these inactive periods.
nect (as shown for armatures 35i), 35e, 35d) -a lead 14
trode 17 is progressively de-activated Yas no Ifurther radio
It is easy to understand now the shape of curve l: the
(as shown for armature 35a) a lead 14 to a lead 33 di
rectly connected to the ground.
45 tdetected :radioactivity increases, rirst quickly, then slowly,
At last, in order to determine only the radioactivity
during Á:an `active period, as Ia, from j to k, as the collec
corresponding to the short-lived iission products, the exit
tion is progressively counterbalanced by the de-activation;
of ratemeter 24, which is proportional to the radio
during the next inactive period Ii, the detected radio
activity measured by detector D, is applied to a memory
activity ‘decreases from k to m, the `deactivation playing
device M comprising two triodes 39 and ¿lo having the
falone a part; detector D `detects at the end of period Ii,
grids 41 and 42 thereof connected through a lead 43 and
in m, -only the residual activity of the ions previously
the armature 44 of a relay when said relay is in its «rest
Vcollected `during the period Ia by electnode 17 and the
or ott position; further, grid 41 is connected to the output
activity of the gaseous products passing permanently
of ratemeter 24, whereas grid 42» is connected tot one of
through the collecting conduit 16. It -should be consid
the armatures of an electricity-storing element or capaci
55
»ered that the voltage V2 is greater than voltage V1 (in
tor 45 having the other yarmature thereof grounded.
‘absolute value) `due to the fact that conduit 16 has a
Cathodes 47 and ¿i8 of triodes 39 and 4o are, on the one
smaller volume than chambers 12 'and that consequently
the Vgas yspeed is higher in said conduit than in said cham
hand, grounded through resistors 49, Sil and, on the other
hand, connected to both inputs of a differential voltrnetcr
51, the needle 52 of said voltmeter assuming therefore
a position which is a function of the diiîerence between
the voltages applied on grids 41 and 42.
On FIG. l, and also on FIG. 5 described later on, ordi
bers.
eo
e
The unit M has ~for an object toincrease the sensitivity
'of the measure ‘by determining only the activity dueto
the ions collected by electrode 17 during’each active
period and eliminating the sum of residual Vv'activity ofthe
nary arrows in solid lines were used for showing the cir
Vtions previously collected and of [the gaseous products
culation of the cooling gas, arrows in dotted lines for the 65 activity (said `sum corresponding to the value of the
circulation of solid ions, arrows in dashed lines for the
circulation of gaseous samples, the solid ions being ex
cepted, `and double headed arrows were used for showing
the rotation direction of the arms of the rotating switches.
The functioning of the device illustrated in FIG. 1 is
the following, reference being also made tothe curves of
FIG. 2. Motor M drives in rotation, at constant speed,
Therefore, during each
v:active period, the relay winding 46 is fed through switch
S, thereby breaking in Áiat-the connection between grids
. :activity in points as j or m).
41 land d2 through lead 43, whereas `during 'each inactive
period Il' the potential of electrodes 41 land 42 is the same.
VConsequently during an inactive period the differential
voltmeter 51 indicates zero (position in `dotted line'of
arm 28 of switch S in the direction or” arrow F and there
needle 52), because the potentials `applied on both grids
fore successively feeds the windings 32a, 32b, 32C and
32d, thereby successively grounding the electrodes 13a,
41 and 42 are the same; but during anactive period,
the circuit being open `in d4, grid 42 keeps its initial
3,084,251
7
potential (for example at point j) due to the presence
of electricity storing element or capacitor 45, whereas
-grid 41 is brought to the potential cor-responding to the
eXit of ratemeter 24 which progressively increases dur
fing the act-ive period Ia with the collection of radioactive
ions Áon electrode 17, :therefore iirst rapidly, then more
The eighteen picking-up tubes are divided in three plu
ralities each plurality of tubes ending in a static switch
A, B, `C comprising six decay chambers 12 and six elec
trodes 1'3. Each electrode 13 is normally polarized to
a negative high potential V1 (of the same value as indi
cated hereinabove) Iby a lead 14, a relay armature 35 and
slowly las Ithe ion decay starts to counterbalance the col
lection; needle 52 of voltmeter 51 is solicited to the right
(position in full lines of said needle). At the end of
period Ia, in k, the relay winding 46 is no more fed and
of potential J1. Cyclically each armature 35 is moved
from its onf-position (shown for armature 35Ab) to its
on-position (shown for 4armature SSAa) wherein it
therefore needle 52 returns lto its zero position.
