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Патент USA US3084423

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April 9, 1963
3,084,41 3
Filed NOV. 1, 1961
z v ‘
United States Patent 0 "ice
Patented Apr. 9, 1963
FIGURE 1 illustrates a typical arrangement of appa
ratus of this invention for treating yarn. Yarn 11 to be
treated is fed at a controlled rate, determined by feed
Carl E. Hallden, Ilia, Avondale, Fa, assignor to E. I. du
rolls 12 and 13, through :an appropriate guide 14 and into
Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Del., a
corporation of Delaware
Filed Nov. 1, 1961, Ser. No. 149,268
the jet 15. Air for treating the yarn is supplied to the
jet through duct 16 from a source of compressed air, and
leaves the jet with the yarn. The textured yarn 17 pro—
duced is withdrawn at right angles ‘to the jet exit air
3 Claims. (Cl. 28—1)
This invention relates to an apparatus to be used in
treating a bundle of ?laments such as a yarn to produce
stream and in a direction away from the jet body at la
rate controlled by take~up rolls 18 and 19'.
As shown in FIGURE 2, the jet is suitably made in
a bulky strand composed of a plurality of individually
convoluted ?laments, and is more particularly concerned
two parts, a body member 201 and a front plate 21, which
with jets for producing bulky yarn by ?uid treatment.
are fastened together in proper orientation with suitable
Arti?cial ?bers are normally produced most easily as
screws 22 or other fasteners.
continuous ?laments. Their extreme uniformity and lack 15
Referring to FIGURE 3, the body 20 is drilled with
of discontinuity makes conventional textile ?lament yarns
a passageway 23 for air or other compressed ?uid which
much more dense than yarns made from staple ?bers.
is admitted through supply duct 16. The front plate 21
The production of yarns from staple ?bers, however, is
is machined to provide a straight inlet throat 24 for entry
time-consuming and requires a complex series of opera
of "the untreated yarn and a larger texturing chamber 25
tions. The occluded air spaces in staple ?ber yarns gives 20 for treating the yarn which is preferably rectangular in
them a lightness, covering power, and warmth—giving bulk
cross-section at right angles to the principal axis of the
not normally possible with continuous ?lament yarns.
chamber. The face of body 20 forms one side of both the
I ,NBulky yarns enhance the fullness of woven and knit fab
inlet throat and the texturing chamber. Throat or pas
,lr‘ics, as well as affect other functional properties of tex
sage 24 leads the yarn into the texturing chamber 25,
tile materials.
25 where the yarn is immediately penetrated by the ?uid
The bulk, covering power, and recoverable elongation
stream entering the chamber from ?uid duct 16. The
of continuous ?lament yarns have been greatly improved
zone of turbulence so created exerts an opening action
‘by a variety of mechanical and/ or heat-setting processes.
on the yarn components, so that the ?laments are formed
A most important new product in this area is textured
into loops and whorls by the action of the ?uid.
yarn of the type described in U.S. Patent No. 2,783,609‘ so
In operation, air is supplied under a pressure which
issued March 5, 1957, to Breen. Its production involves
provides a high velocity through texturing chamber 25.
exposing a ?lamentary material to a rapidly moving tur
A zone of turbulence is created between the exit of the
bulent ?uid to introduce a multitude of crunodal ?lament
loops at random intervals along the individual ?laments.
These loops and snarls of entangled loops, together with
other convolutions, increase the bulk of continuous ?la
ment yarns considerably and result in fabrics of improved
cover, bulk, handle, and the like. Another technique is
described in Belgian Patent No. 573,230, dated Novem
ber 22, 1958, to the assignee of the present application, 40
in which yarns are introduced into a plasticizing stream
of a compressible ?uid under turbulent conditions and the
?laments are individually crimped into a curvilinear three
?uid duct and the inner end of the texturing chamber as
the ?uid rushes into this zone. Yarn is fed into the zone
of turbulence from the yarn inlet throat 24 where it is
agitated violently, whipped about, and exits from the tex
turing chamber 25 along with the high velocity air. The
yarn is removed from the air stream immediately upon
issuing from [the texturing chamber 25 by withdrawing
it in the direction away from the face of the body 20.
