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Патент USA US3084806

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April 9, 1963
E. SKOLNIK
3,084,796
MAGNETIC HEAVY MEDIUM TREATMENT PROCESS AND APPARATUS
Original Filed March 23. 1960
wll
INVENTOR
Edward Skolnik
United States Patent 0
3,684,796
Patented Apr. 9, 1963
2
1
erably substantially overload the primary magnetic sepa
3,084,796
rator with respect to volume and therein separate most of
PRQCESS AND APPARATUS
the magnetics from the water, the magnetics thus sepa
rated being almost entirely free from non-magnetic
MAGNETEC HEAVY MEDIUM TREATMENT
Edward Skoiniir, Pittsburgh, Pa., assiguor to Heyl & Pat
terson, Inc, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Penn
syivania
Continuation of application Ser. No. 17,178, Mar. 23,
1960. This application Dec. 29, 1961, Ser. No.
163,134
6 Claims. (Cl. 209-38)
This invention relates to a process and apparatus em
ploying magnetic heavy media. It has to do particularly
with a novel method and apparatus for recovering mag
netics and preventing build-up of non-magnetic particles.
particles.
In a heavy medium coal separation process employing
magnetics I deliver coal and magnetics-containing water
to a cyclone, in the cyclone separate coal from refuse,
pass the separated products over screens, rinse the sepa
l0 rated products on the screens by water, deliver rinsings
water containing magnetic and non-magnetic particles to
a primary magnetic separator, in the primary magnetic
separator separate most of the magnetics from the water,
leaving in the water not enough magnetics to render the
water unsuitable for use as pre-rinse water, utilize the
This application is a continuation of my copending appli 15 greater part of such magnetics-containing water as pre
cation Serial No. 17,178, ?led March 23, 1960, now
rinse Water, deliver the remainder of such magnetics
abandoned.
containing Water to a secondary magnetic separator, in
In a heavy medium treatment process employing mag
the secondary magnetic separator separate nearly all of
netic media the magnetics are rinsed from the products of
20 the remainder of the magnetics from the remainder of the
the process by water and then thickened or dewatered for
reuse. An example is a coal treatment process employing
magnetite in water as a medium for separating a compara
tively light low-ash coal from a comparatively heavy high
ash refuse. The products emerging ‘from the process may
be passed over a screen, some of the magnetite and water
draining through the screen without dilution and being
returned for reuse. Comparatively magnetite-free water
is then used to rinse the coal. When the magnetite is
separated from the rinse water the magnetite is available
for reuse and the water is also available for reuse in
rinsing. Part of the separating of the magnetite from the
rinse water may be e?ected in static tanks, cyclones, or
other appropriate apparatus. However, there is always a
quantity of ?ne non-magnetic material which must be re
moved from the water to prevent a build-up of such ma
terial.
The size and number of magnetic separators required in
a plant depends on both the volume of Water to be proc
essed and the tonnage of magnetics it contains. Since the
volume generally governs it is customary in washing cy
clone plants, where large volumes of rinsing Water must
be used, to thicken the magnetics before using magnetic
separation to separate the magnetics from the rinsing
screen ef?uent water; when this is done the thickener
e?luents containing some magnetic and non-magnetic ?nes
are returned for use as pre-rinse water.
The somewhat
thickened magnetics may be directly reused in part, but
enough must be subjected to magnetic separation so that
entrapped non-magnetic particles can be separated from
the magnetics and wasted from the plant. In general the
quantities which must go to magnetic separation and to
waste increase rapidly with the ?neness of the coal being
processed because more magnetics will report with the
rinsings, more Water is required for adequate rinsing, and
water, waste such water-containing non-magnetic particles
to prevent a build-up of non-magnetic particles and reuse
the magnetics recovered in the primary and secondary
magnetic separators.
