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Патент USA US3084683

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April 9, 1963
J. H. DALTON
3,084,672 _
PNEUMATIC STAPLING TOOL
Filed May 16, 1960_
2 Sheets—Sheet 1
April 9, 1963
J. H. DALTON
3,084,672
PNEUMATIC STAPLING TOOL
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3,084,672
PNEUMATIC STAPLING TOOL
ice
3,834,5'22
Patented Apr. 9, 1953
2
tion is incorporated is indicated generally by the reference
character 10 and includes a main body casting 12 provid
ing a handle portion 14 and an air cylinder 16, and a
Joseph H. Dalton, Elmhurst, lll., assignor to Signode Steel
Strapping Company, Chicago, ill., a corporation of
staple magazine 18 suitably secured to the casting 12. In
proved air valve and piston-cylinder combination.
ward end of the magazine 18 and below the air cylinder 16,
which is adapted to be held against the work and through
which the staples are driven.
The upper end of the cylinder 16 is closed by a cap 28
formed with a plurality of stops 30 against which a double
the handle portion of the casting there are formed an air
inlet
passage 20, and an air exhaust passage 22, the inlet
Delaware
passage 20 being tapped at its outer or inlet end 24 to re
Filed May 16, 1960, tier. No. 29,536
ceive a ?tting to which the conventional air supply hose
4 Claims. (or. 121-2i)
(not shown) may be connected. The ?ow of air to and
The present invention relates to improvements in pneu
from‘ the cylinder 16 is under the control of an air valve
10
matic stapling tools, and in particular to a new and im
25. The tool also includes a nose assembly 26 at the for
Pneumatic stapling tools include an air cylinder, a
piston reciprocable in the cylinder and arranged for power
ing a staple driver, a magazine for storing staples and
having means for feeding staples to be driven by the
staple driver into the work, an air valve for controlling the
headed piston 32, reciprocable in the cylinder 16, bears
?ow of air into and the exhaust of air from, the cylinder,
when in retracted position. A staple driver blade 34 is
a trigger for manipulating the valve, and a spring for
connected to the piston generally in the manner described
returning the piston to the top of the cylinder. Some
in Harold F. Baker Patent No. 2,881,738, issued April 14,
pneumatic staplers are also provided with means for 20 1959, entitled “Piston and Staple Driver Combination."
temporarily detaining the piston from its power stroke
The piston 32 is cylindrical and has a bore 31 extending
for an instant after the valve has opened in order to per
thereinto from its upper end. The bore 31 is threaded
mit build up of air pressure at the piston head to over
at its upper end and is closed by a tapped and kerfed plug
come the resistance of the return spring and to insure a
29. A sleeve 27 is con?ned between the underside of the
25
rapid and sharp stroke of the staple driver.
plug 29 and the bottom of the bore 31 and is internally
A principal object of the present invention is to provide
threaded at 33 adjustably to receive and hold the upper
in a pneumatic stapling tool a new and improved com
end of the driver blade as taught in the aforementioned
bination of air cylinder, piston, and valve for controlling
Baker patent. The lower portion of the blade 34 extends
the supply of air to the cylinder during the stapling stroke
through a bore 35 communicating with the bore 31 and
30
and the return stroke.
which has diametrically opposite recesses 37 (FIG. 3)
Another object is to provide in a pneumatic stapling tool
projecting into the lower portion of the piston to accom
a new and improved combination of an air valve and a
modate the side edges of the driver blade which is wider
piston which is reciprocated without the use of a hold-up
than the diameter of the bore 34. Thus, the blade 34 is
means prior to the power stroke or a spring or similar
inhibited against rotational movement beyond a few de
35
means for the return stroke.
grees relative to the piston 32, and the axial positioning of
Another object is to provide a new and improved con
the blade 34 and piston 32 will remain substantially con
trol valve for pneumatically operated tools which has its
stant during tool usage. Furthermore, this structure will
operation controlled by a manually operable pilot valve.
permit the use of driver blades 34 of varying widths with
Another object is to provide a new and improved control
40 the same piston provided the magazine and nose assemblies
valve for pneumatically operated tools which is opened by
air pressure, the application of which is controlled by a
manually operable pilot valve, thereby reducing the
18 and 26 are changed to accommodate the different
conditions.
