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Патент USA US3084374

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April 9, 1963
A. A. HUTCHINS
3,084,364
POLISHER
Filed Feb. 15, 1960
'
INVENTOR.
ALMQ A. Hu TCH/NS
"
%
ATTO'R N EY
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assists‘
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EC
Patented Apr. 9, 1963
2
3,684,364
?QLESIER
-
Alma A. Hutchins, iii-{i2 E. Colorado Sh, Pasadena, Calif.
Filed
is, rose, so. No. arse
2 claims. (or. 15-37)
This invention relates to improved polishing appara
tus, particularly adapted in certain respects for use in
polishing and/ or cleaning the body of an automobile, or
any other surface to which it may be desired to give a
swirls on the work surface. Also, this type of bodily
revolving movement of the pad, without rotation of the
pad about its own axis, allows the discussed type of
sponge material to be employed without damage to the
sponge material such as would occur if that material by
itself were used as the pad in a simple rotating polisher
arrangement.
A particular advantage of the employ
ment of a sponge material as the work engaging pad re
sides in the fact that the polish or cleaning compound
may be received very conveniently within the pores of the
protective coat of polish.
spong material, and be automatically fed from those
pores onto the work surface as the polishing action pro
in waxing or polishing an automobile by means of a
gresses. The inherent ?exibility and resilience of the
conventional power driven polisher, it is customary to
sponge material also is of great advantage, in allowing
utilize a pad formed of lambs wool or cloth, which pad
engages the surface of the automobile or other work sur 15 the pad to conform very completely to the contour of
the work surface, to thereby assure effective polishing or
face being treated, and is continuously rotatably driven
cleaning of the entire area of that surface.
0 apply polish or cleaner to that surface. As the pad
For optimum results, the pad is preferably formed of
otates very rapidly, the operator gradually moves the
regenerated cellulose sponge material. The particular
ent're tool along the Work surface, to in this Way ulti
mately contact and polish or clean every portion of that 20 cellulose sponge material which is presently preferred is
surface.
that sold by E. I. du Pont de Nemours, which product
is made by transforming cellulose derived from wood or
Though devices of this general type have proven fair
cotton to a resilient porous sponge form, with vegetable
ly satisfactory under some circumstances for polishing
?bers distributed within the sponge to integrate and re
automobiles, these devices have nevertheless had certain
very decided disadvantages in use, and have not been 25 inforce it. The pad may be connected to the driving
capable of effecting an optimum polishing action. This
inadequacy has resulted primarily from the fact that the
very rapidly turning pad has had a tendency to produce
swirls or circular marks in the surface being treated, and
it has been very dif?cult if not impossible to manipulate 30
mechanism by means of a connector part attached to one
the tool in a manner preventing
the pad, this plate desirably being formed of an essen
e formation of such
swirls. Further, the sreed of rotation of the pad has
side of the pad, this part typically consisting of a screw
secured to the pad and projecting laterally therefrom.
Excessive deformation of the pad in use is prevented by
providing a backing plate resisting such deformation of
tially rigid resinous plastic material. A particular feature
of the invention has to do with the provision also of an
been so great that the pad can very easily wear through
intermediate sheet of elastomeric material, between the
or damage the painted surface of an automobile if the
tool is left in engagement with a particular portion of 35 backing plate and the sponge pad, for preventing damage
to the sponge material by engagement with the periph
that surface for too long a period, and consequently the
ery of the backing element upon deformation of the pad.
operation of a power driven polisher of this character has
The above and other features and objects of the present
required a very substantial amount of skill or practice on
invention will be better understood from the following
the part of the operator.
The general object of the present invention is to pro 40 detailed description of the typical embodiments illus
trated in the accompanying drawing in which:
vide a new type of power driven polisher unit which is
FIG. 1 is a side view, partially broken away, of a
capable of very e?ectively polishing or cleaning a work
polishing unit constructed in accordance with the
surfac and will do so without the above discussed dis
advantages of prior polishing devices. A tool embodying
invention;
the invention is speci?cally designed to produce a type
of polishing action which is much more gentle than that
the polishing head;
of the conventional rapidly rotating pad, and which does
not cause swirls or circular marks on the work surface
being treated. Further, a device constructed in accord
ance win the invention is sufficiently gentle to eliminate
the possibility of ever wearing through or damaging the
paint on a work surface even if the tool is inadvertently
left at a particular location on the work surface for a
very extended period of time. Besides these advantages,
the pad which is employed in the present invention is of
a unique character such that the construction of the‘ pad
itself, taken in conjunction with the manner of movement
of the pad, acts to greatly facilitate the completely uni
form distribution or spreading of the polishing compound‘
or cleaning compound over the entire area of the Work
surface.
in order to attain these results, I utilize as the work
engaging pad of the polisher device a flexible body of
FIG. 2 is ‘an enlarged showing of the 'two sections of
FIG. 3 is a section taken on line 3-3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary section through the
pad of FIGS. 1 to 3;
FIG. 5 is a reduced section taken on line 5-5 of
FIG. 2; ‘and
FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 2 but showing a vari
ational form of backing plate.