a lead 37 connected lto the negative terminal of a source
grounds, through lead 3S, ’the corresponding electrode
13 as the cooperating relay winding 32 is energized.
There
fore on recorder 53 provides curves 541 (FIGS. l and 2),
on which appear very clearly the active periods IQ, Ib,
Ic and Id, the radioactivity determined by detector D
There are therefore three units LA, LB, LC, similar to
the unit L of FIG. l Iand controlled from a rotating
during the inactive periods Iz“ (even in the absence of 15 switch S1, similar to the rotating switch S of FIG. l but
radioactive ions, and therefore of a burst slug) havin-g
comprising eighteen Contact studs '31Aa, 311B@ 31Ca,
been deducted from the total detected radioactivity l;
31Ab . . . coresponding to the eighteen sections or cham
thereby Athe sensibility as well as the signal to noise ratio
bers Arr, Ba, Ca, Ab of 4the stat-ic switches A, B, C.
are improved iand consequently the selectivity of the de
rThe rotaing switch S1 includes :a rotating arm 281 co
vice.
operating with contact studs 31, connected :to relay
Also in order to improve the sensibility and the selec
windings 32 through leads S3, and with a circular conduct
tivity, it is advantageous: to reduce at a minimum the
length of ducts 15 in order to prevent the formation
therein of ions which would not be stopped by the switch
ing band 29, connected through lead 82 to a source of
potential 331 in -a memory unit M similar to memory unit
M shown in det-ail in FIG. 1;. said arm 2-81 is driven in
rotation, at a constant speed, «in the direction of arrow
F1, by an alternating motor M through a reduction gear
ing electrodes 13; to reduce the volume of the collecting
conduit 16 through which passes the normally activated
gas which is capable of action on detector D and; to
provide around detector D a shield S5 preventing the
ambient radiations, e.g. the radiation coming from reac
27; furthermore ‘a couple of toothed wheels 271 allows,
from .same motor M, the driving in rotation, in the direc
tion of arrow F2, of the mobile arm 282 of a rotating switch
tor R, to reach said counter and falsify the measures 30 S2 including [three cont-act zones 6111, 61B and 61C when
thereof.
there are three switches A, B, C. The multiplication ratio
of Wheels 271 is such that arm 282 performs six revolu
tions during a time period for which arm 281 performs one
,
On FIGS. 3 and 4 (on which the same reference nu
:morals were utilized as on FIG. 1 for `the similar ele
ments) was shown .a preferred embodiment of the switch
revolution. The arm 282 cooperates with contact zones
ing and measuring zones of FIG. 1 allowing a particu 35 61 and with a circular conducting band 2192 fed by a source
larly rugged construction. In -this embodiment, the decay
of potential 362, so that switch S2 successively sends
chambers 12 «are constituted by sections or slices of a
through leads 6211, 62B, 62C rectangular pulses which are
cylinder, divided îin two by plate electrodes ‘18, each
gate triggering signals for normally non-conductive elec
tronic gates PA, PB, PC provided between each exit lead
21A, 21B and 21C of detectors DA, DB, DC and the entry
chamber 12 being fed in a gaseous sample picked up from
the reactor channel (or group of channels) Iby a picking
Y up ltube 11 ending peripherically in said chamber.
