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Патент USA US3084368

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April 9, 1963
w. w. MCLEAN
3,084,358
BUOYANCY APPARATUS
Filed Aug. 3. 1959
INVENTOE.
ire
we
tas
3,@34,353
_
ii
Fatented Apr. 9, 1963
1.
2
3,934,358
had by reference to the following disclosure and speci?ca
tion and accompanying drawings, to which latter, refer
BUGYANCY APPARATUS
Wayne W. McLean, 6214 Gutiook Ave.,
Los Angeles 42, Qalif.
Filed Aug. 3, 1959, Ser. No. 831,415
2 Claims. (ill. 9—337)
This invention relates to buoyant apparatus adapted to
be worn on the person to provide ?otation to the wearer
in water. By virtue of the novel features of this inven
tion and their intrinsic characteristics, exclusive of the
common resultant function thereof, some of the embodi
ments are exclusively suited for females and the other em
bodiments to males. In conjunction with the novel osten
ence is ?rst made and wherein:
FIG. 1 illustrates an embodiment which simulates an
Hawaiian hula skirt.
FIG. 2 illustrates the action in water of the buoyant
shirt of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a side view of one of the buoyant elements
of FIGS. 1 and 2 and shows the hingable, pivotal action
of the element.
FIG. 4 shows the structural detail of the buoyant skirt
of FIG. 1.
FiG. 5 shows a method of attaching two layers of
buoyant elements to the upper belt section and shows thtir
sible characteristics of the buoyant devices of this inven 15 pivotal action.
PEG. 6 shows an alternative method of pivotally con
tion and the structural and operable features thereof, a
necting two layers of buoyant elements to the upper ?xed
novel method of providing buoyancy and ?otation is pro
section or belt.
vided and includes improvements in the art.
FIG. 7 is an embodiment of the buoyant device and
More particularly, the buoyant devices of this inven
tion are adapted for use for children where a water hazard 20 method adapted for use by males, which device is simi
larly depended from the Waist anteriorly thereof in the
exists and in this respect they are intended to be life-pre
servers in that they can be conveniently attached to a
child to form a part of their regular accoutrement in
their recreational activities where there is a possibility of
form of a shield.
for the female child, can be worn as a garment, or may
wardly and being utilized in swimming.
form an integral part of their bathing suits so that a life
preserver is always with them under conditions Where the
need exists. Apart from their use as a precautionary
For a detailed description of this invention, reference
is ‘further made to the accompanying drawings in which
like numerals refer to like parts thoughout and wherein:
FIG. 8 is a section through 8'——8' of FIG. 7.
FIG. 9 is a side view in detail of the preferred form
their falling into a swimming pool, for example, or any 25 of the upper pivotal buoyant devices of FIGS. 10, 11 and
12
deep water. The increasing popularity of swimming
FIG. 10 shows two of the pivotal, buoyant devices co
pools and their increasing numbers, creates an environ
acting to provide vertical ?otation to a child.
ment that is always potentially dangerous to small chil
FIG. 11 shows one of the devices buoyantly acting
dren and the onus of care and supervision is no small one
30 from the waist, forwardly thereof.
to the parents.
FIG. 12 shows the device of FIG. 11 ?ipped down
The devices of this invention, particularly those adapted
measure, they offer diverse advantages for children in
FIG. 1 shows a buoyant skirt which simulates an Ha
dulging in recreational aquatic activities.
waiian hula skirt.
It consists of a multiplicity of hollow,
thin-walled, resilient, pliant, ?exible, in?atably dilated,
One species of this invention can be used to advantage
hermetically sealed, plastic tubes 1, hingably ?xed at the
even by those adept in water. By means of the novel
method of providing buoyancy, as shown herein, one can 40 upper end to a Waist engirding band or belt 2 and gravita
tionally suspended therefrom. The tubes are contiguous
dive into water without hindrance or injury while wear
ly arrayed about the waist as shown in the front view of
ing them and they do not hinder swimming, in fact facili
FIG. 1. The skirt is atlixed to the body by the belt 2
tate it, and moreover, they provide buoyancy and ?ota
which constricts the waist and is joined by the buckle 3'.
tion when needed or desired.
FIG. 2 shows the resultant buoyant action of the skirt in
It is an object of this invention to provide an e?icient 45
water. The tubular elements 1 move in an arc about the
life-preserver for tots that will not be disdained by them
because of bulkiness or interference and one which can
hingable position 5 adjacent the belt 2. All else being
equal, the greater the lengths of the tubes 1, the greater
be conveniently worn by them at all times when or where
a water hazard exists.