I provide magnetic heavy medium treatment apparatus
comprising a primary magnetic separator to which rinsings
water containing magnetic and non-magnetic particles is
delivered and in which most of the magnetics are separated
from‘ the water ‘but enough magnetics remain in the water
so that the Water should not be wasted but not enough
magnetics remain in the water to render the water unsuit
able for use as pre-rinse water, a secondary magnetic
separator to which a portion of such magnetics-containing
water is delivered and in which nearly all of the mag
netics are separated from the portion of the water, means
leading such water containing non-magnetic particles from
the secondary magnetic separator to waste to prevent a
build-up of non-magnetic particles, means returning the
magnetics recovered in the primary and secondary mag
netic separators for reuse, and means returning the bulk
of the Water leaving the primary separator for reuse as
_ rinse water.
Other details, objects and advantages of the invention
Will become apparent as the following description of a
present preferred embodiment thereof and a present pre
ferred method of practicing the same proceeds.
In the accompanying drawing I have illustrated a pres
ent preferred embodiment of the invention and a present
preferred method of practicing the same, the FIGURE
being a flow diagram of a magnetics separation and re
50
covery process and apparatus.
Referring to the drawing, raw coal, magnetics and water
drained from a screen are delivered respectively as indi
cated at 20, 17 and 5 into a receptacle 2 and pass together
through
a pump 22 to a washing cyclone or cyclones.
55
more ?ne non-magnetic particles must be wasted.
The coal is in the cyclone or cyclones separated from
I deliver all of the rinsing screen e?iuent water con-.
the refuse in known manner and is delivered at 21 upon
taining magnetic and non-magnetic particles to a primary
magnetic separator, in the primary magnetic separator
separate most of the magnetics from the water although
a screen *3. Some of the water-magnetics medium passes
through the screen 3 into a receptacle 4 and thence back
through a pipe 5 into the receptacle 2. The coal passing
leaving in the Water too much magnetic medium for the 60 down the screen 3 is rinsed by water delivered through
water to be wasted but not enough magnetics to render
nozzles ‘6 and 7. The water delivered through the nozzle
the water unsuitable for use as pre-rinse water, utilize the
6 is fresh water while the water delivered through the
greater part of such magnetics-containing water as pre
nozzles 7 is pro-rinse water derived as will now be de
rinse water, deliver the remainder of such magnetics-con
scribed. The rinsings, including water, magnetics and
taining water to a secondary magnetic separator, in the 65 non-magnetic particles, are received in a receptacle 8 and
secondary magnetic separator separate nearly all of the re
pass through a pump 23 and a pipe 9 into a primary
mainder of the magnetics from the remainder of the water,
magnetic separator 10. While but one primary magnetic
Waste such water containing non-magnetic particles and
separator is illustrated and While I use the singular num
only stray magnetic particles to prevent a build-up of non 70 ber in referring thereto there may be a battery of primary
magnetic separators. I preferably substantially overload
magnetic particles and reuse the magnetics recovered in
> the primary magnetic separator 10 with respect to volume.
the primary and secondary magnetic separators. I pref
3,084,796
4
3
embodiment of the invention and have illustrated a present
preferred method of practicing the same it is to be dis—
tinctly understood that the invention is not limited thereto
In the primary magnetic separator 10 I separate the mag
netics from the water containing non-magnetic particles.
The concentrated magnetics are delivered through a pipe
11 and the water containing non-magnetic particles is
but may be otherwise variously embodied and practiced
within the scope of the following claims.
I claim:
delivered through a pipe 12. The water containing non
magnetic particles delivered through the pipe 12 also
1. In a heavy medium treatment process employing a
magnetic medium, delivering rinse water containing mag
contains too much magnetic medium to be wasted but
not enough to render the water unsuitable for use as
netic and non-magnetic particles to a primary magnetic
pre-rinse water. It is delivered into a receptacle v13 from
separator, in the primary magnetic separator separating
which a portion is allowed to gravitate past a valve or
most of the magnetics from the water leaving the water
other flow control device .14 into a secondary magnetic
sufficiently free from magnetics to render the water suit
separator 15. The valve or other flow control device
able for use as pre-rinse water, utilizing the greater part
14 constitutes means for controllably predetermining the
of such magnetics-containing water as pre-rinse water,
quantity of the magnetics-containing water used as pre
rinse water and the quantity of the magnetics-containing 15 delivering the remainder of such magnetics-containing
water to a secondary magnetic separator, controllably
water delivered to the secondary magnetic separator.
predetermining the quantity of the magnetics-containing
While but one secondary magnetic separator is illustrated
water utilized as pre-rinse water and the quantity of the
and while I use the singular number in referring thereto
magnetics-containing water delivered to the secondary
there may be a battery of secondary magnetic separators.