A ring cushion 36 is positioned in the lower end of
manual effort needed to open the valve over conventional
the cylinder 16 to absorb the impact of the piston 32 should
air valves.
the tool be operated with little or no resistance, as in the
Other objects and advantages will become apparent from 45 case of testing by ?ring into the air, or by driving a staple
the following description taken in conjunction with the
into an object having little resistance. The cushion 36 is
accompanying drawings, wherein
retained in an inturned ?ange 38 at the lower end of the
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary medial longitudinal sectional
16.
view of a pneumatically operated stapling tool incorporat 50 cylinder
As best seen in FIG. 1, the piston 32 is double headed
ing the air valve and piston-cylinder combination of the
and has its upper or head portion 140‘ formed with a larger
present invention;
diameter than its body. An annular groove 42 is formed
FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. 1, but showing the air
in the upper piston portion 40 and retains an O-ring 44
valve fully opened and the piston at the end of its power
which seals against the wall of the cylinder 16 in upper
Directly below the upper or head
FIG. ‘3 is an irregular horizontal sectional view taken
piston portion 40 is a sealing portion ‘46 which has a
along the line 3—-3 of FIG. 1, looking in the direction of
diameter slightly smaller than that of the upper portion
the arrows;
but larger than the diameter of the major and intermediate
FIG. 4 is a horizontal sectional view taken along the
or waist portion 47 of the piston body. A shoulder 43
line 4-4 of FIG. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows; 60 is de?ned between the head portion 40 and sealing por
and
tion 46, and another shoulder 45 is de?ned between the
FIG. 5 is an enlarged detail sectional view of the air
sealing portion 46 and intermediate portion 47. An an
valve taken along the line 5—5 of FIG. 1, looking in the
nulus 48 at the bottom of the piston, equal in diameter
direction of the arrows.
to the sealing piston portion ‘46, forms the lower piston
The present invention is illustrated and described in
and de?nes with the intermediate portion 47 a
conjunction with a pneumatic stapling tool of the type 65 head
shoulder 53 equal in area to the shoulder ‘45. This lower
shown and described in greater detail in the patent to
head 48 is slidable in cylinder portion v49 which is only
Arvid I. Ericsson, No. 2,947,003, dated August 2, 1960',
slightly larger in diameter than the lower piston head 48
entitled “Pneumatic Stapling Tool.” It is to be understood,
and lies below sealing ring 50 ?xed in annular groove 51
however, that the principles of this invention may be ap 70 in the wall of the cylinder 16 about the longitudinal mid
plied to other pneumatically operated, manually triggered point thereof and below a shoulder 52 connecting the
stroke;
tools, where high impact is desired.
The pneumatic stapling tool in which the present inven
65 portion 41 thereof.
upper cylinder portion 41 with the lower cylinder portion
3
3,084,672
49. The ring 50' is adapted to seal against the lower piston
annulus 48 when the piston 32 is retracted and against the
sealing portion 46 when the piston is at the end of its
power stroke. It does not sealagainst the intermediate
and major portion 47 of the piston. The various piston
shoulders de?ne dilferential areas which function in re
tracting the piston 32 from the end of its power stroke
(FIG. 2).