It is an object of this invention to provide an ef?cient
will be the buoyant, air-con?ning volume ‘and the more
50 rapidly the wearer will rise to the surface after falling into
buoyant device which will provide ?otation for children
water, but after having risen to the surface, the only effec
in water and which can be conveniently worn over their
tive volume which is contained by the tubes will be con
?ned within that depth of Water from the interface of the
regular clothes, or worn as a garment, or worn over a
bathing suit or as an integral part of the latter.
it is an object of this invention to provide a buoyancy
device which simulates the familiar Hawaiian hula skirt
and one which the female child would be pleased to
wear.
-It is an object of this invention for the provision of a
lower part of the body being ?oated, with the surface of
the Water and the hingable position 5. So far as ?oating
equilibrium is concerned, lengths of tubing extending
above the surface are super?uous but, of course, it does
not preclude the use of longer tubes and a longer skirt. If
the skirt were as long as the conventional hula skirt, the
convenient, buoyant apparatus which will permit the
wearer would rise to the surface more rapidly and the ex
wearer to dive into water with no interference, hindrance
or injury and which can be worn by those indulging in
cess lengths will project above the surface. A strap 6 is
shown engaging the crotch of the wearer. The strap is
activities such as Water-skiing, boating and the like, where
integrally attached to the belt 2 anteriorly and posteriorily
they may be impelled into the water or otherwise be
forced to remain in the water for long periods or be re
thereof in respect to the body, and serves to provide
'means, additional to the waist-constricting belt 2, of pre
venting the skirt from rising above the waist under the
buoyant action in Water. The strap 6 has lapped-over,
rounded edges to prevent cha?ng at the crotch. Alterna
natively, facilitate swimming.
70 tively, particularly for children, the skirt will form an inte
gral part of the under garment or bathing suit. The band
With the above objects in view, together with others
quired to swim long distances.
‘It is an object to provide a hingable buoyant device
which will enable the wearer to ?oat in water and, alter
which appear, an understanding of this invention may be
2 may be elastic and sewn to the upper waist-engirding
aoslgsss
'3
portion of the under garment 7. A bathing suit 7 may be
provided with loops to receive the belt 2 to maintain waist
location of the belt and buoyant tubes 1.
FIG. 3 is a side view showing the hingable, pivotal
action of a tubular element ‘1 of FIGS. 1 and 2.
The
upper extremity of tube 1 is ?attened and heat-sealed
and sandwiched between the overlapping, plastic band
that function but insui?cient to allow side movement in
water when utilized in swimming as shown in FIG. 12.
FIG. 8 is a section through ‘3'—8’ of FIG. 7 and shows
the tubes 1’, the disjoined medial slit 18 and shows the
tubes covered at the back and front by cloth covering 17.
The lower extents of the tubes 1' are left uncovered to
permit free drainage of water.
FIG. 9 shows a side view of the preferred method of
hingably attaching the upper extremities of the tubes 1’ to
hingable portion 5. The ?attened hingable portion 5 is 10 the waist-engirding band 2c of the devices shown in
of su?icient extent to permit the inflated tube 1 to freely,
FIGS. 10, 11 and 12. Complete hingable freedom of
hingably move from a position of gravitational suspension
movement is provided by this method and it has addi
through a position of buoyant, substantially vertical ele
tional advantages of raising the pivotal position in respect
vation about the lower extremity of the band 2. without
to the band 2c and providing a ‘buoyant volume im
obstruction of the adjacent in?ated portion of the tube 1.
mediately forward of the band 2c as shown along the
The ?attened portion 5 serves the following functions: it
portion 153 of FIG. 9. The tube 1' of FIG. 9 is ?attened
permits of free, hingable movement as described; it pro
and heat-sealed at 20 to which the band 2c is heat-sealed
2 as shown and heat-sealed thereto. The ?attened por
tion of the tube 1 extends below the band 2 to form the
vides strength by virtue of lamination; it prevents local
elongation, stress, weakening of the walls of the tube.
over the intimate surfaces of contact as shown.
FIG. 10 shows two of the scutate buoyant devices of
For a single layer of tubes as shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, a 20 FIG. 9 attached to a child and illustrates the buoyant
?attened portion at 5 of 4 vmm. is considered a minimum,
action in water. Two such devices provide a buoyant
7 mm. the optimum and .10 mm. a maximum. A length
balance and. augments buoyancy. The band 2c may be
of 4 mm. will provide a fairly suitable hingable action
elastic in part, along the sides 21 to ?xably locate the
but a poor pivotal action and increasing lengths will
band about the waist.
increase the pivotal action. The latter action is advan 25
FIG. 11 illustrates the buoyant action of one of the
tageous to permit freedom of movement and eliminate
devices of FIGS. 9 and 10. The wearer can simply ?ip
stress at position 5 when, for example, the wearer falls
the device downwardly in water and arch forwardly to
assume the swimming position of FIG. 12. 1In the hori
FIG. 4 shows the detail of an embodiment consisting
zontal position, the buoyant volume provided as at 19
of a single layer of tubes 1 which are ?attened at the 30 of FIG. 9 by the hingable method of FIG. 9, provides
upper extremity 8 and heat-sealed to the ‘waist engirding
additional buoyancy‘immediately in front of the waist
band 2 which overlaps the ?attened extremities of the
band 20 to compensate in part, for the upward buoyant
tubes 1, in part, and shows the free, ?attened, hingable
force at the lower trunk of the body. The natural tend
into the water in a horizontal manner.