Most of the water containing non-magnetic particles and 20 magnetic separator, in the secondary magnetic separator
separating nearly all of the remainder of the magnetics
some magnetics is delivered through a pipe 16 to the
from the remainder of the water, removing from the
nozzles 7.
.
heavy medium circuit such water containing non-magnetic
The portion of the water containing non-magnetic par
particles to prevent a build-up of non-magnetic particles
ticies and some magnetics gravitating past the valve 14 into
the secondary magnetic separator 15 has the magnetics 25 and reusing the magnetics recovered in the primary and
secondary magnetic separators.
separated from the water and non-magnetic particles, the
2. In a heavy medium treatment process employing
the magnetics passing through a pipe 17 and along with
a magnetic medium, delivering rinse water containing
the magnetics from the pipe 11 being returned to the
magnetic and non-magnetic particles to a primary magnet
receptacle ‘2. The water containing the non-magnetic
particles passes through a pipe 18 to waste. The clean 30 ic separator, substantially overloading the primary mag
netic separator with respect tovolume and therein separ
coal is delivered from the screen 3 by any suitable con—
ating most of the magnetics from the water, the magnetics
veying means 19.
thus separated being almost entirely free from non-mag
The quantity of water containing non-magnetic par
netic particles, leaving the water sufficiently free from
ticles which passes through the pipe 18 to waste is de
magnetics to render the water suitable for use as pre
termined by the extent to which the valve or other flow
rinse water, utilizing the greater part of such magnetics
control device v14 is opened. When the material being
treated contains a relatively great proportion of non
magnetic particles the valve or other ?ow control device
14 will be opened relatively Wide but not beyond the
capacity of the secondary magnetic separator 15. The
secondary magnetic separator 15 is of smaller capacity
than the primary magnetic separator 10 because it has to
containing water as pre-rinse water, delivering the re
mainder of such magnetics-containing water to a second
ary magnetic separator, controllably predetermining the
netic separator of smaller capacity than the primary
magnetic separator eifects a substantial saving in the cost
of the apparatus. The secondary magnetic separator is
designed to handle the maximum ?ow normally expected
quantity of the magnetics-containing water utilized as
pre—rinse water and the quantity of the magnetics~con—
taining water delivered to the secondary magnetic sepana
tor, in the secondary magnetic separator separating near
ly all of the remainder of the magnetics from the remain
der of the water, removing from the heavy medium circuit
such water containing non-magnetic particles to prevent
a build-up of non-magnetic particles and reusing the mag
to be delivered through the valve or other ?ow control
device 14.
separators.
handle a smaller ?ow.
Making of the secondary mag
netics recovered in the primary and secondary magnetic
The overloading of the primary magnetic separator 50
causes the magnetics passing through the pipe 11 to be
netics-containing Water to a cyclone, in the cyclone sepa
rating coal from refuse, passing the separated ‘coal over a
screen, rinsing the separated coal on the screen by water,
delivering rinse water containing magnetic and non-mag
netic particles to a primary magnetic separator, in the
almost entirely free from non-magnetic particles while
perhaps two or three percent of magnetics remain in the.
water delivered through the pipe 12. I preferably over
load the primary magnetic separator 10‘ by as much as
?fty ‘ percent.
primary magnetic separator separating most of the mag
Advantages of my invention are:
netics from the water, leaving the water sufficiently
free from magnetics to render the water suitable for use
(1) Less magnetic separation area is required than
would be necessary if a portion of the tails delivered
through ‘the pipe 12 from the primary magnetic separator
10 were to be bled Without secondary separation.
(2) The cost of the primary magnetic separator com
pares favorably with the cost of other means of pre
paring pre-rinse water such as static thickeners, cyclones,
etc.
