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Патент USA US3085077

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United States Patent 0
1
1C6
1
d?h??'?
Patented Apr. 9, 1.963
2
It was found that these and other objects are obtained
3,085,067
by providing a shampoo containing, as its essential ingre
dients in an aqueous vehicle, an N-acyl sa-rcosinate, an
County, Qhio, assignor to The Procter & Gamble Com
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation of Qhio
No Drawing. Filed Feb. 10, 1960, Ser. No. 7,779
alkyl sulfate or an alkyl ethoxylated ether sulfate and a
blend of acyl mono- and diethanolamides. These ingre
SARCOSINATE SHAMPOG
John A. Anderson, §pring?eid Township, Harniiton
4 Qlairns. (Cl. 252-453)
dients are so selected and so proportioned that a sham
poo having .a highly satisfactory balance of the requisite
properties, enumerated above, is obtained. Minor
This invention relates to a sarcosinate-based shampoo
amounts of a solvent should be included in the shampoo
formulated from a combination of ingredients so selected 10 to improve its physical characteristics and minor amounts
and so» proportioned that outstanding lathering, cleaning,
of a sequestrant can be included, if desired, for the same
hair conditioning and hard water resistance character
purpose as hereinafter more fully described. The pH of
istics are obtained.
the shampoo should be in the range of 6 to 7.5 for opti
Most users ofchampoos have de?nite requirements with
mum performance and physical characteristics.
respect to the performance characteristics of the products
The essential ingredients of the shampoo of this inven
they use. A shampoo which merely cleans the hair is
tion are defined in greater detail as follows: N-acyl sar
not necessarily a satisfactory product; it is often said that
cosinates are the salts of condensation products of fatty
a shampoo which cleans too well is unsatisfactory. In
acids with sarcosine, RCON(CH3),CH2COOM; alkyl sul
addition to cleaning adequately, the product must lather
fates are the salts of sulfated fatty alcohols, R'OSO3M;
Well during the shampooing operations and must con 20 alkyl ethoxylated ether sulfates are mixtures of salts of
dition the hair, i.e. leave the hair in a soft, smooth, lus
sulfa-ted condensation products of from 1 to 5 moles of
trous and easily manageable state. The shampoo must
ethylene oxide with one mole of fatty alcohol,
be mild and have suf?cient resistance to hard water since
hard water may cause a reduction in lather and cleaning
e?iciency and may cause an undesirable ?lm formation on 25 x ranging from 1 to 5 ‘and preferably averaging about 3;
the hair. The use of softened water or special rinses are
acyl monoethanolamides are the condensation products
not satisfactory solutions to hard water problems for a
of one mole of fatty acid with one mole of ethanolamine,
commercially acceptable shampoo.
RCONHCHZCHZOH; acyl diethanolamides are the con
The chief problem in formulating a shampoo which
30 densation products of one mole of fatty acid with two
has the combination of the requisite properties is that a
particular ingredient which will impart to the shampoo
one or perhaps several of the requisite properties in an
outstanding manner will adversely affect one or more of
the remaining properties. For example, soap-based sham
poos, in soft water, have excellent cleaning, lathering
and hair conditioning properties; however, any hardness in
water adversely affects the lathering characteristics and
moles of ethanolarnine, RCON(CH2CH2OH)2.
The acyl radicals (RC0) and alkyl radicals (R') in
the above ingredients preferably have a chain length of 12
~ carbon atoms or are mixtures of radicals ranging in chain
length from 10 to 18 carbon ‘atoms such that at least
about 45% of the radicals in any given ingredient con—
‘rain 12 carbon atoms. Suitable mixtures are available
from natural or synthetic sources. Coconut oil (or other
leaves the well known undesirable hard water soap curd.
oil from the coconut oil group, e.g. palm kernel or
equestering and curd dispersing additives have im
babassu oil) is a source for coconut type fatty alcohol
40
proved soap shampoos to some extent but the majority
and coconut type fatty acids which have chain lengths
of successful shampoos are based on those non-soap syn
suitable for the ingredients used in the shampoo of this
thetic detergents which lather and clean well in hard or
invention. For example the middle cut obtained in the
soft water. Such non-soap detergents, however, have the
distillation of coconut fatty alcohol having the following
shortcoming of cleaning so well thatthe natural oil of
45 composition: 2‘%—C10, 66%—C12, 23%—~C14 and
the hair, which naturally conditions the hair, is removed
9%—C16 alcohols, is a desirable source for alkyl radicals
leaving it harsh and unmanageable.
