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Патент USA US3084949

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April 9, 1963
c. J. ZWICKEY
ARROWHEAD
Filed Feb. 14, 1958
3,084,939
‘[
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
(
1570.4‘
INVENTOR
67/7/0/0’ J. ZTW/céey
BY
W .3411“:
:ATTORNEY
April 9, 1963
C. J. ZWICKEY
3,084,939
ARROWHEAD
'Filed Feb. 14, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
ATTORNEY
United States Patent O?ice
2
1
manner of a torsion spring and the anchoring arm is also
3,ii84,939
resilient thereby providing a maximum spring effect which
ARRUWl-IEAD
Cli?ord J. Zwiclrey, 107 12th Ave. NE,
North St. Paul, Minn.
Filed Feb. 14, 1958, Ser. No. 715,304
extends throughout the length of each spring.
A further feature of the present invention resides in the
particular form and shape of the arrowhead. The arrow
head is provided with a blunt disc-like end which is con
16 Claims. (Ci. 273-—1tl6.5)
nected by a reduced diameter neck to a larger diameter
portion spaced rearwardly of the arrowhead point. The
This invention relates to an improvement in arrowheads
and deals particularly with an arrowhead having out
wardly projecting spring ?ngers capable of catching in
3,084,939
Patented Apr. 9, 1963
large diameter portion acts as a protection for the major
10
portion of the spring structure being of slightly larger
grass, leaves and underbrush to stop the ?ight of the
diameter than the spring structure. A circular bearing
arrow and to make it easy to locate.
portion is provided rearwardly of the groove against
which the springs may bear, the springs being held from
In my previous patents such as Patent 2,628,837, is
sued February 17, 1953, for Arrowhead With Resilient
rearward movement relative to the arrowhead by this por
Arms, 1 disclosed an arrowhead having a series of milled 15 tion of the head. The bearing portion described is of
approximately the same diameter as the rear end of the
bosses arranged in angularly spaced relation about which
socket into which the arrowhead shaft extends. The bear
were coiled the spiral ends of springs. These spiral
ing portion is also of approximately the same diameter as
springs are supported arms which extended outwardly in
the outside of the spring structure so that when the spring
a generally radial direction rearwardly of the point of the
arrow. When such an arrow was used in the woods or 20 arm is bent backwardly upon contact with grass, leaves
or the like, the arms extend outwardly of the bearing
underbrush or in tall grass and missed its target, the
portion and are not bent thereby.
spring arms would catch in the grass or in leaves or the
These and other objects and novel features of the pres
like and would collect such material in a ball forwardly
ent invention will be more clearly and fully set forth in
of the arrow. The spring arms thus not only stopped
the ?ight of the arrow quickly upon striking such material 25 the following speci?cation and claims.
In the drawings forming a part of the speci?cation.
but also made the arrow easily found because of the ball
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of an arrowhead showing
of material collected at the arrow point. Furthermore,
the construction thereof.
the arms would catch in grass and other growth and
FiGURE 2 is an end view of the spring structure re
would prevent the arrow from sliding beneath the layer
of material overlying the ground. Arrows of common 30 moved from the arrowhead.
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of one of the springs form
construction are very difficult to find in locations of this
ing the spring structure.
type as they tend to slide under the leaves and grass with
FIGURE 4 is a plan view of the arrowhead with the
out leaving much of a trace.
spring structure removed.
While arrows of this type were very successful in their
FIGURE 5 is a cross sectional view through a modi?ed
intended purpose, the biggest difficulty was the cost of 35
form of arrowhead which is adapted to support the spring
manufacture. In order to produce arrows of this type
structure which is described.
considerable machining was normally necessary ‘as the
FIGURE 6 is a View similar to FIGURE 5 showing an
heads are usually made of steel and could not easily be
other form of arrowhead which is designed to accom~
formed by methods other than machining methods.
40 modate the spring structure described.
The purpose of the present invention lies in the provi
FIGURE 7 is a cross sectional view of still another
sion of a spring structure which is easy to produce and
form of arrowhead which may be used to support the
which can be manufactured at relatively low cost. The
spring structure.
arrowhead itself is easy to produce in a screw machine or
FIGURE 8 is an end view of the arrowhead disclosed
the like and accordingly may be produced in volume at
45 in FIGURE 7.
relatively low cost. The arrowhead is machined with a
FIGURE 9 is an elevational view of another modi?ed
groove encircling the body of the head intermediate the
form of spring structure in which the various spring ele
ends thereof. A spring structure is assembled in this
ments are held together by a retaining ring structure.
groove encircling the small diameter portion of the head
FIGURE 10 is an end view of the construction illus
and once the spring structure is in place it is difficult to 50
trated in FIGURE 9.
remove and practically impossible to remove accidentally
FIGURE 11 discloses a modi?ed form of construction
unless the springs are broken. As a result, an arrow
in which one of the spring elements comprises merely a
head is formed which serves the same purpose as those
connecting element and does not support an outwardly
which were previously produced and at a small fraction
projecting spring arm.
of the cost of the previous constructions.
