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Патент USA US3084603

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April 9, 1963
F. BASCHET
3,084,587
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
Filed Sept. 28, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
April 9, 1963
3,084,587
F. BASCHET MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
Filed Sept. 28, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
il -Il.
United States Patent *O?ice
3,084,587
Patented Apr. 9, 1963
1
2
3,034,537
FIG. 2 is a corresponding view in a second type of
musical instrument.
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
Francois Baschet, 11 Rue Jean de Beauvais,
Paris 5, France
Filed Sept. 28, 1959, Ser. No. 842,803
Claims priority, application France Oct. 3, 1958
5 Claims. (Cl. 84-402)
My invention has for its object a musical instrument
of the type including an acoustic pipe closed at one end
by a wall adapted to be subjected to a vibratory move
ment, which sets the mass of air contained in said pipe
in a vibrating condition. The sounds produced by such
an acoustic pipe depend on the length of said pipe.
The musical instruments of such a type, as known
hitherto, are constituted chie?y by drums wherein the
terminal wall is formed by a skin or the likermembrane
stretched over its body and which has for its object firstly
to store energy under the action of the percussion and
to transform it subsequently into sinusoidal vibrations
which are as little damped as possible, which requires a
properly stretched skin and, on the other hand, its second
object is to set the mass of air contained in the pipe
vibrating with a matched amplitude of vibration, which
means the amplitude of vibration should be as large as
FIG. 3 is a view of an instrument of the same type as
that illustrated in FIG. 1, but incorporating an arrange
ment providing for the simultaneous adjustment of the
tuning frequencies of the acoustic pipe and of the vibrat
ing element.
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic sectional longitudinal view
of another type of instrument intended more particularly
10
for operation through percussion.
FIG. 5 shows a further instrument with a wiring di
agram incorporating a generator of vibratory energy con
stituted by an electrodynamic system.
Turning to FIG. 1, the musical instrument includes a
15 tube 1 open at both ends.
possible. The two parts to be thus played by the di
aphragrn require therefore two conditions which are con
tradictory, since the high tensioning limits the amplitude
Said tube carries a collar 2
slidable therein and adapted to be held fast in any de
sired position by one or more screws 3.
Said collar is
provided with two lateral extensions 4a, 4b which may
have a square cross-section, and on each of which is slid
20 ingly ?tted an upright 5a, 511 respectively through a collar
of a corresponding cross-section, the transverse spacing of
said upright with reference to the tube 1 being de?ned by
the screws 6a, ‘6b respectively engaging said collar.
The upper end of the tube 1 is closed by a diaphragm 7,
25
the periphery of which is clamped against the periphery
of the tube by a ring 8.‘ Coaxially with said diaphragm
are provided on the inner side thereof a washer 9 and
on the outer side thereof a washer 101 extending into a
of vibration.
rod 11, both washers 9 and 10 being suitably secured and
The musical instrument according to my invention 30 tightened together to the diaphragm 7. The upper end
comprises a frame, at least one pipe of rigid material,
of the rod 11 is perforated and an auxiliary rod 12 form
the length of the pipes being tuned to the desired notes,
ing the vibrating element is ?tted transversely inside the
said pipes being rigidly secured to the frame, diaphragms
perforation of the piston rod 11. In order to further the
made of a pliable material tightly secured at their periph
adjustment and securing operations, said rod 12 is pref_
ery over one end of each pipe, a rigid member occupying 35 erably constituted by a threaded rod. At each of its two
and fast with the central surface of each diaphragm, at
ends, the vibrating rod 12 engages the elastic plates 13a,
least a vibratory element sustained by the frame and
13b to which it is secured for instance by nuts 14a to
having a vibratory motion with respect to said frame and
14d. The lower end of each elastic plate 13a, 13b is
means connecting each vibratory element with the rigid
rigidly secured by a nut 15a, 15b to the upper end of the
member fast with the diaphragm of the corresponding 40 corresponding upright 5a, 5b respectively. An elastic
tuned pipe. According to an auxiliary feature of my
plate 17, also perforated, is ?tted over the rod 12, so as
invention, the note given out by the instrument is ad
to be urged transversely into contact with the piston rod
justable through a modi?cation of the tuned frequency
11, these different parts being clamped together by means
of the pipe and a simultaneous modi?cation of the char
of nuts 18 for instance. A glass rod 19 is rigidly secured
45
acteristic frequency of the vibratory element.
to the elastic plate 17 through the agency of a ring or
The tuned frequency of the pipe may be modi?ed in
sleeve '20, so as to form therewith a glass bow. Over the
any known manner, for instance by a telescopic struc
rod 12 is also ?tted a thick square 21 also clamped in
ture or else by an opening and closing of apertures dis
position by a bolt or nut.
tributed along the pipe.
