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Патент USA US3084339

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April 2, 1963
Filed Aug. 6, 1959
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United States arent Gf”,ICS
Patented Apr. 2, läSS
Ventional AM receiver has no means for separating the
Richard Clay, Indian Rocks Beach, Fla., assigner to Elec
tronic Communications, Inc., St. Petersburg, Fla.
Filed Aug. 6, 1959, Ser. No. 832,081
2 Claims. (Cl. 32E-65)
Thi-s invention relates to methods of communication
and communication systems and more particularly to a
novel method and system for communicating intelligence
in such a manner that certain types of noise are cancelled.
Since the early days of radio, `many attempts have
signal from the noise which rides through w-ith it.
The present invention makes use of the redundancy
of information conveyed by the two sidebands. The basic
technique of the invention involves the inversion of one
of the sidebands so that sidebands of opposite polarity
are obtained, as shown in FIG. 2. Detectors for these
sidebands are also affected substantially equally by noise,
but, while the noise detected with each sideband signal
is substantially of the same polarity, the modulation is
oppositely poled. Hence, noise cancellation can be ob
tained by detecting the respective sideband modulations
and obtaining the algebraic difference of the same.
The convention-al AM signal of FIG. l Ihas `a corre
been made to reduce the inherent noise occurring in radio
communication systems. For example, one prior scheme 15 spending vector diagram as shown in FIG. 3a, the side
band vector SA being shown added to the carrier vector
attempts to detect the noise on a frequency different
CA in phase. The amplitude of the resultant vector
from the desired frequency and to place the detected
varies as a function of time. The signal shown rin FIG.
noise in opposition to `the noise on the desired frequency.
2 can -be produced by placing the sideband vector in
More recently, other systems of noise suppression have
quadrature with the carrier Vector. Thus, as shown in
employed auto-correlation techniques. In general, how
FIG. 3b, ve-ctor SP is in quadrature with Vector CP.
ever, the noise suppression techniques proposed hereto
The resultant vector P varies in phase about the car
fore have been either unduly complex or relatively in
rier vector CP as .a function of time and `also varies in
effective to accomplish the desired extent of noise sup
amplitude. The signal -o-f FIG. 2 thus represents a phase
modulated signal with some amplitude modulation super
It is accordingly a principal object of the present in
imposed. The sidebands shown represent 4the first upper
vention to provide 4an improved noise suppression meth
od and system capable of overcoming the disadvantages
of such prior-art proposals.
Another object is to devise a noise suppression tech
nique which is ‘both simpler and more effective than com
parable techniques employed heretofore.
A further object is to provide an improved system and
method for communicating intelligence.
An additional object is Vto provide a noise suppression
system -and method which does not require an increased
In order that the manner in which these and other
objects are attained in accord-ance with the invention can
be understood in detail, reference is had to the accom
and lower sidebands of the phase modulation spectrum
and the signal is somewhat simil-ar to that obtained with
narrow band phase modulation wherein the maximum
phase deviation is kept small.
One manner in which the signal of FlG. 2 can be
obtained is illustrated in FIG. 4. The system here shown
employs what is essentially an Armstrong FM technique
(Armstrong, E. H., “A Method of Reducing Disturbances
in Radio Signalling by a System of Frequency Modula
tion,” Proceedings of IRE, May 1936, p. 689) without
pre-emphasis, limiting, or frequency multiplication.
carrier oscillator 1li produces a suitable radio frequency
signal which is applied to a balanced modulator 12 to
panying drawings, which form a part of this specification, 40 which is also applied a suitable modulation signal. The
output of the balanced modulator is a carrier suppressed
and wherein:
double sideband signal. The output of the oscillator 1li
FIG. l is -a diagram illustrating a conventional ampli
is lalso applied to a 90° phase shifter 14, and the out
tude modulated signal;
puts of the phase shifter and the balanced modulator
FIG. 2 is a similar diagram illustrating a signal in
45 4are combined -in an adder 16. The output of the adder
accordance with the invention;
is a signal in which the carrier and sideband compo
FIGS. 3a and 3b Iare vector diagrams relating to the
nents are in quadrature. This signal can be 4amplified
signals of FIGS. l and 2;
and is then applied to a transmitting antenna 18. Any
FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating one form of trans
amplifier subsequent to the adder must be linear. The
mitter in accordance with the invention;
50 `relative amplitudes of carrier and sidebands can be con
FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating another form of trans
trolled by adjusting the inputs to the adder 16 in any
mitter »in accordance with the invention, and
suitable fashion.
FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a receiver constructed
Rather than shifting the output of the carrier oscilla
in accordance with the invention.
tor, the output of the modulator can be shifted. This
Stated generally, the objects of the invention are ac
-alternative is illustrated in FIG. 5, where 90° phase
complished by transmitting intelligence as oppositely
shifter 14 is connected to the output of modulator 12, the
poled modulation on respective distinguishable signals,
outputs of phase shifter 14 and carrier oscillator .1li being
receiving .the signals, detecting the respective modula
combined in adder 16.
tions separately, and subtracting the respective modula
The transmitted ‘signal is received by an antenna 20
tions whereby, as the original intelligence is reproduced, 60
and applied to the conventional RF and IF stages 22
the noise is cancelled.
of a superheterodyne receiver. The-output from these
Referring to the drawings, FIG. 1 illustrates the am
stages is applied to conventional upper and lower side
plitude, frequency, land polarity relationship of the side
band `detectors 24 and 26. The sidebands may be sepa
bands and carrier in a conventional amplitude modulated
rated by filters forming a part of these detector circuits
signal. The signal has upper and lower sidebands of
or by phasing methods known in the art. The detected
equal amplitude, one of which is located at a frequency
modulation is indicated at A and B and the superimposed
equal to the sum of :the carrier frequency F and the
noise is indicated at C and D. It will be noted that
modulation frequency f and the other of which is located
the modulations are of opposite polarity, while the noise
at a frequency equal »to the difference between the car
rier frequency F and the modulation frequency f. Both
has the same polarity.
of the sidebands have the same polarity and contain the
The outputs of the detectors 24 and 26 are applied
to a difference ampliiier 28 operative to obtain the alge
braic difference of the inputs applied thereto. 'the per
same information.
Detectors for these sidebands are
substantially equally affected by .the noise, and the con
'formance of vthis >function may also be `accomplished
In the subtraction process the noise compo~
ing a resultant in quadrature with'said carrier oscilla
tions, `means operative .to detect the modulations on said
sidebands separately, and means for obtaining the dif
nents 'C and D are in opposition and hence are cancelled,
ference of the detected modulations of lthe respective
“While the modulation "components -A and -B- combine to
produce 'an output E fromithe fdiiîerence-ainpliñer. It
simply-byarranging-thedctectors ‘in Vseries «with thedproper
2. In a communication system, the combination of a
carrier »frequency-oscillator, -a ‘balanced modulator cou
pled to saidtcarrier oscillator Vand to a source of modu
\is important »that the parallel channel portions `of the
Yreceiver _(iie., the portions which convey Ythe separate
-s‘ideban‘d signals) »have »identical characteristics „so 'that
lation signals, >means connected to vsaid oscillator and
'Lthe .transient response >ïîor noise À'in thechannels Will .be 10 modulator and operative to combine V'the output of said
íthe `same and ‘the effects o'f the Ánoise will -belca'ncelle'd
modulator in quadrature «with 'the-output of said oscilla
Vin the difference ampliñer.
«It is lapparent ïfrom the ¿foregoing »description Vthat the
‘invention provides a unique :noise lsuppression technique
and lthat -noise suppression is obtainedfby -a system T_that 15
is simple and elîective, «and which requiresfno increase
in bandwidth. While »a preferred embodiment of the
invention -has been shown and described, it Wil-1 ï’oe ap
tor, whereby sidebands of opposite polarity are produced,
:detector means for detecting said .sidebands separately,
vvand "means for obtaining ithe :algebraic-difference >ot’ the
detected modulation ,on the 'respective sidebands.
YReferences iCìted in the lileof this patent
`.parent -to zthose «skilled -in the art thatchanges vcan lbe
lmade in this >embodiment without departing «from the
principles and spirit of vlthe invention as fdeñn'ed ’in the
"appended claims. Accordingly, 4the foregoing :embodi
‘ment ‘is to ¿be >r-:onsidered lillustrative, ¿rather than re
strictive of the invention, .and ‘those modifications which
come’Within-the meaning-and rangeof equivalencyfofthe
claims are ¿to be ‘included -therein.
iWhat isclaimedis:
l. ‘In a communication system, ‘the combinationvof a
Breedlove ...... __ ____ __ Dec. 7, 1937
’Breedlove ____________ __ Jan. 4, 1938
’Wilbur ______________ __ ‘M'ay §10, '1938
`'Koch ______________ _-___ Oct. 10, 1939
¿Pollack ____- ___________ __ 'July-8, 1941
’Woodward ___________ __ Oct. 25, '1960
Proceedings of the LRE., 1936, vol. 24, pp. 689-740,
Armstrong, “A >‘Method Aof Reducing Disturb
source `of carrier oscillations, ‘a source of »modulating
signals, lmeans _for modulating lsaid carrier oscillations 30 ßances ïin lÍRadio Signalling by -a System of *Frequency
'With said modulating signals ‘to Yproduce sidebands -"hav
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