Very
lead 21 of amplifier 22 followed by the same electronic
short connecting ducts 15 end in a. collecting conduit 16
in the middle portion of which is disposed electrode 17
which is surrounded, in the zone wherein it should not
act by la grounded shield 551 (corresponding to shield 55
to FIG. l). vrThe necessary connections for the elec
t-rodes 13 and 17 are gathered in a bunch 56 (also shown
on FIG. il) from which leave leads 14 and 81 (FIG. l).
In the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4, the scintillating
substance 181 is thermically isolated from the ygas circu- .
lating in 'the collecting conduit 16 by a water screen 57,
cooling water arriving through duct 5S and leaving
through duct 59; the cooling is improved by iins 60'. In
channel 23, 24, M yas amplifier 22 in FIG. l.
The functioning of the device according to FIG. 5 is
the following, reference being also made to curves of
FIG. 6.
The motor M being excited, the switch S1 (functioning
as switch S of FIG. l) sends signals V112, VBS., Vga, V111),
VBb, Vcb, V11,s . . . which, through relays 32;-35, cycli
cally ground electrodes 13 of sections Aa, Ba, Ca, Ab, Bb,
Cb, Ac . . . Therefore each of the collecting conduits 16
receives solid ions coming from one of the associated
chambers 12 during an active period of duration Ta, these
ions being collected by electrode 17 thereof, which is
permanently polarized at a high negative potential V11
'this case, the measurek is selectively performed on the
gamma rays, as screen 57 prevents more or less the pas
by means of source I2 and lead 81; then, during an in
active period of duration Tí=5Ta (during which the two
sage of beta rays. It is then possible to utilize the same
scintillating substance as in the above mentioned case,
other collecting conduits 16 receive solid ions), no ion
arrives in said conduit 161, and the electrode 17 thereof is
rie-activated by decay of the previously collected ions.
but preferably a tha-llium activated sodium iodide crystal.
When the nuclear reactor` to be monitored .comprises a
very great number of channels, it is advantageous to 60 The switching between the output leads 21A, 21B, 21C of
divide these channels into pluralities comprising each one
the three detectors D11, DB, DC is realised by the succes
several channels,V each plurality being monitored, as con
sive gate triggering signals UA, UB, UC, which successively
cerns Athe detection of leaks in the jackets surrounding
render conductive electronic gates PA, PB, PC during the
active periods of their associated electrode 17.
During a first period, corresponding to the position
the fuel slugs, by a unit of the type shown on FIGS. 3
and 4, the outputs of the detectors D vof the various
Iunits being sent successively on a common electronic `
shown in FIG. 5 of arms 281 and 282, detector DA detects
channel of the type shown on FIG. 1 (units 22, 23, 24.
the ions produced by radioactive decay in chamber 12 of
'and M).
Such an embodiment is shown on FIG.V 5 for
section Aa and the output signal of said detector arrives,
through gate PA which is then conductive (ie. transmits
of channels) of a nuclear reactor have to be monitored 70 the received signals), to amplifier 22; the other gates PB
by means of three units according to the invention com
and PC are non-conductive (Le. do not transmit the re
which it wasV supposed that eighteen channels (or groups
prising each one a switching zone and `a measuring zone.
ceived signals) as they receive no gate signal. ' During
The reactor, ¿which may be ofV the same type as reactor
R of FIG. 1, was not shown on FIG. 5 in order to sirn
the following periods, the sections Ba, Ca, Ab, Bb, Cb,
plify said figure.
'
'
Ac . . . are successively monitored due to the rotation
75 of arms 281 and 282 synchronized by gear 271.