4
A screw 116 is threaded into the tapped portion 106
of the stem 104 and holds tightly in place beneath its
head a ferrule 118 having an outwardly facing groove 119
into which is ?tted an O-ring 120‘ which is adapted to seal
against the upper valve seat '86 and the lower valve seat
74 at the limits of movement of the valve member 98. A
small gasket 122 seals between the lower face of the
ferrule 118 and the upper face of the stem 104. The screw
Ports 54 are de?ned between the stops 30 in the cap
116 has a bore 117 therethrough which communicates the
28 and communicate the interior of the cylinder :16 at 10 port 83 and the air inlet passage 20' with the bore 108,
its head end with an annular passage ‘56 and an angular
counterbore 110, and valve cylinder below the valve piston
passage 58 which leads toward the air control valve 25,
102 to add air pressure to the pressure of the spring in
the air inlet passage 20, and the exhaust passage 22. A
holding the main valve member 98 against the valve
second angular passage ‘60 connects the air inlet passage 20
seat ‘86 and the pilot valve member 90 against the conical
to the upper portion 41 of the cylinder 16 slightly above 15 valve seat 88.. ‘It is to be noted that in both extreme
the sealing ring 50 and the cylinder shoulder 52.
positions of the valve member 98 the cylinder 73‘ above
The air control valve 25,.which is constructed in ac
the piston is- at atmospheric pressure through the port 78
cordance with the present invention, is located within a
andpassage 22. The valve member 90 is opened by an
cored passageway '64‘which lies between the inlet and out
upward pressure on the projecting end of its valve stem
let passages 20 ‘and 22, and the angular passage 58. The 20 91 to lift the sealing ring 94 from the valve seat ‘88.. This
valve 25 includes a valve sleeve 66 which has a tight ?t
upward pressure or force is applied through a trigger 124
in the passageway 64, is sealed against ‘air leakage by a
which is pivoted on 1a pin 126 to the casting 12 in a
pair of gaskets 68, and is held against rotation and re
slot 125 adjacent the lower end of the cylinder 16. A pin
moval by a rolled retaining pin 70. The valve sleeve 66 is
128 limits the movement of the trigger in the clockwise
tapped at both ends and has a shouldered central portion 25 direction.
72 de?ning a valve cavity 71 thereabove land a cylinder
When the pilot valve is opened the air pressure in the
'73 therebelow. A port 79 in the central portion 72 com
cylinder 73 below the valve piston 102 is dropped through
municates the valve cavity with the cylinder, and it is
the spaces de?ned by the bore 81 and the ?utes 96 on
circumscribed at its upper or valve cavity end with a valve
the valve stem 91 and the air pressure acting on the head
seat 74 formed on the sleeve portion 72.
or" the valve portion 11301 exceeds the total pressures, air
A port 76 in the valve sleeve 66 connects the valve
and spring pressures, acting on the valve piston 102 so
cavity 71 with the angular passage 58 leading to the head
that the valve portion 100 is moved from its position
end of the cylinder 16. An exhaust port 78in the sleeve
against the valve seat 86 to its position against the valve
6*61below the central dividing portion 72 communicates the
seat 74, thus communicating the head of the piston 32
valve cylinder 73 'with the exhaust passage 22. Thus, 35 with air under inlet pressure to drive it from the position
when the valve 25 is closed, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 5, the
1gf‘GFIG. 1 through its power stroke to the position of
head end of the cylinder is vented to atmosphere through
I . 2.
the ports 54, passage 58, port 76, valve cavity 71, port 79,
On the power stroke of the piston 32 the driver blade
valve cylinder 73, exhaust port '78, and exhaust passage 22.
34-strips a staple 130*from the staple stick in the maga
40
Hollow plugs ‘80 and '82 are secured in the upper and
zine 448 and drives it through the guideway in the nose
lower ends, respectively, of the ‘valve sleeve 66 and are
assembly and into the work.
sealed thereagainst ‘by O-rings “84. An inlet port 83 in
The operation of the stapling tool of this invention is as
the plug 80 connects the air inlet passage 20 with the valve
follows. Assume that the valve 25 is closed with the
cavity 71, and at its inner end the port ‘83 is circumscribed
main valve member 98v-sealed against the valve seat 86,
by a valve seat .86 formed on the lower edge of the plug 45 and the pilot valve member 90* sealed against the valve
80 and spaced slightly away from the wall of the valve
seat 88, that the piston 32 is in its upper or retracted
cavity 71. The lower plug 82 has a bore 81 therethrough
position (FIG. 1), and that a staple 130' is positioned in
which terminates at its upper and inner end in a conical
the staple guideway beneath the driver blade 34. Air
valve seat 88.