It is important that the apparatus have dimensions such
that the air or other suitable compressible ?uid utilized
v will have a velocity equal to at least 1/2 sonic velocity and
dimensional con?guration. The effectiveness of these
preferably approaches sonic velocity where it ?rst strikes
new bulking processes depends upon special apparatus 45 the yarnin the zone of turbulence 25, and that the cross
for achieving the desired treatment with turbulent ?uid.
sectional area of the exit of the texturing chamber be
A new apparatus or jet has now been discovered for
utilizing the above turbulent ?uid techniques more effec
of su?icient size to minimize back pressure in the yarn
inlet without substantially decreasing yarn velocity in the
tively and to produce improved yarn products with highly
useful properties.
An object of this invention is to provide a new fluid
jet apparatus for producing bulky yarns of the type and in
accordance with the general process disclosed in U.S.
zone of turbulence.
The angular relationship of the ?uid duct to the textur
ing chamber is highly important to the operation of the
jet} As shown in FIGURE 3, the ?uid duct 2'3 approaches
the face of the'body 20 at an angle of about 30°, in the
Patent No. 2,783,609 to Breen. Another object is to
general direction of yarn travel, to forward the yarn.
provide an apparatus which is more effective for bulking
Angles in the range of 20° to 45 ° are suitable for this
heavy denier yarns than apparatus previously devised
purpose. As shown in FIGURE 2, the axis of the duct
for the ?uid jet technique of the Breen patent. Still an
is in a plane which is at right-angles to the body ‘face and
other object is to provide a new ?uid jet for treating yarn
is skewed at an agle 5 with respect to the axis of the yarn
which eliminates the need for manual adjustment of the
passage. This angle must be within critical limits ‘for pro
jet by the operator during the texturing operation. Other
. duction of textured yarn of the type referred to in COn
objects will become apparent from the disclosure and
nection with Breen U.S. Patent No. 2,783,609. When the
angle 5 is less than 10° crunodal loops are not produced.
In the drawings, which illustrate preferred embodi
textur-izing “Dacron” polyester yarn (polyethylene
ments of the invention,
the angle is preferably about 35° and not
FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of jet apparatus as used 65
less than 20°. Angles up to about 45° are satisfactory.
for treating yarn,
Angles of less than 10° are useful for crimping yarn
FIGURE 2 is a front elevation of the jet, the left side
with steam or other plasticizing ?uid, as described in the
corresponding to the elevation of FIGURE 1,
referenced Belgian Patent No. 573,230, when the ‘forma
FIGURE 3 is a side elevation view of the jet embodi
70 tion of crunodal loops is not desired. The crimping treat
ment shown in FIGURE 2, land
ment can be carried out with B angles from 0° to 10°.
FIGURE 4 is a view corresponding to that of FIGURE
The desired angularity can be provided in various ways,
2 of a modi?ed form of jet.
and an alternative embodiment is illustrated in FIGURE
The over-feed rate of the yarns will depend upon the
4, wherein ‘the signi?cance of the numbers is the same as
in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3 discussed above.
It has also been found necessary that the terminal por
tion of the side of the texturing chamber opposite to the
character of the feed yarn as Well as the particular char
acteristics desired in the product. Overfeeds as high as
120% or higher have been used effectively.
entrance be. tapered
to provide
a yarn and a 0 fAir
i; particularlg preferred
as a gaming
its c eapness an
‘ig?r‘fgtoigl? 222mg,1125531556233? lirias'hogixtfuorfi
superheated or saturated steam or any other suitable corn
shortened in FIGURE 3) is less than 7". This angle of pr‘ilsilble??tfdtog lvljpor Hilly bef ‘tlgthzed' t
outward taper is preferably about 10° for texturizing 19
66‘ cm} H mg ac.1on 0. us aparen?y
nylon’ preferably about 20° for texturizing “Dacron”
results from ‘the. manner in which the high velocity ?uid
pols/Ester yam, and not more than 30°_ However, it has
acts on the individual yarn’ ?laments as the yarn passes
again been found that different conditions apply to crirnp—
ing with steam or other plasticizing ?uid; angles of 2° to
'fhrough the Zone of turbulence' _It appears that th": Yam
Is openfid allclbulked more e?ectlvely (1113 to ‘the actlon of
7° are suitable and angles up to 45° can be used.