3,084,251
turbulent condition which promotes ythe impact of solid
It should be considered that the output of each channel
of the nuclear reactor is analyzed during a period 7a, the
ions (arrows in dotted lines) on surface 75, in front of
which is located the scintillating substance 18 of radia
gate corresponding to associated detector D being conduc
tion detector D. It is of course possible to use means
tive during a period of about 2Ta comprising said period
Ta. The electrode 17, `associated to said detector, does Ul other than a temperature gradient for realising in conduit
16 a turbulent condition promoting the transversal m'o
not receive any more ions during a following period
tion of the radioactive ions and their collection or precip
Ti=5Ta, so that said electrode is de-activated before the
itation on a metallic surface as 75 in front of which is
next arrival of radioactive ions from the following chan
provided a lradiation detector.
nel monitored by same detector D. The duration neces
In the embodiments of FIGS. 7, 8 and 9, the exit lead
sary for exploring the eighteen channels of the plurality 10
21 of detector D is connected for example as in the em
monitored by detector D is 36Ta, period which corre
bodiments of FIGS. l and 5.
spond to eighteen minutes if Ta is equal to 30 seconds,
Although this invention has been described with ref
such a 30 seconds duration being quite convenient for
erence to schematic embodiments thereof, it is to be
monitoring burst slugs in a nuclear reactor channel.
The output of ratemeter 24, which is successively `and 15 distinctly understood that various modifications and
adaptations of the arrangements herein disclosed may be
cyclically a function of the quantity of fission products
made, as may readily occur tto persons »skilled in the art
ejected in the eighteen monitored channels, is sent in a
without constituting a departure from the spirit and scope
memory device M (of the type shown in FIG. l) so as to
of »the invention as defined in the `objects and in the ap
obtain a curve 54 which is determined only by the radio
activity corresponding to the short-lived fission products 20 pended claims.
For example, the selective detection of the tshort~lived
from' said channels collected on collecting electrode 17.
iission products (relatively to the long-lived `fission prod
Instead of realizing the ion collection or precipitation
ucts and to the radioactive isotopes produced by neu
in the measuring zone by means of a collecting electrode
tronic bombardment in the cooling gas) may be performed
17 brought to a potential V2 `of about -1000 to _4000
volts, it is possible to use other collecting elements With 25 with other means than the selective collection or pre
cipitation in zone 16 and memory unit M, said other
out departing from the spirit and scope of the present
means using for example the difference in kind, energy,
invention.
half-live and/or physical conditions of the short-‘lived
It is for example possible, as shown in FIG. 7 and as
fission products, on the one hand, and of the long-lived
described in the above-mentioned French Patent No.
1,127,618 to collect the solid radioactive ions on `a filter 30 fission products and the radioactive isotopes of the cool
ing gas, on the other hand.
band 70 (which may be constituted by ñbers having a
In a modification of the invention, other types of radia
diameter of about one micron) disposed between a deliv
tion detectors lthan scintillation detectors could be used.
ery spool 71 and a receiving spool 72. The solid particles,
Also rotating switches S, S1 and S2 could be of another
as radioactive ions, are stopped b_y said filter band 70
(dotted arrows) and detected by detector D, whereas the 35 type and include for example a drum with cams, driven
in rotation at a constant speed, said cams closing (or
gases pass through the ñlter band (arrows in dashed lines)
opening) electrical contacts during the rotation of the
and are recycled through duct 26. Band 70 is advanced
drum and _thereby sending pulses, on the o-ne hand, to
step~by-step by means not shown, in synchronism with
the relays controlling the grounding of electrodes 13 and,
the switching of the grounding of electrodes 13, so as to
provide the advancement of band 70 of a length substan 40 on the other hand, to the electronic gates P A, PB and Pc.
