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Патент USA US3085244

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United States Patent O?ice
Patented Apr. 9, 1963
through a resistance R2. The emitter e of the transistor T
is directly connected to the negative pole of a direct
Claude Monin, ‘Viiiennes-sur-Seine, France, assignor to
Qompagnie Industrielle ties Telephones, Paris, France,
a French corporation
Filed May 25, $59, Ser. No. 815,677
‘Claims priority, application France June 2, 1958
8 Claims. (Cl. 348-174)
voltage source U0. When the connection NQ is estab
lished, the collector C0 of the said transistor is connected
through a load resistance R0 to the negative pole of a
direct-voltage source UR, UR being distinctly greater, in
absolute value, than U0 (for example UR=48 volts and
U0=1.5 volts). Connected to the point F of the collector
is one electrode of a condenser Ca, of which the other
The present invention concerns control and storage de 10 electrode is grounded. It is possible to connect the feed
2,946,896, assigned to the assignee of the present appli
back winding d into the output circuit of the relay by
breaking the connection NQ and establishing connections
MN and PQ.
The circuit arrangement according to FIGURE 2 dif
cation, a magnetostatic relay comprising a transistor con
nected to the output of a magnetic ampli?er and permit
fers from that of FIGURE ‘1 only in two respects: on
the one hand, a resistance R1 has been introduced between
ting of obtaining an output direct-current capable of
the output terminal of the magnetic ampli?er and the
assuming two well-de?ned values as a function or” the
base of the transistor to reduce the current in the base;
the current corresponding to the emitter being much
higher, the resistance R1 being so chosen as to obtain
vices which are suitable more especially for use in auto
matic telephony and remote control.
There is already disclosed in the parent US. Patent
control ampere-turns.
in the circuit arrangement according to the said parent
patent, the output of the magnetic ampli?er is a common
point which is connected on the one hand to the emitter
of a transistor and on the other hand to a resistance.
When the output current reaches a predetermined value,
the transistor becomes conductive, but with this arrange
ment no bene?t is derived from the increase in current
which is obtained from the transistor, because the current
of the emitter is slightly higher than the current of the
collector. The present invention relates to a magneto
static relay which is not attended by the aforesaid dis
advantage. The relay according to the invention is char
across the load resistance the desired current which, as
is known, will be slightly lower than that across the
emitter. On the other hand, there has been introduced
between the point F and the collector a resistance RP,
the function of which will hereinafter be described.
FIGURE 3 illustrates the curve G1 of the output cur
rent 1m of the magnetic ampli?er through the winding a
and the recti?er Rd as a function of the control ampere
turns due to the windings b and c.
The transistor illustrated in FIGURE 1 being assumed
to be of the p-n-p-junction ‘type, its emitter e must be
ampli?er is connected to a point which is in turn con
nected on the one hand to the base of a transistor and
on othe other hand to ground through a resistance, the
positive in relation to the base in order that it may be
conductive. Now, since the emitter is here connected
to a negative pole and the recti?er Rd transmits only the
negative halt-cycles, it is necessary to have ——U,,>-—R2Io
emitter of the transistor being connected to a negative
acterised in that the output terminal of the magnetic
potential. Under these conditions, when the potential of
the output terminal of the magnetic ampli?er is su?i
ciently negative, the transistor becomes conductive, but
the current in the base is very much lower than the cur 40 Io being the minimum output current of the magnetic
ampli?er above which the transistor is conductive. It
rent of the collector, and a current gain is thus obtained.
therefore constitutes a threshold current.
It is also possible further to limit the current in the base
FIGURE 4 shows on the one hand the curve G1 of
of the transistor by means of a resistance inserted be
FIGURE 3 and on the other hand the curve G2 of the
tween the output terminal of the magnetic ampli?er and
threshold current 10, which is obviously constant for a
the base of the transistor.
given circuit arrangement. It intersects the curve G1 at
Further features and advantages of the invention will
become apparent from the description thereof which is
given in the following with reference to the ?gures of
the accompanying drawings, which show by way of ex
ample two possible constructional forms of a relay accord
ing to the invention.