15 the ?uid striking the yarn at an oblique angle in the zone
The width of the texturing chamber 25 should be
of turbulence. Not only are the individual ?laments With
slightly narrower than the ?uid inlet opening so that the
in the yarn bundle separately whipped about and ran
edges partially overlap the ?uid opening as illustrated in
domly twisted so that they become intimately entangled
FIGURES 2 and 4. The absolute and relative dimensions
and interlocked with adjacent ?laments but at the same
of the yarn inlet throat 24 and the teX-turing chamber 25 20 time are formed jntg loops and whorls uniformly
may be valgetti
‘ls/@613’, <111epe1gdmg 111102 it; dleslfed
6 6X llflllg 6 am 61' Q1115 ' e 6_ al‘gef
the yarn bundle to provide the desired bulking
action. Apparently, a ?uid vortex is also formed which
9116- OH? advantage of'lhls apparatus 15 the .e?ectlveness
causes intermingling and interlocking of ?bers within the
11? Processmg a grejat ‘guilty of Yam Collin“ wlthoult 11696:;
yarn bundle, so that the yarn bundle itself remains cohe
slty of '{1 lclltazlgg ucvitdti olfmgrgségnisl'lch osfarerfsalvfllgrsinglin 25 sive under moderate tension after it is removed from the ,
a yarn in e
u e
- ‘
denier from about 440 to 2000 or more may be readily
processed using a texturing chamber width of 0.067 inch.
1 .
, a
,Tgj‘e ‘lgteréoc‘gllng and gnterllnmglmg ofh‘ih‘“ yam ?o”r_s
An optimum dimension depends upon the yarn being proc~
W“ :m t a “If F may ‘3 it _e reason L13 fipparzftus 1S
essed and the degree of texturing desired. Typical Widths 30 part‘cularly sultao‘le for bu‘kmg heavy demer Polyester
for the texturing chamber run from 0.04 inch to 0.08 inch.
yam?» Treatment of 811011 a yarlhp?fduces a COmP?Ft
The Width of yarn inlet is preferably considerably smaller
Yarn bundle which Is Coherent and iurt?el" Processabie 1“
and can be varied from 0.02 up to 0.05.
the ‘same manner as a unitary strand.
For maximum operability, the cross-sectional area of
Previously known
?uid—treating apparatuses for bulking yarns are less effec
the texturing chamber should be at least 25% greater 35 tive, particularly for the texturing of heavy denier poly
than the CI'OSS-SGCtiOna‘l area. of the
ester yarns of 10W ,dgnier per ?lament‘
Because of the
ratio 0% $6516 tw‘; cgosls'sec?onal areas can be Varied 'be'
more efficient bulking ‘and unifying results produced by
the apparatus of this invention, the feed yarn may be
up 0
I '
sylihhlstift 32112510623? $123221‘? ansdygl?lé?iny?ilglxgtlag; 40 twisted or untwisted, and the product may be twisted or
yarns including polyamides e_g'_ poly(eps?on caproank
ide), poly(hexamethylene adipamide); cellulose esters;
polyesters, e'g', Polyethylene terephthalate, poly(hexa_
not, as desired. Where a zero twist yarn is fed to the
apparatus’ ,the pwduct 1S a bulked yam m_ which the ?la“
ments are ‘intermingled and interlocked with one another
hyd.ro_p_xy.lene ,terephthalate); polyethylene, polyvinyls.
besides beinguniforrnly loopy throughout, and there is
and polyacrylics, e.g., polyacrylonitrile, as -Well as copoly- 45 no need to IWISt 11115 Product fol‘ further Processing
mers thereof, are particularly suitable for producing the
The examples of the following table illustrate repre
uniformly bulked products described herein. While the
sentative bulking conditions for processing yarn with the
preferred form of material is continuous ?laments, the
apparatus illustrated:
process and resultant improvements occur with staple
yarns as Well. Both types of materials can be made into 50
Polyester 1100/450/0 __________ __
Angle B
in FIG. 2,
Chamber Yarn
Angel or Windup Overfeed,
in FIG. 3, Speed,
degrees y.p.m.