under pressure has entered the valve assembly 25 through
A pilot valve member 90 has a stem 91 slidably project 50 the inlet passage 20, and has passed through the port 83
ing‘through the bore 81 of the plug 82. The valve mem
in the plug 80, the bores 117, 108, and 110 in the valve
ber 90 has a head 92 below which is an annular groove
member 98, and into the valve cylinder 73 below the valve
93 in which is ?tted an O-ring ‘94 which is adapted to
piston 102 to add its pressure to that of the spring 112
seal against the conical valve seat 88. Vertical ?utes 96
to hold the valve member 98 closed against the seat 86.
traverse the vmajor portion of the length of the valve 55 The total pressure on the underside of valve piston 102
is greater, than on the top of the valve portion 1001 be
stem 91, terminating slightly below the groove 93, and
communicate or 1vent the cylinder 73 with the atmosphere
cause of the dilference in surface areas and the etfect of
when the ‘valve member is pressed inwardly of the sleeve
the spring 112. The combined air and spring pressures
66.
also hold the pilot valve member 90in closed position
A main valve member 98 is reciprocably positioned in 60 against the conical valve seat 88.
With the control valve 25 in this closed position, air
' the valve sleeve 66 and has an upper valve portion ‘100 and
under pressure from the inlet passage 20- has passed into
a lower piston portion 102 interconnected by a stem 104.
the central portion of the cylinder 16 *below the piston
The stem 104 has a bore 108 therethrough which is
head 40~and through the angular passage 60‘. The piston
threaded at its upper [end 106. The bore 108 com
municates with a larger counterbore 110 in the piston 65 32 is, therefore, locked in its retracted position by air
under pressure con?ned in the annular space below the
portion 102 of the main valve member 98. A spring
shoulders 43 and‘45 and sealing ring 44 and above the
1112 has its upper end con?ned in the counterbore 110
shoulders 52 and 53 and sealing ring '50: (FIG. 1).
and its lower end pressing on the sealing iing ‘94 of the
When it is desired to operate the tool, the nose 26 is
pilot valve member 90'. The action of the spring is such 70
placed against the work and the trigger 124 is squeezed
as to bias the pilot valve member 90 to closed position
against the conical valve seat 88 and the main valve mem
ber 98 to closed position against the valve seat ‘86. An
O-ring 114 seals the valve piston portion 102 against the
wall of the valve cylinder 73 below the outlet port 78.
toward the handle 14 to open the valve 90 against the
combined air and spring pressures in the valve cylinder
73, thereby to vent the cylinder through the bore 81 to
the atmosphere. This action causes the application of a
sudden pressure dilferential between the top and bottom
3,084,572
faces of the valve member 98 with the greater pressure
being on the top. This greater pressure forces the valve
member 98 downwardly against the spring 112, opening
the port 83 to the valve cavity 71 and closing the port
79 (FIG. 2).
Air under pressure freely ?ows from the inlet passage
20 through the port 83, the valve cavity 71, the port 7 6‘,
tion including, means forming a cylinder having upper
and lower sections with said upper section having a slight
ly larger diameter than said lower section, a staple driv
ing piston reciprocable in said cylinder between retracted
and advanced positions and having an upper head portion
of larger diameter than the remainder of said piston
slidable only in said upper cylinder section, lateral port
means venting said cylinder to the atmosphere below
the angular passage 58, and the ports 54 into the head
said upper head portion of said piston when said piston
end of the cylinder above the piston 32. As the top of
is moved ‘from retracted position, means carried in the
the head of the piston 32 has an area far greater than the 10 wall of said lower cylinder portion for sealing said piston
underside of the head 40 above the sealing portion 46,
against said lower cylinder section when said piston is in
the application of air under the same unit pressure
advanced position to de?ne a closed annular space below
through the passages 58 and 60 will cause the piston
said piston head, and an unobstructed passage connecting
to move downwardly on its power stroke.