Referring ?rst to FIG. 1, l have shown at 10 a. rotary
power operated polishing tool, having a driven head
structure 11 constructed in accordance with the inven
tion. In this ?gure, the tool is illustrated typically as
working on the surface 12 of a work piece, which may
be the painted surface of ‘an automobile. The tool it)‘
has a handle 13, carrying a control lever 14 by which
the operation of an electrically energized motor within
the main portion .15 of the tool is controlled. Energy
may be supplied to the motor within body 15' of the tool
cellular sponge material. This pad is so constructed that
through a power cord 16 connected into handle 13. The
the sponge material itself directly engages and rubs the
motor acts when energized to rotate a cylinder spindle
work surface being treated. Preferably, the sponge ma
17 about the main axis 18 of the tool, this spindle 17
terial is mounted to be bodily revolved about a predeter
having [an externally threaded connector shank portion
mined
by an associated rotary power tool, but is so
19 projecting [therefrom and centered about axis 18. The
connected to the tool that the pad does not rapidly ro 70 end surface 20 [of the enlarged diameter portion of spin
tate about its own axis in use. In this way, a very gentle
dle 17 may extend directly transversely of axis 18.
rubbing action is attained which can not damage or form
The driven apparatus 11 includes a carrier member
»
3
3,084,364
21 which is removably connectable to spindle 17, and a
work engaging pad 22 which is removably and rotatably
connectable to carrier member 21. The carrier member
may be a bodyof rigid metal, typically ‘die cast aluminum,
having at its upper side (as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 2)
a threaded bore 122 extending downwardly into the
material of carrier part 21, and centered about previously
4
upwardly into the pad from that work surface as seen in
FIG. 4.
Head 40 of screw 38 has a flat surface 45 engaging
against the central portion of surface ‘44 of the sponge.
Abutting axially against surface 44 of the pad about head
40 of the screw, there is provided an annular sheet of elas
ttomeric material, such as a ‘freely ?exible rubber, this
mentioned axis 18. The threads within this bore are
sheet being of an external diameter slightly ‘smaller than
desirably of uniform ‘diameter along their entire length,
the external diameter of peripheral surface 42 of the pad.
and threadedly engage ‘the shank 19 of spindle 17 to 10 The pad 22 is backed up against deformation except at its
rigidly attach member 21 to the spindle. The upper
periphery by an annular rigid backing plate 47, whose
transverse planar surface 23 of body 21 engages axially
outer edge 48 is of a diameter somewhat smaller than the
against surface 20 of the spindle, to limit the tightening
external diameter of rubber sheet 46. The axial thickness
action of rthe part 21 relative to the spindle.
of the two elements 46 and 47 may correspond substan
At its underside, part 21 contains a cylindrical bore 15 tially to the axial thickness of head 49 of screw 38, with
24 (see FIG. 2) within which there are mounted two
another smaller diameter circular disc '49 ‘being attached
spaced ball bearing assemblies 25 and 26, separated by a
to the upper side of disc 47, and having an opening at its
spacer ring 27. The outer races of bearing assemblies 25
center 50 just large enough to pass shank 38 but small
and 26 are tight forced fits within bore 124, to be fric
enough to e?ectively retain head 40 against movement
tionally retained within that bore. As will be apparent 20 away from pad 22. Elements 47 and 49 are both rigid
from FIG. 2, the cylindrical bore 214 and the contained
and are desirably formed of a rigid resinous plastic rna~
bearings are centered about an axis 28, which is parallel
terial, such as a thermosetting phenolic reinformed by a
to previously mentioned axis 18, but is offset or spaced
fabric or other reinforcing material embedded in the
laterally therefrom.
plastic. All of the elements 46‘, 47 and 49 are centered
Bearings 25 ‘and 26 mount a part 29 for rotation about 25 symmetrically about axis 28, to maintain proper balance
axis 28 relative to the carrier part 21. For this purpose,
of the pad assembly about that axis. Also, the surface
part 29 ‘has an elongated externally cylindrical shaft por
44 of sponge pad 22 is cemented tightly to sheet 46, over
tion 30 projecting axially into the two bearings 25 and
the entire area of sheet 46, and similarly elements 46 and
26, and dimensioned to be a tight friction ?t Within the
47 andelements 47 and 49 are cemented or tightly bond
inner races of the hearings to thereby be automatically 30 ed together over the entire area of their engaged por
held in ?xed relation thereto. At its lower or axially
tions.