FIGURE 1 is the circuit diagram of a relay according
two points S1 and S2, which correspond to control ampere
turns (NCIQT and (NCTJS respectively. The values of
to the invention.
‘FIGURE 2 is a variant of FIGURE 1.
FIGURES 3 to 8 are curves relating to the operation
of the device according to FIGURE 1.
The relay illustrated in FIGURE 1 comprises a sat
the variation of the current across the emitter as long as
urable magnetic core s1, on which are wound a number
of windings a, b, c and d. The winding a, which is con
nected in series with a recti?er Rd, is fed from an alter
nating-current source AB, the recti?er Rd being oriented
in a direction such that it allows only the negative half
cycles to pass. The windings b, c and d carry direct cur
the current Tm which render the transistor conductive are
therefore located above the curve G2 of 10. These values
are represented by the curve GB of FIGURE 5.
The current across the collector follows substantially
the voltage of the collector remains lower than that of the
base. Beyond this limit, the current is stabilised exactly
at a value such that the voltages of the base and of the
collector are equal.
This value is therefore such that
I =UR—base potential
Re + RD
The curve 6.; of FIGURE 6 represents the current
IS=I1 across the load resistance RC. It will be noted
rents, the winding b being a control winding, the winding
that at ampere-turn values Nclc higher than (NCIQT, the
c a bias winding and the winding d a feedback winding.
In any case, the algebraic sum of the ampere-turns of the
windings b, c and d will be broadly referred to as the
URE 2), which is that of one electrode of the condenser
output current suddenly changes from a zero value to the
constant value ‘I1. The potential of the point F (see FIG
Ca, thus suddenly changes from the value —UR to a
control ampere-turns.
value close to zero. The condenser Ca discharges for the
The winding (1 is connected through the recti?er Rd 70 greater part across the transistor T. The resistance Rp is
to a point D which is connected, on the one hand, to the
a protective resistance which limits the strength of the dis
base ba of a transistor T and on the other hand to ground
charge current of the condenser. A similar reasoning
would be valid at the instant when the output current IS
tor of the transistor and on the other hand to a second
constant-voltage source.
becomes zero.
In accordance with the foregoing, therefore, the re
sistances R1 and RI, are not essential to the operation of
the relay according to the invention, they are each inde
pendently provided, and FIGURE 2 in which they are
illustrated is a variant of the invention which permits
of satisfying certain particular requirements.
If the utilisation or load current is introduced into the
feedback winding by removing the connection NQ and
2. Magnetostatic relay according to claim 1, wherein
for a p-n-p-transistor the power Winding of the magnetic
ampli?er is connected on the one hand to the alternating
current feed source and on the other hand to the base of
the transistor through the recti?er oriented in a direction
such as to allow only the negative half-cycles to pass, the
emitter of the transistor being connected to the negative
pole of the ?rst constant-voltage source and the load
establishing the connections MN and PQ, the output cur
impedance being connected to the negative pole of the
rent is represented, for Nclc=0, as illustrated in FIG
second constant-voltage source.
URE 7, by the intersection of the straight line D with
3. Magnetostatic relay according to claim 1, wherein
the curve G4, i.e. the point A0. The slope of the line D
a resistance is effectively connected between the recti?er
is de?ned by the ratio of the number of ampere-turns of 15 and the base of the transistor.
the feedback Winding a‘ to the number of ampere-turns of
4. Magnetostatic relay according to claim 1, wherein
the control windings b and c. The characteristic operat
the collector of the transistor is connected to earth through
ing point when Ncle is different from zero is given by
a ?ltering condenser.
the intersection of the curve 6,; with a straight line derived
5. Magnetostatic relay according to claim 4, wherein
from the line D by a translation parallel to the axis of 20 a protective resistance is inserted between the collector
the abscissae and algebraically equal to Nels.
of the transistor and the point which is connected to the
?ltering condenser.