It is also, within the scope of the invention `to pick up
tially equal to the width of conduit 16 during each in
in one picking-up tube 11 a representative sample of the
active period Ii.
efiluents of several channels «(e.g_ four channels) of a
It is also possible, as shown in FIG. 8, to use a mobile
nuclear reactor in order tokreduce the number of moni
collecting electrode 73 which allows to locate detector D
at a certain distance from the cooling gas flow thereby 45 toring elements. iIn such a construction, the device `ac
cording to »the invention detects only the group of several
reducing lthe background noise due to the radioactivity of
channels (eg. four channels) wherein occurred a burst
said gas. The mobile electrode ’73 may be constituted by
a loop of metallic wire or ribbon driven e.g. step-by-step '
in one of the protective jackets surrounding the fuel slugs
during each inactive period Ii by rollers 74 and brought
present in said group of channels.
v
What I claim is:
to a potential V2 by a brush SI1 connected by a lead 81 -to 50
1. Device for detecting leaks in the jackets surrounding
a potential source J2. The wire or ribbon 73 collects the
the slugs of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor, cooled by
radioactive ions and ‘brings them in front of the scintillat
at least one plurality of gaseous streams circulating
ing substance 18 of detector D, the radioactive gases pass
ing through conduit I6 having on the contrary no influ
through said reactor -in heat-exchange relationship With
ence `on said detector (it should also be noticed that argon 55 said -fuel elements, comprising, for each said plurality, a
4d decays in potassium di which is a non-radioactive ele
ment).
The embodiments of FIGS. 7 and 8 are advantageous
when very many channels are monitored by Ia same de
detecting unit including: .a collecting conduit; a single
nuclear radiation detector arranged to cooperate with
said collecting conduit; for each gaseous stream of said
plurality, a picking-up tube for picking up permanently
tector D, because, when the activity varies very much 60 a sample of said gaseous stream, -a decay chamber con
nected to said picking-up tube, an electrode disposed in
from one channel to the other, to each channel is asso
said chamber and normally negatively biased to collect
ciated a special zone of the mobile filter band 70 or elec
the positive radioactive ions present in said chamber, and
trode 73, this zone presenting in front of the detector D
a channel for connecting said chamber to said collecting
only the collected ions which issued from said channel;
conduit; and means for successively and «cyclically
the measure is therefore not falsified by the 'activity of
grounding each said electrode.
the ions of the preceeding channels which Were not yet
2. ÁDevice according to claim 1, wherein each said de
completely de-activated.
In another embodiment, shown in FIG. 9, it is possible
cay chamber has a volume comprised between »about one
and about two cubic decimeters.
to use, for realizing the collection or precipitation of the 70
3. ‘Device .according to claim l, wherein the decay
radioactive ions in the conduit 16 of the measuring zone,
chambers of one lunit are formed in a cylinder by radial
a metallic surface 75, which is for example cooled by cir
separating panels, and wherein each said electrode is
culating a cooling ñuid 76 whereas the opposite surface
constituted by a radial plate -dividing in two substantially
7’7 is heated by circulating a hot fluid 78, thereby realis
equal sections the corresponding decay chamber.
ing in conduit i6 a temperature gradient and therefore a 75
4. Device according to claim l, further including a
spagaat
metallic loop passing partially through said collecting
conduit and in front of said radiation detector and means
for advancing step-by-step said metallic loop in the time
intervals separating the successive and cyclical operations
12
11. Device according to claim 9, further including a
cooling ñuid screen between said collecting conduit and
said radiation detector and wherein said radiation de
tector is a scintillation detector selectively sensitive to
of said grounding means.
5 , Device for detecting leaks in the jackets surrounding
the slugs of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor, cooled by
at least one plurality of gaseous streams circulating
gamma rays.
through said reactor in heat-exchange relationship with
said fuel elements, comprising, for eac-h said plurality, a
detecting unit including: a collecting conduit; an ion col
lecting element located in said collecting conduit; a single
nuclear radiation detector located in vfront of said ion col
lecting element; for each gaseous stream of said plurality,
a picking-up tube for picking up permanently a sample 15
during the grounding period of each said electrode located
in a decay chamber and at the beginning of said period,
>
12. Device according to claim 9, `further including a
memory unit determining the diiference Vbetween the radio
activities measured by said detector at a given moment
and a recorder recording the output of said memory unit.