If the shampoo preparation is designed to preserve
in the above ingredients; coconut fatty acids having the
same chain length composition are a desirable source of
much of the natural oil in the hair, the criticism can be
acyl radicals. Whole cut coconut fatty acids can also be
voiced that it does an incomplete cleaning job. Some 50 used as a source of acyl radicals; ‘an example of the chain
shampoos attempt to solve this problem by using a highly
length distribution of such material is C6_1Q—15%,
effective detergent with a hair conditioning agent which
C12——-50%, C14—17%, C16—-—7% and C18—ll%.
serves as a replacement for the oil removed from the hair.
The cation M in the above ingredients can ‘be sodium,
Examples of such hair conditioning agents are polyglycols,
potassium, ammonium or triethanolarnrnonium. The lat
fatty acid esters of glycols, natural or synthetic Waxes, and
ter is preferred because of the somewhat greater solubility
lanolin derivatives. Use of formulations containing ex
of the triethanolammonium salts.
cessive amounts of hair conditioning agents of the oily
The chief ingredient of the shampoos of this invention
type may cause the hair to have an unpleasant oily ap
is acyl sarcosinate. This synthetic detergent has excellent
pearance {and feel. Formulations containing certain hair
lathering and cleansing characteristics and at the same
conditioning agents ‘suffer from the additional difiiculty 60 time has outstanding hair conditioning characteristics.
that the oily material inhibits sudsing of the shampoo.
This latter characteristic is a result of a very thin condi
Most people have come to expect copious lather from
tioning ?lm of acyl sarcosinate which is formed around
their shampoo and are dissatis?ed if it is not formed.
each strand of hair after the shampooing operation and
It is an object of this invent-ion to provide a homoge
during rinsing. This ?lm is similar to the thin condition
neous shampoo which is preferably substantially clear
ing ?hn formed by soap in soft Water. However, the
and which produces a copious lather, effectively cleans
sarcosinate conditioning ?lm formed around the hair
the hair, and leaves the hair, after drying, in a soft, lus
strands in hard water shampooing is just as satisfactory as
trons, easily manageable condition.
that formed in soft water whereas hard water soap ?lm is
It is another object of this invention to provide a sham
poo which has the above characteristics in hard as IWCH 70
highly undesirable.
’
as soft water and which does not form an undesirable
,Although the acyl sarcosinate lathers well and cleans
well, it was found that it should be supplemented by an
hard water precipitate.
alkyl sulfate or an alkyl ethoxylated ether sulfate in cer
8,085,067
3
tain proportions in order to provide, in the shampoo, a
mixture of components which provides the large amount
of lather which is desired by the user. These sulfated de
tergents by themselves do not have the ‘outstanding con
ditioning properties of the acyl sarcosinate.
The acyl sarcosinate is used in the amount of about 6%
to about 15% of the shampo composition. (-All per
centages and ratios used herein are by weight.) The sul
fated detergent is used in the amount of about 12% to
4
after being rendered non homogeneous and/or cloudy at
low temperatures which might be encountered in storage
or transit. The ethanol, glycerin or propylene glycol is
used in an amount of about 3% to about 12% of the
shampoo composition. Solvents other than ethanol, gly
cerin or propylene glycol, such as methanol, isopropanol,
or ethylene glycol, are not satisfactory because of toxicity
and/or odor problems. Ethanol is the preferred solvent.