The instrument described operates as follows:
50
According to a preferred embodiment of my invention
the vibratory element is a mechanical element such as a
system of vibrating metal rods ?tted at one end or se
cured at both ends, said rods being caused to vibrate by
any possible control means, for instance through percus~
A shifting of the collar 2 provides ?rst for adjustment
of the tensioning of the diaphragm 7, the collar 2 being
then held fast with reference to the tube 1 by the screws
3. This being done, the rod 12 is tuned by shifting lat
erally the securing points 14 as is readily obtained through
sion, through electromagnetic means producing vibra 55 a simultaneous sliding of the uprights 5 over the lateral
tions which are substantially in phase with the natural
supports 4. The length of the tube 1 is selected so as
period of the vibrating rods or by means of a so-called
glass bow constituted by a glass rod secured perpendicu
larly to a vibrating rod by a member which is rigid longi
tudinally of the glass rod and elastic however longitudi
nally of the vibrating rod.
'
According to another embodiment the vibrating ele
ment is constituted by electrical means such as an elec
tromagnetic system provided with a vibrator or with a
tuning circuit.
Other features of the present invention will appear
in the reading of the description of various musical in
struments as given hereinafter, reference being made to
the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a partial elevational view, partly in section,
of a musical instrument according to the invention.
to provide a tuning of the whole system with a maximum
acoustic et?ciency.
If now the glass bow is subjected to longitudinal fric—
tion, it will start the vibrations of the rod 12 and give
the washers 9-14) and the diaphragm 7 an alternating
movement with the same phase, so as to produce in
creases and decreases in the pressure of the mass of air
65 inside the pipe 1. The arrangement may also be ener~
gized through percussion exerted on the upper surface of
the square 21. Such musical instruments may include
either a single system producing a single note or else a
plurality of systems tuned to different notes,
In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2, the musical
instrument includes a pipe 22 ?tted in a sleeve 23 rigid
with the frame 24 of the instrument, said frame includ
3,084,587
ing in particular a rigid bar 25. The pipe is held fast in
position inside the sleeve 23 by a binding screw 26. The
upper end of the pipe 22 is closed by a diaphragm 27
secured in position by a clam-ping ring 23. The central
portion of the diaphragm‘ 27 is clamped between a lower
washer 29 and an upper washer 3i) rigid with a vertical
extension 31 constituted by a perforated plate.
The vibration‘ generator is constituted by a vibratory
4
However, in contradistinction with the instrument illus
trated in FIG. 1, that illustrated in FIG. 3 may produce
a number of different notes and to each increase in
length of the pipe 43-53 there corresponds an increase
in the length of the bar 49 between the rollers 48, the
spacing of which is obtained through the plates 54a,
54b and the levers 47a, 4712. By way of an indication,
it may be mentioned that the lengths L of the pipe
constituted by the elementary pipes 43 and 53 and the
rod 32 screwed at one ofits ends inside a tapping formed
in the bar 25' of the frame and held fast by means ‘of a 10 lengths l of the spacing between the rollers are as fol~
locking nut 33. The rod 32 extends through an open
lows, for instruments incorporating a pipe with a di
ing formed in the piston rod 31 and its end opposed to
ameter of 16 mm. and a system including the glass bow
the bar 25 is rigid with a small weight 34. The latter
50 and the pair of washers 51a, 51b weighing about
is connected ‘with the bar 25 through a rod 35 which has
100 grs., while the rod 49 is a steel rod of a diameter
a greater rigidity than the rod 32 and which passes 15 of 6 mm.:
through a recess in the piston rod 31.