portions as at 5. A buckle 3 is shown attached to a strap
ency of the legsrof a swimmer to sink in water is obviated
9 which is heat-sealed to the waist portion as shown and 35 by the lower 30 percent of the device of FIG. 12 at 22
also a strap 14} to receive the buckle 3 and constrict the
and the remainder provides a resultant buoyant vector
waist. Slots 11 and 12 are shown cut into the ?ap por
at hip level. Swimming action of the arms provides the
tion of the band 2 to receive the buckle 3 and strap 10
balance and swimming is greatly facilitated. To rest in
respectively. Loops 13 are attached to the ?ap on the
water, the wearer can merely roll over chest upward or
upper side to receive the excessive length of the strap 19. 40 force his legs downward and the position of FIG. 11 is
A crotch-engirding strap 6 is shown attached to the band
2 at 14 and is similarly attached posteriorly of the skirt.
automatically assumed.
FIG. 5 shows a side view of a very suitable means
Concerning all of the embodiments shown in the draw
ings, it will be observed that the diameters of the hollow,
whereby two layers of tubes 1 are hingably affixed to form
a buoyant skirt. An hermetically sealed dilated tube of
tubes 1 and resistance resulting in falling, jumping, diving
in?ated tubes 1 are minor in respect to the lengths of the
determined length is simply ?attened and heat-sealed
or being impelled into the water is negligible or nil and
medially thereof and bent over on itself as shown at 8
one can make a running dive into Water with ease and
and ?xably attach-ed to the plastic band 2, which comprises
an inner and outer waist band, by heat-sealing with the
provision of the ?attened, hingable extent as at 5. The
hingable action of the tubes is illustrated in phantom.
When the. skirt does not form an integral part of the
wearer’s under garment, or bathing suit, a resilient lining
olfering more intimate contact with the waist of the
wearer, and more positive gripping may be incorporated
?otation in water for children of various ages and the
tube diameters and lengths which may be used to pro
‘as at in of FIG. 5.
FIG. 6 shows an alternative method of securing 'two
vide the requisite buoyancy. vIt will be observed that in
the table, the waist girth, together with the diameter of
come up naturally, with the upper part of the body fore
most.
The buoyant tubes 1 comprising the skirt of FIG. 1
may be longer or shorter than that illustrated. The fol
lowing table provides the pertinent data relative to the
buoyant, water-displacing volume required to provide
layers of tubes 1 to the waist-band 2'. vThe double
length of tube 1 is ?attened and heat-sealed along the
the tube 1, determines the number of tubes that can be
contiguously arrayed about the waist in one row and
portion 15’ and looped over the band 2’ and heat-sealed 60 that this is a minimum. Encirclement of the body closer
thereto along the intimate extent of contact, leaving the
to the hips will permit of a greater number and also
?attened extents 5 which provide free, hingable and piv
greater effective lengths to the surface of the water.
otal movement of the tubes 1 as shown.
Two of the devices of FIG. 10 having a length extend
FIG. 7 illustrates a buoyant device for males, which’
ing from the cervicle to the waist and a width approxi
device is of a scutiforrn shape and similarly hingable 65 mately equal to the width across the waist and having a
from the waist and consists of a plurality of hollow,
diameter of 2 centimeters, will provide ?otation for a
child.
1', the upper extremities of which are similarly ?attened
The tubes forming the skirt of FIG. 1 may be joined
and heat-sealed to the band 2 at 8, and having ?attened,
laterally at the front by a plastic band to provide the
hingable portions’ at 5. The band 9 with buckle 3 and 70 functional equivalent of the device of FIG. 7 as used in
the strap it) are heat-sealed to the band 2 over the
FIG. 12 for swimming. Adults may ?nd it appropriate
?attened portions 8. The tubes may be adhesively super
to wear the buoyant skirt of FIG. 1 at hip level, but for
pliant, ?exible, in?ated, hermetically sealed, plastic tubes
posed over a light-weight, thin covering of cloth as shown
tots, waist location or constriction is necessary or advis
at 17. The slit 18 is to minimize movement of the integral
able in order to provide buoyant action above the center
unit in walking and is of a length sufficient to provide 75 of buoyancy of the body.
3,084,858
6
5
?attened and heat-sealed as at 15 in FIGS. 5 and 6, in
to form a free, pilant hinge, a second waist-encircling
band overlying said ?attened portions ?xably attached to
said ?rst waist band; means to restrict said waist bands
about the waist of the wearer, said buoyant elements
which case, the suspended elements will be doubled.