It is preferable to include in the shampoo compositions
about 8% of the shampoo composition. Since the acyl 10 of this invention a sequestrant to ensure that the solution
sarcosinate should predominate in order to obtain the de~
sired hair conditioning characteristics, the ratio of sar
cosinate to sulfated detergent should be in the range of
about 3:2 to about 3:1. The above percentages are ?xed
on the lower side to provide the user with a sufficient
amount of detergent for satisfactory results with respect
to the volume of detergent solution customarily used in
shampooing. They are fixed on the upper side by solu
of ingredients is as clear as possible. To this end about
0.3% to about ‘2% of an amino polycarboxylate seques
trant is included. Examples of this type’ of sequestrant
are ethylene diamine tetra acetates, hydroxyethyl ethylene
diamine triacetates, nitrilo triacetates, 2 hydroxyethyl
imino \di'acetates, diethylenetriamine penta acetates, and
1,2 diamino cyclohexane tetra acetates. These seques
trants are used in the form of their full or partial sodium,
potassium, ammonium or triethanolammonium salts so
bility of the various ingredients in the shampoo formula
tion which should not be exceeded if a substantially clear 20 as to conform with the pH range of the shampoo as here
inafter discussed. The exact form of the sequestrant will
homogeneous product is to be obtained and maintained at
ordinary temperatures.
depend on the particular compound and cation used. Se
questrants also tend to increase the volume of lather of
the shampoo. Ethylene diamine tetra acetate is the pre
\Although the acyl sarcosinate and sulfated detergent in
gredients in the proportions described above provide ex
cellent lathering characteristics, the shampoo, without cer
ferred sequestrant.
tain additional lather builders does not have the partic
ular lathering characteristics required by the user. Lather
The pH of the shampoo should be in the range of about
6 to about 7.5. At pH’s less than about 6 the clarity
'
of the shampoo tends to be impaired. At pH’s greater
than about 7.5 the lathering characteristics of the sham
to wash the hair thereby avoiding both linsuilicient clean 30 poo are reduced. The pH of the shampoo can be ad
justed if necessary with any of the usual :acidic or basic
ing and wasted product. ‘Moreover, shampoo users have
agents such as citric acid or triet'hanolamine.
come to associate lather with detergent ef?ciency. The
Various minor ingredients customarily used in sham
shampoo user desires a large amount of lather which is
poos can be ‘added to the composition of the invention
stable (persists throughout the shampooing operation)
is important to the shampoo user because he or she uses
it as a measure of the correct amount of shampoo needed
and which has good texture, i.e. body and lubricity. 35 to make it more attractive in appearance or use, but are
not necessary. Examples of such minor ingredients are:
‘While the mixture of acyl sarcosinate and sulfated de
up ‘to about 0.5% color; up to about 2% thickening agent
tergent provides an ample volume of lather, lather build
ers should be used with the mixture to increase the sta
such as methyl cellulose or. sodium carboxymethylcellu
lose; up to about 1% perfume; up to about 0.5% of a
bility of and improve the texture of the lather.
Acyl monoethanolamides are outstanding lather build 40 color stabilizer such as ammonium or sodium sul?te; up
to about 0.01% of a preservative such as phenyl mer
ers for the mixture of sarcosinate and sulfated deter-gent
described above but their use as the sole builders detracts
undesirably from the hair conditioning properties of the
acyl sarcosinate. Moreover, the solubility of the acyl
curic acetate; up‘ to about 0.2% of an ultraviolet absorb
ent or an antioxidant. Although the shampoo composi
tions of this invention preferably are substantially clear,
monoethanolamide is somewhat limited making it more 45 up to about 5% of an opaci?er, such as ethylene glycoldi
stearate, can be added if an opaque product is desired.
di?icult to obtain a homogeneous product than if the more
The shampoo of this invention is illustrated by the
soluble acyl diethanolamides are used. Acyl diethanol
following example.
amides have limited lather building properties and do not
Example
detract from the hair conditioning properties of the acyl
sarcosinate; however acyl diethanolamides do not provide 50
A shampoo composition was obtained by uniformly
a satisfactory lather building action for the mixture of
mixing together the following ingredients:
acyl sarcosinate and sulfated detergent. Thus the use of
4% triethanolamine salt of the sulfated condensation
either an acyl monoethanolamide or an acyl diethanol
product of 3 moles of ethylene oxide and one mole
amide as the sole lather builder provides unsatisfactory
of coconut oil fatty alcohol having the following chain
characteristics. in either hair conditioning or lathering of 55
length distribution: 2% C10, 66% C12, 23% C14 and
the resultant shampoo.