55
FIGURE 12 is another, modi?ed form of spring struc
A feature of the present invention resides in the pro
ture in which two adjoining spring coil portions are inte
vision of the spring structure itself. The spring structure
grally connected so that one series of convolutions is
comprises a series of springs, each of which is identical.
angularly related to the next while the axes of the con~
Each spring includes a spring arm extending substantially
tangentially from one end of the coil spring and a second 60 volutions are on a common plane.
FIGURE 13 is another modi?ed form of construction
end extending tangentially from the opposite end of the
in which the spring is made up of two connected springs
spring and in the opposite direction. One arm of each
rather than a larger number of them.
spring extends through the coil of an adjoining spring and
The arrowhead itself is formed as is best illustrated
the end of this arm is bent angularly to hold the two
springs assembled. As a result of this arrangement, each 65 in FIGURE 4 of the drawings. The head is indicated in
general by the letter A and includes a tapered ferrule 10
of the springs is connected to the two springs on opposite
having a relatively large diameter rear end 11 and a
sides of it forming a ring designed to encircle the small
smaller diameter forward end 12. As indicated in dotted
diameter portion of a groove in the arrowhead body.
outline, the ferrule 10 includes a tapered socket 13 designed
A feature of the present invention resides in the fact
that the springs are capable of flexing throughout their 70 to accommodate the tapered forward end 14 of an arrow
shaft 1-5. The other end of the shaft .15 is preferably
entire length. The outwardly projecting arms are re
rounded as indicated at 16 and notched as indicated at
silient and ?exible, the intermediate coil is resilient in the
3,084,939
3
17 for the accommodation of the bow string. The arrow
shaft 15 is also preferably feathered as indicated at 129
so that the arrow will ?y on a true course.
As this end of
the arrow is unimportant to the present invention, it is
not described in any detail.
The small diameter portion 12 of the ferrule 16} is
This object next strikes the ?rst shoulder 25 which tends
to resist the swinging of the arrow shaft toward the
object struck and as the arrowhead passes by the object,
the second shoulder 21 apparently tends to further
straighten out the arrow in its ?ight. As a result, the
tendency for the shaft of the arrow to break when the tip
connected by a rounded ?llet 2G to a large diameter
hits a solid object is reduced to some extent.
shoulder portion 21 having its forward surface substan
In the constructing of the spring arrangement, various
different forms of construction may be employed, each
of which may be advantageous or disadvantageous rela
tially ?at. .A groove 22 having a rounded base of slightly
greater diameter than the diameter of the helical spring
which will be placed therein is provided forwardly of
'
tive to the others. It should also be noted that the
speci?c form of the arrowhead may vary to some ex
tinues the curve of the spring through approximately a
tent to suit the conditions of manufacture. For example,
semi-circular ?llet. This forms a shoulder for contain~
in FIGURE 5 of the drawings is disclosed a type of arrow
ing the spring structure on the forward side of the groove 15 head which may he used in conjunction with a tubular
which is of a depth substantially equal to the radius of
arrow body constructed of metal, plastics, glass ?bers, and
curvature of the outer surface of the helical spring.
the like and particularly those which are capable of being
the shoulder 21.
The forward side of the groove con»
From the apex of the shoulder 26 the body is connected
formed in suitable shapes. In the arrangement illustrated
in FIGURE 5 of the drawings, the arrow shaft 35 com
shoulder 25 which is substantially equal in diameter to 20 prises a hollow tubular member which is rolled or shaped
the shoulder 21 and substantially equal in diameter to
to include a peripheral groove 36 which is generally simi
the large diameter end 11 of the ferrule 10.
lar in shape to the groove 21 and presents a shoulder 37
on a substantially frusto-conical plane 24 to a second
Forwardly of the shoulder 25, the body is connected
rearwardly of the spring structure and capable of prevent
with a relatively short radius ?llet 26 to an elongated
ing ‘the spring structure from sliding rearwardly of the
shallow groove having a curved inner surface 217. At 25 arrow. The groove 36 may be connected by a concave
its forward end, the body is provided with a disc like
shoulder 39 to a peripheral ridge or rim 40 which is
member 2% which forms a blunt tip to limit the penetra
designed to prevent the spring structure from sliding for
tion of the arrow into a tree or other similar object.
wardly on the arrow shaft and which acts to protect the
This blunt tip is of approximately one-half the diameter
spring structure to some extent. The portion of the arrow
of the shoulders 21 and 25 and of the large diameter end
head forwardly of the rim or head 46) is ‘generally cone
11 of the ferrule. The small diameter portion of the tip
at the base of the shallow groove 27 is approximately
two-thirds of the diameter of the end 29. The base of
the groove 22 is of approximately the same diameter.
shaped and the outer surface thereof might be slightly
concave as indicated at 4-1.