When the
the air inlet with said cylinder at said annular space to
lower piston annulus 48 moves off the sealing ring 50, 15 ‘furnish air under pressure to said upper cylinder section
the air under pressure in the annular space about the
to move said piston from advanced to retracted position
waist of the piston is vented to atmosphere through the
and
to hold said piston in retracted position.
slot 125 and there will be substantially no resistance to
2. In a pneumatic stapling tool for driving staples into
the piston movement until the driver 34 strips a staple
a workpiece having an air inlet adapted to be connected
130 from the staple stick and drives it into the work.
While the piston speed will be an accelerating one the
acceleration rate is extremely high and a hammerlike
to a source of air under pressure, and an air exhaust,
and a valve assembly controlling the flow of air in through
the air inlet and out through the air exhaust, the com
impact drives the staple 1301 into the work.
bination including, means forming a cylinder having
The entire operation of triggering the stapling tool 10
upper and lower sections with said upper section having
and driving the staple 1130 is very rapid, so that the opera 25 a slightly larger diameter than said lower section, a staple
tor need only squeeze the trigger 1124 and instantaneously
driving piston reciprocable in said cylinder between re
release it. Once the trigger is released, the spring 112
tracted and advanced positions and having an upper head
closes the pilot valve We and also urges the valve mem
portion of larger diameter than the remainder of said
ber 98 upwardly. Since the piston 32 is now at the
slidable only in said upper cylinder section, lateral
bottom of the cylinder 16‘ air will no longer ?ow through 30 piston
port means in said lower cylinder section slightly below
the angular passage 58 to the cylinder 16, but will ?ow
the juncture of said upper and lower cylinder sections
through the bores 117, 108, and 110 into the valve cylin
to vent said cylinder to atmosphere when said piston is
der 73 quickly to build up pressure therein to move the
moved away from its retracted position, means carried
valve head 100 quickly to close the port 83 from the
in the wall of said lower cylinder portion above said
35
valve cavity 71.
lateral port means for sealing said piston against said
Air at inlet pressure ?ows through the passage 60 into
lower
cylinder section above said port means when said
the central portion of the cylinder 16, and below the
piston is in either of its extreme positions to de?ne a
piston head 40' and the sealing ring 44 to push the piston
closed annular space below said piston head, and an
upwardly. The movement occurs because the total area
unobstructed passage connecting the air inlet with said
40
of the sealing ring 44 and shoulders 43 and 45 greatly
cylinder immediately above the juncture of said cylinder
exceeds the area of the shoulder 53. As soon as the
sections to admit air under pressure to said annular space
sealing surface 46 clears the sealing ring 5th, some air will
in said upper cylinder section to move said piston from
escape between the waist 47 of the piston and the sealing
advanced to retracted position and to hold said piston in
ring 50‘, but the area subject to upward pressure (the
retracted position.
shoulder 43 and sealing ring 44) being greater than the
3. In a pneumatic stapling tool for driving staples into
annular leakage gap (equal to the area of either of
a
workpiece,
having an air inlet adapted to be connected
shoulder-s 45 or 53) the piston 32 is driven upwardly.
to a source of air under pressure, an air exhaust, and a
The air in the cylinder is forced outwardly through the
valve assembly controlling the flow of air in through the
ports 54, the annular passage 56, angular passage 58,
air inlet and out through the air exhaust, the combination
the port 76, the valve cavity 711, the port '79, the upper
including, means forming a cylinder having upper and
portion of the valve cylinder 73, the exhaust port 78,
lower sections with said upper section having a slightly
and the exhaust passage 22. As the piston reaches the
larger diameter than said lower section, said lower sec
top of its return stroke, the O-ring 50 seals against the
tion being vented to the atmosphere below the juncture
annulus 48, and air under pressure in the annular space
between the piston 32 and the cylinder 16‘ holds the piston 55 of said sections, a staple driving piston reciprocable in
said cylinder, said piston having an upper head portion
in its retracted position.
slidable in said upper cylinder section, said piston having
It is clear from the foregoing description that the ob
a lower head portion of smaller diameter than said upper
jectives which were claimed for this invention at the out
head portion freely slidable in said lower cylinder section
set of this speci?cation, as well as others which have
and adapted to seal against said lower cylinder section
not been speci?cally set forth, have been fully attained.