Surprisingly, it was found that a careful blend of acyl
mono- and di-ethanolamides used in conjunction with the
combination of acyl sarcosinate and sulfated detergent de
scribed above provides a homogeneous shampoo having 60
outstanding lathering, cleaning and hair conditioning char
acteristics in either hard or soft water. It was found that
the ratio of the acyl monoethanolamide to the acyl di
9% C16
10% triethanolamine N~acyl sarcosinate, the acyl radi
cals being ‘derived from coconut oil fatty acids and
having the following chain length distribution: 10%
C840,
C12,
C14!
C18 and
C13
3% monoethanolamine of coconut oil fatty acids having
the following chain length distribution: 16% C640,
ethanolamide should be in the range of about 2:1 to
C12,
C14,
C16 :and
C13
about 1:2 and the total amount of the two amides should 65 3% diethanolamide of coconut oil fatty acids having the
be from about 3% to about 8% of the shampoo composi
tion.
following chain length distribution: 16% C640, 48%
C12,
C14,
C16 and
C18
0.65% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (as its partial tri
ethano‘lammonium salt)
remains so, a solvent, either ethanol, glycerin or propyl 70 7% ethanol
In order to ensure that the shampoo composition con
taining the above essential ingredients is homogeneous and
ene glycol, should be included in the shampoo. The sol
vent also acts to maintain the clarity of the preferred sub
stantially clear shampoo product. The solvent is especial
0.75% methyl cellulose, a 2% solution of which has a
viscosity of 4000 cps. at 68° F. and a gel point of
140° F.
0.15% sodium sul?te
1y desirable to ensure that the shampoo formulation will
recover to a substantially clear homogeneous product 75 0.007% phenyl mercuric acetate
3,085,067
6
0.75% perfume
monium, the pH of said solution being from about 6 to
about 7.5, the percentages and ratios being by weight.
2. The shampoo composition of claim 1 which includes
Balance water.
The pH of the shampoo was 6.7.
The shampoo was a clear, white, homogeneous liquid.
as an additional ingredient about 0.3% to about 2% of
an amino polycarboxyl-ate sequestrant selected from the
When used on unclean human hair with both hard and
group consisting of ethylene diamine tetraacetates, hy
soft water, copious lather having :a good texture quickly
droxy ethyl ethylene diamine triacetates, nitrilo triace
tates, 2 hydroxyethyl imino diacetates, diethylenetriamine
formed and persisted during the shampooing operation.
There was no evidence of any adverse effects with the
use of hard water, even that having a hardness of 12
penta acetates and 1,2 diamino cyclohex-ane tetra acetates.
3. A clear, homogeneous, liquid shampoo which will
produce copious stable lather having good texture; effec
grains per gallon. The product and its lather rinsed
easily and substantially completely away leaving the hair,
tively clean the hair; and leave the hair in a soft, lustrous,
easily manageable condition even when used in hard water,
consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of (a) about
after drying, in a soft, lustrous state which was easy to
comb and manage. In the opinion of a number of ex
perienced beauticians who performed the shampooing
6% to about 15% of a triethanolamine N-acyl sarco
operation with the composition of this example, and a 15 sinate, (b) about 2% to about 8% of triethanolamine
number of persons whose hair had been shampooed with
alkyl ethoxylated ether sulfates containing an average
the composition, the hair conditioning properties of the
of three ethylene oxide units per molecule, (c) about 3%
shampoo were excellent and were at least equal to the
conditioning properties of a high quality soft-water soap
shampoo.