outer end, part 29 has an enlarged diameter annular
The carrier part 21 is constructed to automatically
?ange 31, with an intermediate diameter cylindrical sur
counterbalance the offset weight of pad 22 and the other
face 32 typically ‘being formed between portion 30 and
parts which are centered about offset axis 28. For this
?ange 31. About (this cylindrical portion 32 there is 35 purpose, member 21 has a ?ange 51, which may be cut
mounted an annular disc of sheet metal 33, which is a
away or hollow as shown at 52 at the side of axis 18 to
friction fit on surface 32, and which is held against ?ange v
31 by a washer 34, ‘also a tight friction fit on surface 32.
ward which axis 28 is o?set. At its opposite ‘side, ?ange
Axial movement of portion 30 of part 29 into the bear
ings is limited by engagement of an annular shoulder
balance the weight of pad 22 and its associated mounting
parts.
In placing the apparatus in use, the ?rst step is of
35 on part 29 with the inner race of one of the bearings.
This shoulder is so positioned that the washer 34 and
disc 33 are tightly clamped between that inner race of
the lower bearing and ?ange 31. Also, element 33 may
if desired lbe splined or keyed to ?ange 31, so that part
29 may be held against rotation by manual engagement
of element 33. At its periphery, disc 33 desirably has
51 may be solid for a sut?cient extent to exactly counter
course to threadedly connect carrier part 21 to shank 19,
and to the position shown in FIG. 1. The operator may
then Wet sponge pad 22 with water, to give it maximum
a short axially curved edge 36, which may be externally
?exibility, following which a cleaning ‘compound or polish
ing compound is applied to the Work engaging surface 43
of the pad (or to work surface 12 itself if desired). The
cleaning or polishing compound is contained within the
knurled or otherwise irregularized as shown to facilitate
pores or voids formed in sponge pad 22 at its work engag~
manual gripping of element 33.
ing surface (see FIG. 4), to be automatically fed from
Part 29 and the attached elements 33 and 34 all turn
in unison about axis 28 relative to part 21. For attach
ing the pad 22 to this part 29, the latter contains an
those pores onto the work surface 12 as the polishing or
internal threaded bore 37, into which the threaded shank
38 of a screw 39 connected to pad 22 is threadedly con
nectible. Screw 38 has a lower enlarged diameter circu
l-ar head 40, by which the screw is retained against sepa
cleaning action advances. With the apparatus thus pre
pared for use, the operator places pad 22 in engagement
with work surface 12, and starts the motor by actuation
of lever 14. The motor turns spindle 17 and its shank
‘19, and through the shank turns carrier part 21 about
axis 18. As the carrier part turns, element 29 and the
attached pad 22 revolve bodily about axis 18, but at the
ration from pad 22. As has been previously mentioned,
same time the part 29 and pad 22 turn about axis 28
the pad 22 itself is for-med of a ?exible cellular sponge 60 relative to carrier member 21, so that pad 22 does not ro
material containing a large number of pores or air cells
tate in the usual manner about the pad axis relative to
41. The sponge material is resilient and normally re
the work surface. Since the pad thus revolves bodily but
turns by its own resilience to the con?guration shown in
does not rapidly rotate about its own axis, the pad does
FIGS. 1, 2 and 6. This pad is circular, being centered
not form swirls on the work surface, and can not wear
about axis 28, and having a typically cylindrical outer 65 through or damage that surface. 'Further, the surface 43
of the pad can flex sufficiently to conform to different
edge surface 42. The work engaging surface 43 of the
contours of work surface, and particularly the peripheral
sponge is normally planar, and disposed directly trans
edge portion of the pad 22 and the engaged edge portion
vcrsely of axis 28, as is the opposite surface 44 of the pad.
of rubber ‘disc 45 can ?ex to engage and polish irregular
For optimum results, it is preferred that the sponge
material of pad 22 be a regenerated cellulose sponge 70 contours of the work surface. This de?ection of the
edge portions of elements 22 and 46 is illustrated in
material, desirably having rather ?ne pores. The pores
broken lines in ‘FIG. 2 at 53. The purpose of sheet 46
41 preferably are distributed through the entire thickness
is to form a cushion between the sponge material of pad 22
of the pad, and in particular some of these pores are
and the edge 48 of backing plate 47, when the pad is bent
exposed at the work surface 43 of the pad, and extend
to the condition represented at FIG. 2, to thus prevent
3,084,364
5
the edge 48 of rigid element 47 from cutting into and
thereby damaging the sponge material of element 22.