13. Device for detecting leaks in the jackets surround
ing the slugs of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor, cooled
by at least two pluralities of gaseous streams circulating
through said reactor in heat-exchange relationship with
said fuel elements, comprising, `for each one of said plu
raiities, a detecting unit including: a collecting conduit;
and normally negatively biased to collect the positive
a single nuclear radiation detector arranged to cooperate
with said collecting conduit; for each gaseous stream of
radioactive ion-s present in said chamber, and a channel
for connecting said chamber to said collecting conduit; 20 said plurality, a picking up tube for picking up perma
and means for successively and cyclically grounding each
nently a sample of said gaseous stream, a decay cham
ber connected to said picking-up tube, an electrode dis
said electrode.
posed in said chamber and normally negatively biased to
6. Device 4according to claim 5, wherein said ion col
collect the positive radioactive ions present in said cham
lecting element is a permanently negatively biased elec
25 ber, and a channel for connecting said chamber to said
trode.
collecting conduit; and means for successively and cycli
7. Device according to claim 5, wherein said ion col
cally grounding each said electrode; and, for said plurali
lecting element -is a ñiter band passing thro-ugh said col
ties, common means for visualizing the number of nu
lecting conduit transversely thereto, and further compris
clear radiations detected by any said detector; and means
ing means for advancing step-by-step said'tilter band in
the time intervals separating thesuccessive and cyclical 30 for successively and cyclically delivering in said com
mon means the output of said radiation detector of each
operations of said grounding means.
said detecting unit.
8. Device according to claim 5, wherein said ion col
lecting element is a cooled metallic surface.
14. Device according to Vclaim 13, wherein Said means
9. Device for detecting leaks in the jackets surrounding
for successively and cyclically delivering in said common
`of said gaseous stream, a decay chamber connected to said
picking-up tube, an electrode disposed in said chamber
the slugs of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor, cooled 35 means comprise one electronic gate, disposed between
by at least one plurality of gaseous streams circulating
each detector and said common means, and means for
through said reactor in ‘heat-exchange relationship with
successively and cyclically -applying on the electronic
said fuel elements, comprising, for each said plurality, a
detecting unit including: a collecting conduit; .a perma
gates triggering pulses for rendering conductive said
tector located in front of said ion collecting electrode;
means for visualizing the number of-nuclear radiations
detected by said detector; a hollow cylinder; radial parti
each detecting unit and the duration of each triggering
pulse comprising ‘the duration of a grounding period for
gates, the ratio between the duration of the electrode
nently negatively biased ion collecting electrode located 40 grounding cycle and the duration of the triggering pulses
in said collecting conduit; a single ynuclear radiation de
cycle being equal to the number of decay chambers in
tions in said cylinder for dividing said cylinder in a num 45 a given electrode.
ber of `decay chambers equal to the number of said gas
References Cited in the tile ot this patent
eous streams in said plurality, each said'decay chamber
UNITED STATES PATENTS
having a volume comprised between about one and about
two cubic decimeters; a plate electrode disposed in each
Anderson ___________ __ June 19,
2,751,505
50
of said decay chambers and normally negatively biased
to collect the positive radioactive ions present in said
chambers; a Áseries'of picking-up tubes for picking up per
manently a sample from each of said gaseous streams and
connected each with one of said decay chambers; a series
of channels for connecting each of said decay chambers to
said collecting conduit; and means for successively and Y
cyclically grounding each plate electrode.
2,823,179
1956
Snell et al. ___________ __ Feb. 11, 1958
OTHER REFERENCES
A Continuous Monitor for Airborne Plutonium, by
D. C. Collins, issued by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and
Co., Explosives Dept., Atomic Energy Div., Technical
Div., Savannah River Laboratory, November 1956, 16
pages.
10. Device according to claim 9., wherein said radiation
Calder Hall Burst-Slug Detection, from Nucleonics,
detector is a scintillation detector selectively sensitive to
60 December 1956, pages 520, 521,
beta rays.
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