A very suitable plastic for the purposes of this inven
tion is extruded polyvinylchloride with additives to pro
vide fungus resistance and a small degree of elasticity.
moveable, in totality, from a position of gravitational
suspension out of water, to a position of buoyant elevation
in water through substantially 180°.
2. In an article of apparel to provide buoyancy for
Although the tubular elements 1 of FIGS. 1, 2 and 4
are shown as independent, the skirt may be comprised
of a continuous length of plastic tubing, intermittently
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Displacement
Volurue
6’
7'
Equivalent
Buoyancy
8
9
Knee length
Two Rows
Tube: D=1.0 cm.
Male and Female
Average
Weight,
Age, Years
Pounds
Waist
Girth,
Cervical Weight
to Waist, of Head
Ceuti-
Genti-
meters
meters
Single
Double
Pounds
1.5 cm.
1.0 cm.
Cubic Centimeters
29
33
37
42
48
52
58
64
72
80
52
53
54
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
21. 6
22. 9
24. 2
25. 4
26. 7
27. 2
28. 2
29. 2
30. 0
31. 0
Single
Double
andNeck, Row: D= Row: D: Row: D: Row: D=
2. 28
2. 60
2. 96
3. 36
3. 85
4. 16
4. 65
5. 10
5. 75
6. 40
1, 330
1, 430
1, 550
l, 660
1, 800
1, 890
1, 960
2, 060
2, 160
2, 270
l, 760
1, 930
2,080
2, 220
2, 400
2, 500
2, 620
2, 740
2, 880
3, 020
1.5 cm.
1.0 cm.
Total
Buoy
Body
ancy,
Pounds
Weight,
Percent
Pounds
2. 92
3. l5
3. 44
3. 66
3. 96
4. 15
4. 32
4. 55
4. 76
5. 00
—
2. 88
4. 24
4. 58
4. 88
5. 28
5. 52
5. 76
6. 04
6. 36
6. 64
5. 82
6. 36
6. 87
7. 32
7. 92
8. 28
8. 64
9. 06
9. 54
9. 96
20
19. 3
18. 5
17. 4
16. 5
15. 9
14. 9
14. 2
13. 2
12. 5
The in?ated, tubular elements are best made by hermetfemale children in water, which device simulates an
ically sealing one end of a plastic tube of considerable 30 Hawaiian hula skirt consisting of a waist band adapted to
engird the body of the wearer medially thereof and a
length and dilating the entire tube by in?ation from the
lower skirt portion comprising a multiplicity of contigu
opposite end. The tube is then alternately constricted and
ous, elongated strand elements attached to and suspended
?attened at determined, spaced-apart positions and heat
from said waist band, the improvement, consisting of an
sealed. The sealed, constricted portions are cut centrally
inner and ‘outer waist band, said elongated elements being
across and form the bottom of the tubes; the flattened por
pliant, hermetically sealed plastic tubes, the upper extremi
tions are cut centrally across and have ?attened extents
ties of :said ‘tubes being flattened wall to wall and posi
su?icient to form the freely hingable ‘function, the re
tioned between said inner and outer waist bands and af
mainder providing the ?xed surface of attachment.
fixed thereto with a portion of said ?attened tubes extend
It will be noted that the device of FIG. 1 is also a gar
ment and may be embellished, for example, with ?brous 40 ing below said waist bands; fastening means to secure
said waist bands about the waist of the wearer, a second,
strands and that although the embodiments shown are
adjustable band af?xed to‘ said waist bands and depend,
described with particularity, a method of providing buoy
ing therefrom and adapted to engage the crotch of the
ancy is involved, and minor changes in the structures
shown may be resorted to without departing from the 45 wearer and prevent upward movement of the waist bands,
the ?attened portions of said tubes extending below said
spirit and scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed.
waist bands providing freely hingable movement of said
I claim:
tubular elements from the depending position out of water
1. In a buoyant device to provide buoyancy to the
to a position of buoyant levity in water.
wearer in Water, consisting of a ?rst waist-engird-ing band,
a plurality of plastic, tubular, in?ated, hermetically sealed, 50
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
elongated, buoyant elements having upper and lower ex
UNITED STATES PATENTS
tremities, said upper extremities being ?attened wall to
wall and ?xably attached to said ?rst waist band with a
710,275
Hunt ________________ __ Sept. 30', 1902
portion of each of said upper ?attened extremities being
1,704,197
Journey ______________ __ Mar. 5, 1929
free of said waist band and depending therefrom and in 55 2,331,302
Brown _______________ __ Oct. 12, 1943
terconnecting said tubular elements to said ?rst waistband
2,715,231
Marston _____________ __ Aug. 15, 1955
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