While a preferred embodiment of the pneumatic sta 60 above said vent and below the juncture of said cylinder
sections when said piston is in its retracted position, said
pling tool constituting the present invention has been
piston having a sealing portion having a diameter equal
shown and described, it will be apparent that numerous
to that of said lower head portion and located immediately
modi?cations and changes may be made therein without
below said upper head portion to seal against said lower
departing from the underlying principles of the inven
tion. It is therefore intended, by the following claims, 65 cylinder section when said piston is at the end of its power
stroke, said piston having an intermediate portion having
to include all such variations and modi?cations by which
substantially the results of this invention may be obtained
a smaller ‘diameter than that of said lower head portion
through the use of the same or equivalent means.
and said sealing portion and interconnecting said last
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by
mentioned portions, and an obstructed passage connect
70 ing said air inlet with said upper cylinder section immedi
United States Letters Patent is:
1. In a pneumatic stapling tool for driving staples into
ately above the juncture of said cylinder sections to
a workpiece having an air inlet adapted to be connected
admit air under pressure to said upper cylinder section to
move said piston from advanced to retracted position and
valve assembly controlling the flow of air in through the
to hold said piston in retracted position.
air inlet and out through the air exhaust, the combina 75
to a source of air under pressure, an air exhaust, and a
3,084,672
7
4. In a pneumatic stapling tool for driving, staples
into a workpiece having an air inlet adapted to be con
nected to a source of air under pressure, an air exhaust,
8
and interconnecting, said last mentioned portions, a pas
sage connecting said air‘inlet with said cylinder immedi
ately above said ?rst sealing ring to admit air under pres
and a valve assembly controlling the ?ow of air in through
sure to said upper cylinder section to move said piston
the air inlet and out through the air exhaust, the combina
from advanced to retracted position and to hold said
tion including, means forming a cylinder having upper
piston in retracted position.
and lower sections with said upper section having a
slightly larger diameter than said lower section, a sealing
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
ring in the wall of said lower section immediately adjacent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
the ‘juncture of said upper and lower sections, said lower 10
574,003
Rinsche _____________ __ Dec. 29, 1896
section being vented to the atmosphere below said sealing
ring, a staple driving piston reciprocable in said cylinder,
787,705
said piston having an upper head portion ?tted with a seal
ing ring to seal against and be slidable in said upper
807,384
cylinder section, said piston having a lower head portion 15
of smaller diameter than said upper head portion freely
slidable in said lower cylinder section and adapted to
seal against said ?rst sealing ring when said piston is in
its retracted position, said piston having a sealing portion
having a diameter equal to that of said lower head por 20
tion and located immediately below said upper head
portion to seal against said ?rst sealing ring when said
piston is at the end'of its power stroke, said piston having
an intermediate portion having a smaller diameter than
that of said lower head portion and said sealing portion 25
866,981
1,720,705
2,406,747
2,687,522
2,850,738
2,870,743
2,872,901
2,918,675
2,931,620
Templin ____________ __ Apr. 18, 1905
Keller ______________ __ Dec. 12, 190
Templin ____________ __ Sept. 24,
Waterman‘ ___________ __ July 16,
Davis _______________ __ Sept. 3,
Juilfs _______________ __ Aug. 31,
Campbell et a1 _________ _._ Sept. 9,
Juilfs _______________ __ Jan. 27,
Goldring et a1. _______ __ ‘Feb. 10,
Smith _______________ __ Dec. 29,
Burns ________________ __ Apr. 5,
1907
1929
1946
1954
1958
1959
1959
1959
1960
2,953,117
Wandel et a1 ____ __'______ Sept. 20, 1960
2,954,009
Juilfs _______________ __ Sept. 27, 1960
2,960,067
Osborne _____________ __ Nov. 15, 1960
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