An elastic plate 36 is rigidly secured to the vibrating
rod 32 through the agency of two nuts 37a, 37b engag
ing the rod and clamping between them said elastic plate
N mrc g-toceu
over the end of the rod 31. ‘On said plate 36 is ?tted,
through a bolt 38, a socket 39 forming a support for a
ll
II
glass rod 40'.
Men
Furthermore, a bundle of vibrating rods 41 constituted
by piano wire elements is secured to the bar 25, for in—
In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 4, there is pro
stance through the agency of a screw 42. The position 25 vided again a pipe 57 open at both ends and secured
of the pipe 22 is adjusted so as to ensure a suitable ten~
inside a sleeve 58 inside which it is locked by a screw
sioning of the diaphragm 27, If now I exert a longi~
59. Said sleeve 58 is carried by the frame 60 of the
tudinal rubbing action on the glass rod or bow 4-0, the
instrument. The upper end of the pipe is closed by a
rod 32 will start vibrating and the transverse vibrations
diaphragm’ 61 rigid with a rigid element 62 of the type
of said rod 32v are transmitted through the rod 31, the 30 described hereinabove.
washers 29-30 and the diaphragm 27 to the mass of air
The rigid element 62 is rigidly secured through a rod
enclosed inside the pipe 22. With the structure disclosed,
63 with the end of a bar 64 which is secured in its turn
a fraction of the vibratory energy of the rod 32 is trans
to the frame 60‘ by a spindle section 65, the length of
mitted in the shape of vibrations of a reduced amplitude
which is adjustable. The outer end of the bar 64 carries
under a large pressure‘ to the bar 25 and through the 35 a small counterweight 66.
later to the bundles of piano ‘wire sections. Said piano
It is apparent that it is possible to adjust the vibratory
wires assume their natural vibratory condition and restore
period of the rigid element 62 associated with the bar
the vibratory energy with a certain time lag and the intro
64 and the spindle section 65 by acting on the length of
duction of harmonics to the bar 25. The vibratory ener
said spindle section 65 and on the mass or location of
gy thus restored is collected and transmitted by the acous 40 the counterweight 66 so as to make said period register
tic pipe 22 with a delay ensuring an echo.
with the resonance period of the acoustic pipe 57. The
The musical instrument illustrated in FIG. 3 includes
instrument is energized by hitting with a mallet 67 on
a pipe 43 open at both ends. ‘On said tube is ?tted a
the counterweight 66 or on the bar 64. ‘The vibratory
collar 44 carrying two arms 45a, 45b, the ends of which
oscillations of the bar 64 are transmitted as disclosed
form straps pivotally carrying transverse spindles 46a,
hereinabove by the rigid element 62 to the mass of air
46b for the lever arms 47a, 47b. At one of its ends,
enclosed inside the acoustic pipe 67.
each lever arm 47a, 4712 respectively carries two rubber
The musical instrument illustrated in FIG. 5 is an elec
rollers 48, each pair of rollers enclosing one end of a
tromagnetically energized instrument. It includes a
rod 4-9 forming the vibrating element of the instrument.
frame 68 carrying, through the agency of a collar 69,
Between the two bearing points of said rod 49 is ?tted 50 an acoustic pipe 70 round which is slidingly mounted
a glass bow 50 of the type described with reference to
with slight friction a second pipe 71 adapted to provide
FIGS. 1 and 2, said points of the rod 49 carrying the
the different tuned frequencies for the pipe correspond
glass bow carrying also a pair of washers 51a, 51b, cla1np~
ing to different musical notes.
ing between them a diaphragm 52, the edge of which is
The upper end of the pipe 70 is formed by a diaphragm
clamped ?uidtightly over the outer edge of the tube 43. 55 72 secured in the manner described and carrying washers
Said arrangement is identical with that described with
73a, 73b. Said washers are rigid with a rod 74 which,
reference to ‘FIGS. 1 and 2.
in its turn, is rigid with the core 75 of an electrodynamic
‘On the tube 43 is slidingly mounted with slight friction
power unit 76. Said electrodynamic power unit is fed
an auxiliary tube 53 carrying along two diametrically op
by a low frequency oscillator, of any suitable type, 77,
posed generating lines radial ?ns or blades 54a, ‘54b, the 60 the frequency-adjusting member of which is coupled with
‘outer edges of which form cams.