Nylon 800/140/1/2Z __________ _. s0 _________ ..
Cellulose Acetate 1800/8B/0..__. superheated
Polyester 1100/250/0..
MS" """"""""" “
Typwal Bulkmg C(md‘tmns
O ________________ .._
bulky yarns and fabrics having improved bulk, covering
power (opacity), and hand.
In this table, the yarn descriptions refer to total denier,
number of ?laments, and twist for the feed yarn being
appal'atlls iIIdtliJI'OSeSS' are usefulllfor gfthhmultl65 treated. Polyester refers to polyethylene terephthalate
amellt Yams 111 ‘EX 1 6 ‘ emers_ as W? as
e earlier ' yarns. Nylon refers speci?cally to polyhexamethylene
Farpet and lndustnal Yam S‘1Z‘es_e1ther Smgly (if combinedt
adipamide yarn. The extent of the bulking action could
gag}: fyozfrlgsoiai hgjgréggjseflélgt?osstsiii‘lies 6:521’
be increased or decreased as desired by varying the per
Cruciform, Y-shaped, delta-shaped, ribbon, and dumbbell
and other non-round ?lamentary cross-sections can be 70
processed at least as well as round ?laments and usually
gaeglteovedeed up or down from ‘thy Values shown In the
Smce ma“? dlfferent @bOdlments of ths_1I_Went1On may
contribute still more bulk than is obtained with round
be mad? “ff/lino“ departmg from ‘the Sim“ ifnd F0096
?laments. The jet and passages therethrough can be of
thereof, it is to be understood ‘that the invention is not
sufficient size to handle multiple ends of yarn, either in
the form of warp sheets, ribbons, or tows.
limited by the 'sp?cl‘?c llluf‘lmtlons BXCBPt '10 the extent
75 dc?n?d 1n the following Clalms
I claim:
1. In apparatus for making bulky yarn which com
prises jet means for treating yarn with ?uid, yarn feeding
means for passing yarn continuously through the jet for
treatment, and ?uid supply means for ?owing compres
sible ?uid through the jet at a velocity of at least 1/2 sonic
at an angle at 2° to 45'’ providing an outlet of increasing
cross-sectional area.
2. An apparatus as de?ned in claim 1 wherein said jet
comprises a body member ‘and a front plate fastened on
one face of the body, said texturing chamber and said
yarn inlet throat being ‘cut into the front plate with the
face of the body member ‘forming the one side of each,
and said ?uid duct being drilled through the body mem
velocity in contact with the yarn to separate yarn ?la
ments and form them into convolutions; the improved
jet means characterized by having a texturing chamber
3. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 2 wherein said front
with generally rectangular cross-section at right angles 10
plate is skewed relative to said duct to provide an angle
to the principal axis of the chamber (path of yarn travel
of from 10° to 45 ° between the principal aXis of the
through the chamber) and with inlet and outlet openings
texturing chamber and a plane passing through the axis
at opposite ends of said axis, said inlet opening having a
of the ?uid duct so as to be at right angles to the face
straight throat of smaller cross-sectional area than the
the body member, and wherein said texturing chamber
chamber for entry of yarn and one face of the throat in
increases in depth toward the chamber outlet at an angle
the same plane as one chamber face, and a ?uid duct for
of 7° to 30° relative to said body face to provide an out
introducing the treating ?uid into the chamber through
ward taper.
said chamber face; the axis of the duct being in ‘a plane,
which plane is at right angles to said chamber face, the 20
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
axis of the duct being ‘at an angle to said face of from 20°
to 45° in the general vdirection of yarn travel and being
skewed at an ‘angle of up to 45° to the principal axis of
the chamber; the side of the chamber opposite to said
?uid duct having a terminal portion tapering outwardly 25
Bauer ________________ .. May 31, 1960
Hall _________________ __ Nov. 1, 1960
H-allden et a1. ________ __ Oct. 24, 1961
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