The arrowhead 42 illustrated in FIGURE 6 of the
drawings is shown to illustrate a different manner of
By reducing the diameter of the tip rearwardly of the 35 attaching the arrowhead to the arrow shaft 43. This
blunt end it is possible for the arrow to pivot slightly
arrangement is particularly useful in conjunction with
if it enters the side of a tree or other object and strikes
a hollow tubular shaft having a hollow interior 44, al
the object with a glancing blow.
though it may also be used with a solid shaft with the
The spring structure includes an intermediate helical
hollow portion 44 comprising a socket extending axially
coil portion 36 with one end of the coil extending sub 40 into the end of the shaft. The arrowhead 42 is provided
stantially straight in a tangential direction to form an
with a reduced diameter shank 45 extending into the
arm 31. As is indicated in ‘FIGURE 1 of the drawings,
passage or socket 444 and includes a larger diameter por
the extremity of each arm 31 is bent at substantially right
tion 46 exteriorly of the shank 45 which limits the inward
angles to form a forward projection 28 which assists in
movement of the head into the passage or socket 44.
preventing the various arms from sliding off grass and 45 The head 42 is provided with a groove 47 designed to
the like. The other end of the helical spring 30‘ includes
accommodate the spring structure and the forward end
a second arm 32. which extends substantially parallel to
49 of the arrowhead may be tapered or otherwise shaped.
the arm .30 but in a reverse direction. Springs of this
type are very simple to construct and can be produced
at low cost.
The spring assembly is made by inserting the arm
32 of one spring through the helical coil 30 of another
spring, the arm 32 preferably entering the end of the
spring from which the spring arm extends. The extremity
33 of the arm 32 is then bent in a reverse direction to
engage over the end of the coil 30 from which the arm
32 projects. The second spring is then assembled to a
third spring in the same manner. Using the same method
of assembly the third spring may be attached to a
fourth and so on until the desired number of springs are
connected. In the present case, four such arms are nor
mally used although obviously this number may vary.
FIGURES 7 and 8 show the manner in which the
spring structure may be applied to an arrowhead 50
which does not have a circular groove of the type illus-‘a
trated in the previously described arrowhead construc
tion. The arrowhead 50 may be integral with the hol
low tubular arrow shaft or may be attached to the shaft.
The arrowhead 50 is shown as having a tubular body 51
which is ?attened at its forward extremity to provide
?attened sides 52 and 53 which may be substantially in
surface contact. The ?attening of the tubular structure
forms shoulders 54 and 55 at the rear end of the ?at
tened portions thus forming shoulders or abutments
against which the spring structure which is indicated
in dotted outline by the numeral 56 may abut. A staple
or other such element 57 extends through the ?attened
portions 52 and 53 in a position spaced forwardly from
right angles to the axis of the coil 30, a rectangular box
the shoulders 54 and 55 to form an abutment preventing
like structure is most readily formed.
65 the spring structure from leaving the arrowhead once it
The spring structure which is employed is in itself
has been applied.
When the arms 32 extend on a plane at substantially
useful for certain purposes other than for arrow construc
FIGURES 9 and 10 of the drawings illustrate a some
tion and the arrowhead shape has been found desirable
what modi?ed form of spring structure which is indicated
even with the spring structure removed. The spaced
in general by the numeral 59. The spring structure 59
shoulders of substantially equal diameter seem to have 70 includes a series of helical springs 60', each having at
an advantage in the event the arrowhead strikes an object
one end an outwardly projecting arm 61 preferably pro
with a slanting or glancing blow. When the arrow hits
vided with an angularly projecting extremity 58. As
an object with a glancing blow the tip end of the arrow
illustrated in the drawings, the springs 60 are held in
?rst strikes and a tendency is created to twist the arrow
the groove 62 of the arrowhead 63 by means of a re
so that the arrow shaft swings toward the object struck. 75 taining ring 64 which may comprise one or two turns
5
3,054,939
of wire which extend through the helical portions 60
of the springs and hold these helical portions tightly
wrapped about the grooved portion of the arrowhead.