Said cams cooperate
with cam followers 55a, 55b, respectively revolubly car
ried by the free ends of the levers 47a, 47b, respectively.
Springs 56a, 56b urge the levers 47a, 47b into positions
the means shifting the elementary pipe 71.
In the embodiment illustrated, the oscillator is of the
condenser-adjusted Hartley type. The adjustable con
denser includes a stationary plate or armature 78 con
for which the cam followers 55a, 55b engage the outer 65 stituted by at least two parallel blades between which
edge of the blades 54a, 54b respectively.
slides at least one blade 79 carried with the interposition
Said instrument operates in the same manner as that
of an insulating element .80 by the movable pipe 71.
described with reference to FIG. 1. In other words,
when acting on the glass how 50 through longitudinal
friction thereon, the latter starts the vibrations of the
rod ‘49 which makes the pair of washers 51a, 51b and
the diaphragm 52 assume a reciprocating movement in
phase concordance so as to produce increases and re
The blade 79‘ should have a gradually increasing breadth,
so that the value of the capacity of the condenser may
increase with the length of the acoustic pipe.
FIG. 5 shows a particular embodiment of the oscilla
tor 77 and of the variable capacity, but any other equiv
alent arrangement may be used.
I
ductions in pressure in corresponding phase relationship
The embodiments described hereinabove by way of
inside the mass of air contained in the acoustic pipe. 75 example may be subjected to various modi?cations, with
8,084,687
5
6
out unduly Widening thereby the scope of the invention
de?ned in the accompanying claims.
a tubular member of rigid material operatively connected
so that when said rod member is longitudinally rubbed
the vibrating means is set in vibratory motion.
3. A musical instrument according to claim 1 in which
said vibration imparting means includes a percussion
member for striking said vibrating means to set same in
to said support means so that said tubular member re
vibratory motion.
What I claim is:
l. A musical instrument comprising ‘a support means,
mains substantially stationary therewith, a diaphragm
=
4. A musical instrument according to claim 1 in which
member of pliable material disposed over one end of said
a tubular element is connected to said support means and
disposed with respect to said tubular member to vform a
tubular member, means securing the periphery of said
diaphragm member to said tubular member so that said 10 telescopic tubular section therebetween so that said tubu
diaphragm member can readily move relative to said
tubular member, a substantially rigid member disposed
against said diaphragm member and movable therewith,
lar element and tubular member are movable relative
to each other, means disposed on said tubular element
and operatively connected to said vibrating means to
change the frequency of vibration thereof upon said tubu
ducing vibratory motion when set in motion, means con 15 lar element and tubular member being moved with respect
necting said rigid member and diaphragm member to said
to each other.
.
5. A musical instrument according to claim 1 in which
vibrating means to ?orm a substantially rigid connection
said vibratory means include at least one tuned metallic
therebetween, and vibration imparting means operatively
rod having‘ one end rigidly connected to said support
connected to said vibrating means to set same in vibratory
motion which is transmitted .to said rigid member and 20 means, and non—tuned generating means rigidly connected
diaphragm member through said connecting means so
to said support means, said non-tuned generating means
being set in vibratory motion by the vibrations imparted
that said rigid member and diaphragm member move in
to said support means by the vibratory motion of said
accordance with such vibratory motion relative to said
tuned metallic rod.
tubular member thereby producing increasing and de
creasing pressure of the mass of air within said tubular 25
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
member resulting in audible sounds.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2. A musical instrument according to claim 1 in which
said vibration imparting means comprise at least one rod
493,066
Carpigiani ____________ __ Mar. 7, 1893
member having a coefficient of friction similar to that
1,173,785
Deagan _____________ __ Feb. '29, 1916
of glass, means rigidly connecting said rod member to 30 1,610,869
Cabot ______________ __ Mar. 15, 1927
said vibrating means at substantially a right angle thereto
1,813,832
Winterhoif ____________ _._ Dec. 4, 1929
vibratory means mounted on said support means for pro
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