(3) I produce clearer pre-rinse water than could be
3. In ‘a heavy medium coal separation process em
ploying a magnetic medium, delivering coal and mag
60
as pro-rinse water, utilizing the greater part of such mag
netics-containing water as pre-rinse water, delivering the
remainder of such magnetics-containing water to a sec
ondary magnetic separator, controllably predetermining
the quantity of the magnetics-containing water utilized
65 as pre-rinse water and the quantity of the magnetics
containing water delivered to the secondary magnetic
obtained otherwise; this is because the rate of recovery
of magnetics, while very poor for a magnetic separator,
separator, in the secondary magnetic separator separating
stages than can be produced by feeding pre-thickened
magnetics to magnetic separators.
prevent a build-up of non-magnetic particles and reusing
the magnetics recovered in the primary and secondary
nearly all of the remainder of the magnetics from the re—
mainder
of the water, removing from the heavy medium
is much higher than for thickeners generally.
(4) I produce cleaner magnetic concentrate at both 70 circuit such water containing non-magnetic particles to
v(5) Loss of magnetics is considerably less than can be
achieved in a single stage of separation.
While I have shown and described a present preferred
magnetic separators.
4. In a heavy medium treatment process employing
a magnetic medium, delivering rinse water containing
3,084,796
5
magnetic and non-magnetic particles to a primary mag
netic separator, in the primary magentic separator separa
ting most of the magnetics from the water leaving the
water su?iciently free from magnetics to render the water
suitable for use as pre~rinse water, utilizing the greater
part of such magnetics-containing water as pro-rinse
6
arator, means leading such Water containing non-mag
netic particles from the secondary magnetic separator
from the heavy medium circuit to prevent a build-up of
non-magnetic particles and means returning the magnetics
recovered in the primary and secondary magnetic sepa
ratons for reuse.
water, delivering the remainder of such magnetics-con
6. Magnetic heavy medium treatment apparatus com
taining water to a secondary magnetic separator of
prising a primary magnetic separator to which rinse water
smaller capacity than the primary magnetic separator,
containing magnetic and non-magnetic particles is de
controllably predetermining the quantity of the magnet 10 livered and in which most of the magnetics are separated
ios-contaim'ng water utilized ‘as pre-rin'se water vand the
from the water but some magnetics are left in the water
quantity of the magnetics-containing water delivered to
wherefore the water should not be wasted, but the water
the secondary magnetic separator, in the secondary mag
is left su?iciently free from magnetics so as to be Suitable
netic separator separating nearly all of the remainder of
for use as pre-rinse water, means separating such magnet
the magnetics from the remainder of the water, removing 15 ios-containing water into two fractions one of which is
from the heavy medium circuit such water containing
used as pre-rinse water, a secondary magnetic separator
non-magnetic particles to prevent a build-up of non-mag
of smaller capacity than the primary magnetic separator
netic particles and reusing the magnetics recovered in the
to which the remainder of such magnetics-containing
primary and secondary magnetic separators.
5. Magnetic heavy medium treatment vapp-anatus com
prising a primary magnetic separator to which rinse water
containing magnetic and non~magnetic particles is deliver-g
water is delivered and in which nearly all of the remain
der of the magnetics are separated from the remainder of
the water, means for controllably predetermining the
quantity of the magnetics-containing water used as pre
ed and in which most of the magnetics are separated from
rinse water and the quantity of the magnetics-containing
the water but some magnetics are left in the water where
water delivered to the secondary magnetic separator,
fore the water should not be wasted, but the water is left 25 means leading such water containing non-magnetic par
su?i-ciently free from magnetics so as to be suitable for
ticles from the secondary magnetic separator from the
use as pre-rinse water, means separating such magnetics
heavy medium circuit to prevent a build-up of non~mag~
containing Water into two fractions one of which is used
netic particles and means returning the magnetics recov
as pre-rinse Water, a secondary magnetic separator to
ered in the primary and secondary magnetic separators for
which the remainder of such magnetics-containing water 30 reuse.
is delivered and in which nearly all of the remainder of
the magnetics are separated from the remainder of
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
the water, means controllahly predetermining the quan
tity of the magnetics-containing water used as pre
rinse water and the quantity of the maguetios-con 35
taining water delivered to the secondary magnetic sep
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,781,906
2,932,395
Fontein ____________ __ Feb. 19, 1957
Marlot _______________ __ Apr. 12, 1960
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