In the spring structure disclosed in FIGURE 2 of the
drawings, all of the springs, are identical and all of the
6
Within the scope of the following claims without depart
ing from the spirit of my invention.
I claim:
1. An arrowhead including a generally cylindrical elon
gated body having means for attachment with the for
springs are provided with outwardly projecting spring
ward portion of an arrow shaft, a circumferential shoulder
arms. In FIGURE 11 of the drawings I disclose a
modi?ed form of construction which is illustrated in
having a periphery lying on a plane substantially normal
to the axis of said body and located longitudinally in the
general area of the forward extremity of said means for
general by the numeral 65 and which is identical with
the structure shown in FIGURE 2 with the exception 10 attachment, a second shoulder of somewhat smaller di
ameter than the ?rst shoulder and having its periphery
of the fact that one of the springs is not. equipped with
an outwardly projecting spring arm and merely acts as
spaced forwardly thereof, a circumferential groove of
a means of connecting the remaining springs. In the
reduced diameter between said shoulders, said reduced
diameter groove having sides contoured longitudinally
structure shown in FIGURE 11, three of the springs 66,
67 and 69 are identical and are identical with the springs 15 and having a ?lleted convergence with said ?rst shoulder,
a third abrupt angled shoulder of substantially equal
employed in the structure shown in FIGURE 2, each
having a central helical portion 70 and each having an
peripheral diameter to said ?rst shoulder and spaced vfor
outwardly projecting spring arm 71 extending from one
wardly of said second shoulder, a reduced diameter tip
at the forward extremity of said body, and a neck portion
end thereof. Each of these springs also includes an arm
72 which extends in a direction generally opposite the
connecting said tip to said body at said third shoulder,
said neck and tip each having :a diameter substantially
arm 71 from the opposite end of the helical coil 70.
Each of the arms 70 extends through the coil of an
less than the diameter of said third shoulder.
adjacent spring and is provided with an angularly ex
2. An arrowhead including an elongated body having
tending end 73 which hooks over the helical coil of an
means for connection with an arrow shaft, shoulder
adjoining spring. The fourth spring 74 is provided with 25 means on said body, a reduced periphery portion for
a projecting arm 75 which is also provided with an angu
wardly of said shoulder means, a spring structure includ
larly turned extremity 76 which is designed to hook over
ing a series of arms projecting beyond the periphery of
the end of an adjoining helical coil 70'. The other end
said body, each said arm being connected to one end of
of the spring 74 includes an arm 76 which extends into
one of a series of connected helical portions, the axis of
the helical coil 70 of another of the springs or this arm 30 each said helical portion being substantially tangent to
76 may be omitted entirely so that the spring 74 merely
a hypothetical circle having a common axis with said
acts to connect the ends of others of the spring 70'.
body, means retaining each said helical portion in work
In FIGURE 12 of the drawings, another modi?ed
ing relation with said body and nested on said reduced
form of spring structure 77 is illustrated which is made
periphery portion forwardly of and longitudinally adja
up of two spring elements rather than a larger number. 35 cent said shoulder.
Each of the springs forming the structure 77 includes
3. An arrowhead including an elongated body, said
connected helical portions 79 and 80 which are in angu
body having a shoulder means thereon, a reduced periph
lar relationship and which are formed by bending the
ery portion forwardly of said shoulder means, a spring
helical spring intermediate its ends. Each portion 79
structure including a series of arms terminating beyond
of the spring is provided with a projecting arm 81 which 40 the periphery of said body, each said arm being con
extends through the helical portion 80 of the adjoining
neoted to one end of one of a series of connected helical
spring and is anchored in place in a suitable manner such
portions, the axis of each said helical portion being sub
as by providing an angularly turned extremity 82 which
stantially tangent to a hypothetical circle having common
hooks over the end of the helical portion 80. The end
axis with said body, \and means retaining each said helical
of the helical portion 80 which is not connected to the 45 portion in Working relation with said body and nested on
helical portion 79 includes an outwardly projecting arm
said reduced periphery portion ‘forwardly of and longi
83 which may be provided with an angularly turned end
tudinally adjacent said shoulder means.
84 at its outer extremity. Thus, only one helical por
4. The structure of claim 3 and in which said shoulder
tion of each spring is provided with an outwardly ex
means comprises a series of angularly spaced shoulder
tending arm, the helical portion 79 forming connecting 50 portions.
portions for connecting one helical portion 80‘ of one
spring to the similar portion of the next spring.
5. The structure of claim 3 and having a second
shoulder forward of said reduced portion, said spring
structure being retained between said shoulders.