Propylene glycol or glycerin can be substituted in an
to about 8% of a mixture of an acyl monoethanolarnide
20 and an acyl diethanolamide, the ratio of said amides being
in the range of about 2:1 to about 1:2, (d) about 3% to
‘about 12% ethanol, (e) about 0.3% to about 2% of an
ethylenediamine tetra acetate, the ratio of (a) to (1))
stantially equal results.
being in the range of about 3 :2 to about 3: 1, the acyl and
The sodium, potassium or ammonium salts of the sul 25 alkyl groups in the ingredients ranging from 10 to 18
fated condensation product and of the N-acyl sarcosinate
carbon atoms in chain length with at least 45 % of the
described in the above example can be substituted in
said groups in each ingredient being 12 carbon atoms in
equivalent amounts for the corresponding triethanola
chain length, the pH of said solution being from 6v to 7.5,
mine salts used in the composition of the example with
the percentages and ratios being by weight.
substantially equal results.
4. A clear, homogeneous, liquid shampoo which will
30
equal amount for ethanol in the above example with sub
An equivalent amount of triethanolamine, sodium,
ammonium or potassium lauryl sulfate can be substituted
for the sulfated condensation product in the above ex
ample with substantially equal results. Alkyl ethoxylated
ether sulfates are preferred over the corresponding alkyl
sulfates because the former have slightly greater solubili
ties and greater mildness.
An equivalent amount of a triethanolamine or sodium
salt of hydroxyethyl ethylene diamine triacetic acid or
nitrilo triacetic acid can be substituted for the ethylene
diamine tetra acetic acid in the above example with sub
produce copious stable lather having good texture; effec
tively clean the hair; and leave the hair in a soft, lustrous,
easily manageable condition even when used in hard water,
consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of about
10% of a triethanolamine N-acyl sarcosinate, about 4%
of triethanolamine alkyl ethoxylated ether sulfates con
training an average of three ethylene oxide units per
molecule, ‘about 3% of an acyl monoeth'anolamide, about
3% of an acyl diethanolamide, about 0.65% of triethanol
amine ethylene diamine tetraacetate, about 7% ethanol,
the acyl and alkyl groups in the ingredients ranging from
stantially equal results.
10 to 18 carbon atoms in chain length with at least 45%
What is claimed is:
of the said groups in each ingredient being 12 carbon
atoms in chain length, said solution having a pH of about
1. A clear homogeneous, liquid shampoo which will
produce copious stable lather having good texture; effec
tively clean the hair; and leave the hair in a soft, lustrous,
easily manageable condition even when used in hard
water, consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of (a)
‘about 6% to about 15% of an N-acyl sarcosinate, (b)
about 2% to about 8% of a non-soap detergent selected 50
from the group consisting of alkyl sulfates and alkyl eth
oxylated ether sulfates containing one to ?ve ethylene
oxide units per molecule, (0) about 3% to about 8% of
a mixture of an acyl monoethanolamide and an acyl di
6.7, said percentages being by weight.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,970,963
Walker et al. __________ __ Feb. 7, 1961
OTHER REFERENCES
Schwartz et al.: “Surface Active Agents and Deter
gents,” vol. 2, 1958, pp. 315-316. _
Zussman et al.: “Acylated Amino Acids in Shampoos,”
ethanolamide, the ratio of said amides being in the range 55
in Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, vol. 6,
of about 2:1 to about 1:2, (d) about 3% to about 12%
#5, December 1955, pp. 407-415.
of a solvent selected from the ‘group consisting of ethanol,
Harris: “Shampoo Formulation,” in the American Per
glycerin and propylene glycol, the ratio of (a) to (b)
fumer and ‘Essential Oil Review, December 1946, pp. 71.
a being in the range of about 3:2 to about 3:1, the acyl and
Harris: “Shampoo Formulation,” in the American Per
ialkyl groups in the ingredients ranging from 10 to 18 60
Ifumer and Essential Oil Review, November 1946, pp.
carbon atoms in chain length with at least 45% of the
54-56.
said groups in each ingredient being 12 carbon atoms in
“The Versenes,” pub. by Bersworth Chemical Co., Tech~
chain length, the cations of the said sarcosinate and the
said detergent being selected from the group consisting
nical Bulletin No. 2, 1952, See. 'I, pp. 2 and 3, and Sec. II,
pp‘. 10 and 11.
of sodium, potassium, ammonium ‘and triethanolam
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