‘It will thus be seen that with N010: (NCIJT, the straight
line D1 intersects the curve G4 at B1 and A1, that with
6. Magnetostatic relay according to claim 5, wherein
NCIC=(NJC)R the straight line D2 intersects the curve G4
the utilisation circuit consists of a load resistance in series
at B2 and A2, and that with NCIC<(NCIC)R or >(Nclc)T 25 with the protective resistance, which is connected to the
there is only one possible point of intersection.
collector of the transistor, the ?ltering condenser having
The curve G5 of FIGURE 8 is the characteristic curve
one of its electrodes connected to a point of the circuit
proper of the relay according to the invention which, to
which is situated between the two last-mentioned resist
ances and the other electrode being connected to ground,
sum up, supplies with NCIG<(NCZC)R a zero output cur
in such manner that the charging or discharge current of
rent, and with (NcIc)R<NcIc< (Ncich‘ a zero current or a
current of constant strength I depending upon whether
the condenser, limited by the protective resistance, is not
harmful to the transistor.
Nclc has reached its value through increasing or decreas
ing values.
The point B1 corresponding to the value (NCIQT and
the point B2 corresponding to the value (NCIJR are called
respectively the rising or operating point and the falling
or inoperative point.
Instead of a p-n-p-transistor, it is also possible to use
7. Magnetostatic relay according to claim 1, wherein
the utilisation circuit comprises a feedback winding dis
posed on the magnetic core of the magnetic ampli?er and
inserted between the collector of the transistor and the
load impedance.
8. A magnetostatic relay comprising a magnetic ampli
an n-p-n-transistor provided that the polarities of the
?er having at least one saturabie magnetic core carrying at
current sources U0 and UR and the direction of the
recti?er Rd are reversed.
I claim:
least one power Winding and one control winding, means
1. Magnetostatic relay comprising a magnetic ampli?er
having output terminals and at least one saturable mag
netic core carrying at least one power winding fed with
alternating current and one control winding fed with
direct current, a recti?er connected in series with the
power winding, a transistor having an emitter, a base and
a collector, an external base-emitter circuit operatively
for connecting said power winding for energization from
an alternating current source and including a recti?er in
series with said power winding, the series circuit com
prising said power Winding and said recti?er having an
output terminal, a transistor having base, emitter and col
lector electrodes, an external base-emitter circuit elec
trically connecting said base to said emitter and including
a ?rst voltage source and means connecting one side of
said ?rst voltage source to said emitter, means connecting
said output terminal to said external base-emitter circuit
connecting said base with said emitter and including a
for effectively producing the output of said magnetic ani
resistance and a ?rst voltage source, said base-emitter
pli?er in said external base-emitter circuit in the part
circuit being grounded at a point thereof operatively
thereof ‘between the base and the other side of said ?rst
connecting one side of said resistance to a corresponding
voltage source, a load circuit connected to said collector
side of said ?rst voltage source, one of the terminals of
electrode and including in series a load impedance and a
the alternating-current source feeding the magnetic ampli
second constant-voltage source of direct current, the volt
?er being grounded and the other terminal thereof being
age of said ?rst and second constant-voltage source being
connected to the series circuit including said power wind
such that the current in the load impedance is varied by
ing and said recti?er, the output terminals of said mag
predetermined changes in the potential at said output ter
netic ampli?er being effectively constituted by the two
sides of said resistance by connecting said series circuit 60 minal which in turn is responsive to the change in energi
zation of said control winding from a direct current source.
to a point of said external base-emitter circuit operatively
connecting the other side of said resistance to said base,
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
the emitter of the transistor being connected to said ?rst
constant~voltage source, the variation of the strength of
the output current of the magnetic ampli?er having the 65
effect of varying the potential of the base and thus render
ing the transistor selectively non-conductive or conductive,
and the utilisation circuit of the said transistor comprising
a load impedance connected on the one hand to the collec
Ostro? of al ____________ __ Sept. 1,
Moore _______________ __ Oct. 20,
Elias _________________ __ Ian. 5,
Alizon _______________ __ July 26,
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