When it is desired to remove pad 22 from the carrier
part 21 ‘for any reason, the operator manually holds ele
ment 33 against rotation, and then can unscrew the pad
by merely turning it and the attached screw 38 relative to
element 33 and the attached part 29. ‘In order to allow
for this action, the screw 38 is of course suitably retained
against rotation relative to sponge pad 22, as by ce
6
times as great as the lateral spacing of said ?rst axis from
said second axis.
2. Polishing apparatus comprising a rotary carrier
member, connector means for attaching said carrier mem
ber to a rotary power operated tool in a relation to be
driven by the tool rotatably about a ?rst axis, a pad
formed of ?exible regenerated cellulose sponge material,
and means mounting said pad to said carrier member for
rotation therewith about said ?rst axis and for rotation
rnenting head 40 rigidly to pad 22 and element 49.
FIG. 6 represents a slightly variational form of pad
assembly, including a sponge pad 22a which may be identi
relative to the carrier member about a second axis extend
having a thickened central portion and a thinner pe
polishing substance or the like in contact with the Work
ing generally parallel to but offset from said ?rst axis, said
pad having a work engaging surface at which said re
generated cellulose sponge material is exposed for direct
cal with pad 22 of FIG. 2, and a screw 38a which may be
rubbing contact with a work piece, said regenerated
identical to that shown at 38- in ‘FIG. 2. Instead of the
elements 47 and 49 in FIG. 2, the FIG. 6 arrangement 15 cellulose sponge material having pores extending into the
material of the pad at said surface for containing a
utilizes ‘a molded hard rubber rigid backing plate 47a,
ripheral edge portion. Between this rigid element 47a
piece during said rubbing action, said last mentioned
1. Polishing apparatus comprising a rotary carrier
enough that said ‘outer edge is spaced laterally from said
means including a part mounted to said carrier member
and the pads, there may be provided a ?exible rubber
sheet ‘46a corresponding to that shown at ‘46 in FIG. 2. 20 for rotation relative thereto about said second axis and
having a threaded bore centered about said second axis,
The elements 22a, 46a and ‘470 are all securely bonded or
and a screw on said pad removably connectible into said
cemented together across their entire engaging surfaces, to
bore
to attach the pad to said part for rotation therewith
form an overall assembly very similar to that shown in
about said second axis, the periphery of said pad being
FIG. 2, and capable of use in the same manner.
25 de?ned by an outer edge thereof, said pad being large
I claim:
second axis a radial distance several times as great as the
member, connector means for attaching said carrier mem
lateral spacing of said ?rst axis from said second axis.
ber to a rotary power operated tool in a relation to be
driven by the tool rotatably about a ?rst axis, said con
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
hector means comprising threads on said carrier mem 30
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ber centered about said ?rst axis and detachably con
nectable to a threaded drive element of said power tool,
1,877,951
Norris ______________ __ Sept. 20, 1932
a pad formed of ?exible regenerated cellulose sponge ma
2,034,455
Baird _______________ __ Mar. 17, 1936
terial, and means mounting said pad to said carrier mem
2,263,883
Livermont ___________ __ Nov. 25, 1941
35
ber vfor rotation therewith about said ?rst axis and dfor
2,279,673
Graenser ____________ __ Apr. 14, 1942
rotation relative to the carrier member about a second
2,281,722
Smith ________________ __ May 5, 1942
axis ‘extending generally parallel to but offset ‘from said
?rst axis, said pad having a work engaging surface at
which said regenerated cellulose sponge material is ex
posed for direct rubbing contact with a work piece, said 40
regenerated cellulose sponge material having pores ex
tending into the material of the pad at said surface for
2,332,936
2,417,620
2,472,781
2,702,395
3,007,189
Schlegel _____________ __ Oct. 26,
Soderberg ___________ __ Mar. 18,
Vosbikian et al. _______ __ June 7,
Zaiger _______________ __ Feb. 22,
Crane _______________ .__ Nov. 7,
260,822
315,273
469,626
494,149
Switzerland ___________ __ Aug. 1,
Switzerland __________ __ Sept. 29,
Italy ________________ __ Mar. 10,
Great Britain _________ __ Oct. 18,
FOREIGN PATENTS
containing a polishing substance or the like in contact
with the work piece during said rubbing action, the pe 45
riphery of said pad being de?ned by an outer edge thereof,
said pad being large enough that said outer edge is spaced
laterally ‘from said second axis a radial distance several
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