In FIGURE 13 of the drawings, a spring structure 85
is illustrated which is similar to the previously described
6. The structure of claim 3 and with each said helical
constructions in general in that it includes two springs, 55 portion having its axis on a substantially common plane
each having a central helical portion 86 and each having
which is substantially normal to the axis of said body.
an outwardly extending arm 87 extending from one end
7. The structure of claim 3 and in which said retain
ing means includes an arm extending through the helical
of the helical portion 86 and preferably provided with
coils of said helical portions.
‘an angularly turned extremity 89. In view of the fact
8. The structure of claim 5 and in which said shoulders
that only two springs are employed in this construction, 60
extend substantially to the outer periphery of the helical
the arms 90 which extend from the opposite end of each
portions of said spring structure.
helical portion 86 is bent at 91 to provide an anchoring
9. The structure of claim 5 and in which the ‘face of
portion 92 which extends generally parallel to the axis of
said shoulder means extends substantially tangent to the
the helix from which it projects. The angularly turned
portion 92 of each spring extends through the helical coil 65 helical portions of said spring structure, and having the
face of the said second shoulder spaced forwardly of
86 of the other spring and is anchored in place in a suit
the opposite side of the helical portions of said spring
able manner such as by providing an angularly turned
structure.
extremity 93 thereupon which hooks over the end of the
10. An arrowhead including an elongated body, a
opposite helical coil 86 from which the arm 90 projects. 70 spring structure, and means for securing said spring struc
In accordance with the patent statutes, I have de
ture in Working relation with said body, said spring struc
scribed the principles of construction and operation of
ture including a plurality of spring units interconnected
my improvement in arrowheads, and while I have en
in an unterminated circuitous series encircling said body,
deavored to set forth the best embodiment thereof, I
each said spring unit including a helical portion, a pro
desire to have it understood that changes may be made 75 jecting arm connected to one end of said helical portion
3,084,939
and arranged to swing substantially in a plane parallel to
a series of torque restricting members, each said helical
the axis of said body, and ‘a second rarm connected to? the
‘other end of said helical portion, said second arm extend
ing within the helical coils of the helical portion ofthe
next successive spring unit of the series and secured there
portion being retained 'in Working relation with said body
forwardly adjacent said shoulder and with the axis of each
in, the axis of each said ‘helical portion being substantially
tangent to a hypothetical circle coaxial with said body,
each said axis of a helical portion lying substantially on a
said helical portion lying substantially on a common
plane normal to the axis of said body, each said project
ing arm being integrally connected singly to one end of
one of said helical portions and arranged to swing most
readily in an are substantially outside the periphery of
said body, said are lying substantially in a plane parallel
plane common with the axis of every other helical portion
of the series.
10 to the axis of said body and normal to the axis of said
11. The structure of claim 10 and with said second
helical'portion to which said projecting arm is connected,
arm extending from said helical portion in a direction
each said torque restricting member being integrally con
generally opposite from the direction of said projecting
nected singly to that end of a helical portion opposite to
the end having a projecting arm and being engaged on
arm.
12. The structure of claim 10 and in which each said 15 said body.
15. The structure of claim714 and with the axis of each
projecting arm and each said second arm are integral
said helical portion being tangent to a hypothetical circle
with said helical portion to which they are primarily con
haying common axis with said body.
nected.
16. An arrow head having a spring structure encircling
13. Thestructure of claim 10 and in which each said
second arm extends through and emerges from the helical 20 the same, the spring structure including a series of con
nected spring velements each including a helical portion
coils ‘of the next helical portion of the series, each said
‘and an arm extending substantially tangentially from one
second arm being turned at a substantial angle and en
end of said helical portion, and means ‘on said spring
gaged over the second arm end ‘of said next helical portion.
structure securing the other end of each helical portion to
14. An arrowhead including an elongated body having
a lateral shoulder means open substantially forwardly and 25 the next adjacent spring element.
arranged substantially normal to the axis of said body,
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
and a front end section spaced forwardly of said shoulder,
and ‘a longitudinal connecting portion connecting said
UNITED STATES PATENTS
shoulder and said front end section, said longitudinal con
Landers _.._'__________ __ Dec. 16, 1952
necting portion having substantially less total cross sec 30 2,621,917
2,628,837
Zwickey ____________ __ Feb. 17, 1953
tional area than the area within the periphery of the body
2,671,664
Zwickey _____________ __ Mar. 9, 1954
at said shoulder means, a spring structure including a
2,747,859
Rager _.._‘ ____________ __ May 29, 1956
series of projecting arms, a series of helical'portions and
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